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11-Angular Momentum

Michael Chen

Definitions: Cross Product: = () Angular Momentum: momentum of a rotating object relative to an axis; the rotational equivalent of linear momentum Equations: Torque: = = Angular Momentum: = = for a rigid object of known I Kinetic Energy: = Cross Product Directions: Resulting Force/Direction (Thumb) k (+) (-)

Applied Direction Direction of Motion (Middle) (Curled fingers) The Right-hand Rule allows us to determine the final direction of a cross product. Be careful not to use your left hand when determining the right-hand rule.

Momentum: Momentum is conserved in isolated systems. The same applies for angular momentum. ! !"!#$ = !"# + !"!

Solving: The main technique used for angular momentum is conservation of momentum by equating the initial and final momentums together. Be careful not to do so when the problem dictates that the system is not isolated. Solve for linear momentum and angular momentum separately, and combine using a system of equations if necessary. ! !! + ! !! = ! !! + ! !! ! = !

Michael Chen

Problems: 1. A ball tied to a fishing pole is swung around on a horizontal plane. The ball of mass m swings with a length of L line until it has a velocity v. a. What is the initial angular speed? b. If the line is shortened by length l, what will the angular speed become provided that no external work is done to the system? 2. A giant metal plank with a volume .25x3x10 m3 and a weight of 75 kg is stood up on its small end (so that the 10 m goes up) and placed at the edge of a chasm. In order to push it over to bridge the chasm, there is a small cannon that can shoot a 10 kg lead ball a maximum of 60 above the horizon. By shooting the ball at the top of the plank, the lead will merge with the plank and push the plank over. a. How far away does the cannon have to be in order to hit the top of the plank? Treat the ball and the cannon as points. b. What is the moment of inertia about the axis of rotation after the ball hits? c. The ball hits the plank with a velocity of 15 m/s. What was the angular momentum after collision? Treat this as an isolated system. 3. A cylindrical barrel of mass M and radius r is allowed to spin freely along its center axis without friction. A student attempts to shoot an arrow of mass m into the barrel a distance d away from the axis of rotation. a. If the cork travels at velocity v, what is the angular speed of the barrel-with-arrow when the arrow hits? b. If d were to equal zero, what would be the angular speed? Explain qualitatively and quantitatively.

Michael Chen

L v

! = !

!

! = !

m L - l

The ms cancel. = ! = ! =

! = !
! ! = ! !
! ! = ! !
! = 2.

!! !! ! !! !

10m

a. !" tan 60 = !

= 5.77 b. = 85 = ! = 85 10 ! = 8500 !

Michael Chen

= 8500 3.

1560 10 = 11041 ! /

The sin60 takes only the horizontal velocity since vertical velocity does not affect the plank.

d R M a. ! = ! !"#$%&'( = ! = ! = ! + ! !""#$ = r is the distance of the = arrow from the axis + ! b. If d = 0, then = 0. Shooting the center of axis would not apply any torque on the barrel, so it would not rotate.

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