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Assignment On Achieving Quality With 5 S
“a place for everything and everything in its place.” (The source for the Japanese characters is net1.ist.psu.edu/chu/wcm/5s/5s.htm,Nov 7, 2004)
AQM M.F.Tech – II Sem
Submitted By: Harpreet Singh (18) Shweta Singh (28)
(Ref: http/:www.kdr-associates.com) 5S is a methodology for workplace organization. As the name implies it has five-step technique for changing the mindset of the staff and involving the entire organization in improvement. To some, this methodology may appear to be a mere housekeeping approach, but it actually delivers much more. A simple yet powerful quality practice, 5S helps identify and eliminate waste in the workplace. It also help establish and maintain a productive and quality environment in an organization. It forces company to look at issues that are often overlooked. The 5S concept was developed by Taiichi Ohno, who designed the Toyota Production System and Shigeo Shingo, The Japanese practitioner who put forward the concept of quick change over(SMED) and poka-yoke. When organizations embark on lean journey, typically they commence with 5S deployment and then move on to higher methodologies. The idea behind 5S is that if a workplace is clean and well laid out, the identification of waste is much easier. Most Japanese consider 5S useful not just for improving physical environment, but for improving thinking process as well. In this context, the stratification management, visual management, habit and discipline management proposed by 5S methodology can be considered modulators and drivers of the spheres of perceptive processes, feeling processes, cognitive processes, and
executive.5S drive the necessary cognitive-behavioural process for the continuous adaptive process between change and keep identity. Through 5S the individuals rebuild their own workplace, which makes them able to see changes occur, observe and reflect, and through their own actions they can adapt new mental models for how things should be done. So 5S should not only be focused as a technique to improve quality environment, but also as a philosophy, a set of principles that can help to focus, analyse and manages any aspect, task or problem both in the individual and in the organizational context. From this consideration we can introduce the criteria that 5S is a tool to separate untidiness and disorder from the inherent chaos of change processes. 5S constitute a universal and transcultural piece, applicable also to the Occidental society, including the Mediterranean one.
5S Steps Defined:
The 5S's are Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke.
Seiri- Sorting Out: Remove what is not needed and keep what is needed. Seiton- Set In Order: Place the things in such away that they can be easily reached whenevert they are needed
Seiso- Shining: Keep things clean and polished; no trash or dirt in workplace. Seiketsu- Standardizing: Maintain cleanliness after cleaning- perpetual cleaning.
Shitsuke- Sustain: Commitment, a typical teaching and attitude towards any undertaking to inspire pride and adherence to standards established for the above written four components.
1st S – SEIRI - Sorting Out
The first S, Seiri,calls for the elimination of unnecessary items that have collected around work areas. As debris and unused objects build up, productivity often takes a turn for the worse. In unproductive workspaces, frustrations mount when workers find that they are unable to satisfactorily finish the task at hand. Therefore, it is vital to implement a workplace sorting system. The effective visual method of identifying unneeded items is called “Red Tagging”. In this method, labels or signs are used to identify two areas: 1. One area for the collection of unused items 2. One area for tools or other items that are needed Either: (a) Frequently (b) Occasionally (c) Rarely Be sure to use separate labels to indicate potentially hazardous materials. After the unused items are gathered, they should be moved to a well-identified collection area (RED TAG AREA) that has been specifically established for this purpose. Be sure to use clearly visible labels and signs to make the purpose of this area clear. Signs should describe the process of turning in items for collection. Once these “red tag” or unused items, are brought to the collection area, perform an evaluation. Items that are potentially useful may be subsequently labeled for cleaning and storage, while tools or implements that have reached their end-of-life point should be discarded immediately.
With the completion of the first S, Sorting, three main results are obtained:
1. Increased Productivity – The purpose of individual work areas will be more apparent, leading to a highly efficient workflow.
2. Workers will be more satisfied with their environment – Employee morale would increase as junk items or materials that are potential health hazards are identified and removed.
3. The end product of your labors will be much improved as full attention can be paid to production. Employees will no longer need to focus on tangential tasks such as locating tools or implementing their own organization systems.
2nd S – SEITON - Set in Order
Seiton involves determining a defined place for every tool, bin, pallet, supply, material, and even work order papers so that anyone can find the items easily and put them back where they belong after using them. Items in the workplace are labeled according to their use. Then a 5S map showing the current locations of parts, jigs, tools, equipment, and machinery is developed, the location of each item is evaluated, and the best location determined. Finally, shadow boards are developed to display and store supplies and tools in the work area effectively Set In Order (Seiton) focuses on effective storage and organization methods, with the end goal of developing an environment that resists clutter and aids long-term productivity. In order to set the workplace in order, We must determine 1. What items or areas we need in order to do our job 2. Where those items should be located – based on frequency of use. If tools and materials are excessive, return to the first S, Sorts and remove unused items to a location more suitable for long-term storage. Once we have identified our most commonly used tools and materials, find an accessible location for them. If this tool storage area is located at some distance from our actual work location, consider ways to make your toolset more portable. Some other strategies to effectively set things in order include: 1. Marking spaces & installing modular shelving & cabinets. Floor markings are appropriate for warehouses with otherwise insufficient boundary marking systems.
2. In workspaces with extensive interior wall space, signs and labels should be used to help orient workers and assist workflow. For example, small overhead maps (“You are here”) and legends can be printed on both labels and signs, and affixed to walls.
3. As we touched on in Section 1, all items placed in storage should be clearly labeled since they may be neglected for long periods of time. In many cases, it is appropriate to affix RTK (Right to Know) labels for other warning labels to containers used in storage areas. It is also important to consider installing shelving and cabinets that are easily accessible and can be adjusted as necessary. Because production requirements can change frequently, it is important to implement an organization system that is customizable.
SEITON – Conclusion
The first two S’s (Sort and Set in Order) provide a strong foundation for a workplace driven not only by skills and labor but also by the values of organization and simplicity. Though extra discipline is necessary at first, these habits will begin in pay dividends almost immediately through creation of Highly Visible Workplaces.
3rd S – SEISO – Shine - Spic & Span
Seiso involves ensuring that everything in the factory stays clean through preventive initiatives and cleaning routines. The idea is to keep everything swept and clean. Visual and physical cleaning activities are developed to show the frequency and responsibility for individual and common areas, such as cleaning the sanding table filter, emptying the trash can, changing spray booth filters, and putting away components/materials at assigned locations. Once the clutter is eliminated in the work area, it is important to thoroughly clean that area and the equipment in it. Leaks, squeals and vibrations involving clean equipment can often be easily detected, but a dirty workplace tends to be distracting and equipment faults go unnoticed. Clean workplace conditions are also important to employee health, morale, and safety. These factors add up to impact company’s bottom line. Abnormalities are detected and tagged in the workplace using: (a) Red Abnormality Cards or (b) Green Abnormality Cards. During the initial cleaning, employees will notice areas that seem to especially attract garbage or spills. It is important to make a note of these areas. After the cleaning is done, special care should be taken: 1. To reorganize problem areas 2. Fix equipment that may be leaking
3. Take steps necessary to ensure that the problem will not persist in the future. In this way, a little effort in the beginning will reduce the necessity of deep cleaning later. We must Make sure to evaluate the facility’s ability to keep clean. 1. Are areas containing cleaning equipment properly marked? 2. Are cleaning supplies replenished and marked with instructions for use? 3. Are there enough waste receptacles, and are they clearly labeled? After the first cleaning it is important to look for areas that are still dingy or dirty. This may indicate that you need stronger cleaning solvents or tools. Cleaning operations can coincide with equipment evaluations in order to ensure that proper care and maintenance is observed. As employees clean their work areas, they will become familiar with the basic functions of the equipment around them and will enjoy greater safety and productivity as a result.
SEISO – Conclusion
The benefits of a clean workplace are readily apparent after a short period of time. Employee morale increases, and the most productive time can be dedicated to the most important tasks. Considering the short amount of time required, the results of a good, thorough cleaning can be remarkable.
4th S – SEIKETSU – Standardize
Seiketsu involves applying standard operational procedures, best business practices, quality assurance programs, and weekly/monthly 5S audits to maintain the results achieved by the first three steps. Standardizing helps ensure that everyone in the organization knows the expectations. It makes standards visible so that variations can be easily and immediately recognized. Cleaning and organization systems implemented without established standards tend to lose effectiveness with time. The employees must be allowed to participate in the development of standards that improve workplace conditions. Keep employees informed by making the standards visible. Use customized posters, signs and labels where applicable. Standards offer employees and employers a way to reach common goals while showing fairness to both sides. Cleaning and organization standards based on the 5S system should be clearly displayed around the workplace using signs and posters. Labels can also be used as reminders to be placed on individual pieces of equipment. To aid memorization and implementation, a 5S color scheme can be picked up that aids in quick reference to 5S-related materials. For example, areas containing many black-on-white signs may be outfitted with a white-on-green sign where cleaning or organization instructions are necessary. As the employees adjust themselves to this new environment, We make sure that the standards are easy to understand and offered in multiple languages where necessary.
SEIKETSU – Conclusion
Standards are the backbone of a successful 5S program. Adherence to those standards creates an environment wherein employees can confidently pursue their production goals.
5th S – SHITSUKE – Sustain
Shitsuke involves making a habit of properly maintaining established procedures. It focuses on aligning the behavior of the workforce so that individual employees
maintain the working environment that has been developed. At this point, the success of the 5S initiative depends on the individuals. This is by far the most difficult S to implement and achieve. People tend to resist change and even the most well structured 5S plan will fail if not constantly reinforced. Fortunately, there are effective methods of sustaining positive growth. Begin by asking yourself relevant questions: 1. What goals do you wish to achieve by starting 5S program? 2. How will you measure your progress? 3. What tools and resources are available to help measure this progress and sustain growth? We will also find that employees benefit by easy access to label and sign-making systems. With the ability to print visual materials on demand, most any employee can quickly label items that require organization. Finally, look for ways to emphasize the positive results of a 5S program. Catch phrases and slogans can be used to make sure no one forgets the significance of goals.
SHITSUKE – Conclusion
Sustaining newly changed behavior is not easy. However, the results are rewarding for everyone involved. As employees grow into the 5S system, the will find it energizing and fulfilling. We must ensure to go the extra mile to make sure our workplace is well prepared to continually observe 5S standards.
Indications that an organization needs a 5S program:
Space is crowded with parts and tools. Unnecessary items are stacked between workers. Excess inventory. Excess items and machines make it difficult to improve process flow. Equipment is dirty and a collection point for miscellaneous materials. Tools and equipment are difficult to find.
The 5S initiative starts with top management and trickles down to shop floor and office personnel. People will offer excuses why they cannot participate in the implementation and execution of a 5S program. To achieve the benefits of 5S, the organization must overcome resistance such as:
• “We are paid to produce, not to clean up.”Managers need to build time into production schedules for 5S activities and communicate that to employees. (It will save time in the long run.)
• “Why clean it? It will just get dirty again.” Sometimes people accept dirtiness as an inevitable workplace condition. On the other hand, you need to know what the benchmark is.
• “I’m too busy working on 5S activities.” Some activities can be put off, but as with cleaning your dishes or changing the filter in your home heating system, negative consequences will occur if such maintenance is postponed for too long.
• “We did 5S years ago.” A 5S initiative is not a passing fashion. It fosters all types of improvements. Such negative comments are typical when a new program is being implemented. It is important not to sweep concerns aside to push the program through; employees need to be convinced rather than overpowered.Managers need to explain the benefits of 5S for both the company and its workforce and to provide
solutions to the problems. Top management commitment is needed to ensure continuation even in the face of increasing production and labor shortage pressures.And training is needed to help employees understand the necessity of the program and which role each individual plays in the program’s overall success. Human capital will be the key for 5S success.
Potential Benefits of a 5S program:
The benefits of a 5S program include improved visibility of problem conditions, improved safety, reduced waste, improved morale, an increased sense of ownership of the workspace, improved productivity, improved quality, improved maintenance, shorter lead times, and a better impression on customers. More fundamentally, a well-implemented 5S program helps the culture develop a new sense of discipline and order that carries over into all activities. • • • • • reduced set-up times, increased floor space, lower accident rate, less wasted labour, better equipment reliability
Implementing 5S methods in the plant would help the company to reduce waste hidden in the plant, improve the levels of quality and safety, reduce the lead time and cost, and thus, increase company's profit. The potential benefits of 5S can be summarized by five English S or PQCDS: Five English S:
• • • • •
Sales - Increase sales (market share). Savings - Save costs. Safety - Provide a safety working environment. Standardization - Standardize the operating procedure. Satisfaction - Employees and customers satisfaction.
• • • • •
P - Increase productivity. Q - Improve product quality. C - Reduce manufacturing costs. D - Ensure on-time delivery. S - Provide a safety working environment.
Training in 5S is provided by several consulting firms . One will receive a certificate when completing the training. Furthermore, some countries have created their own National 5S Certification. Mauritius can be taken as a good example, which set up a National Productivity and Competitiveness Council which in turn introduced the socalled National 5S Certification in 2002. The process of this 5S certification can be described in the following manner: 1) A team of 5 auditors will audit the workplace proposed for certification. Three audits, spread over the period of one year will be conducted. 2) The audited organization shall keep the following relevant information • General background of the organization • Sections or departments where 5S is applied • Photos of the section or department where 5S is applied • Tangible and intangible benefits gained • Documented proof: support structure for 5S (like a formal 5S coordinator), training on 5S conducted and attendance sheets, standards (for colour codes,
etc) and proof of regular 5S activities 3) Following three random audits and on the basis of the auditors report, eligibility of the 5S certification will be considered. 4) A certificate will be awarded to any organization which has successfully implemented 5S practices.
SCORE ACHIEVEMENT CURVE—1 YEAR AFTER 5S BEGINS
Conclusion(Enhancing Performance Management Through 5S):
5S is a personal disciplinary development that promotes attitudinal changes and habits. It can apply in personal life, home life and social life. Supporters of 5S believe that when one is self-disciplined, it will improve the way he / she tackles personal matters or job tasks. At work, 5S assists companies in managing work performance of employees because it establishes the preferred standards and policy requested. 5S is a backbone of other management philosophies. It grows from individual level and then expands to organizational level. When the individual performs well, it will also create
an influential impact to his / her peers. Alongside with encouragement and recognition, management can easily promote expected behaviors from staff. On the other hand, employees have a better idea of what they need to achieve to demonstrate their competencies. In brief, the 5S theory supports and maintains the performance management system. 5S enhances work efficiency, where such improvement can eventually be translated into quantitative data to measure the magnitude of changes. A successful launching of 5S relies heavily on self-discipline and continual maintenance of individuals. It also requires active promotion, reminder and strict discipline at all times.
The Leisureline Case Study The Company
Leisureline (Pvt) Ltd, Sri Lanka is a small company situated in the Free Trade Zone in Katunayaka, which specialises in sportswear and lingerie catering to international fashion labels like Victoria's Secret, Gap, Vanity Fair, Triumph, Hanro, Marks & Spencer, Bhs, C&A, Evans, Express and Learner.
Established in 1998, Leisureline (Pvt) Ltd turned the factory into a profit making venture, according to Rochelle Perera, Leisureline's marketing manager. At the time Sylvie-Honor (Pvt) Ltd was bought over by the MAS Group, the workforce had been de-motivated and used on an ad hoc basis. The move was a challenge to the MAS Group, which had never bought an existing factory with unskilled and de-motivated labour. The core issues before the new management had been the need to bring together the various levels of employees and making them understand the skills and competence required to run a world-class factory. This has been an extremely difficult task because most of the machine operators had been unaware of the need to be efficient, accurate and methodical at the same time. Another challenge for the company had been to convince the employees of SylvieHonor that they would be absorbed direct into the new company.
One of the secrets behind Leisureline's success is the company's strict adherence to the Japanese '5S' system, which focuses on reducing wasted effort, time and money while enhancing the value of outputs and improving employee morale. The last five minutes of every working day are spent on arranging the workplace while a special 5S song is played. Twice a year, on July 31st and December 31st, all employees including the management get special time to clean their respective work areas. A number of teams have been appointed to look into matters like food and parking. And every new employee recruited by the company is first introduced to the 5S concept because competitions are held often to award the best team that adheres to 5S principles. Waste is identified as follows: • • Overproduction – making more than is required for delivery Inventory / Work in Progress (WIP) – requires space and high cost of capital • • • • • Transportation – no value added Processing waste – unnecessary processes add cost and time Motion – unnecessary movement of people or machines Waiting – underutilized equipment, people and processes Defects – unnecessary cost and detection time
Frequent internal audits are done within the company in order to ensure whether the implementation of 5S is giving positive results. (Refer sheet-1 attached with the essay)
A Case of Timack Mfg. Ltd. • • • A plywood and wooden frames Mfg. firm. Sales has reduced from £1.85m to £1.65m in two year. Management took help of a Manufacturing Institute from East Lancashire Business Link. • They identified some key issues.
• The business is approximately at break even point – there is a need to reduce cost and improve productivity, in order to start making a margin. • The manufacturing lead time is excessive, compared with the value added process time. • Stock levels are high.
There is a seasonal trend in the business, with the busy period being March and April.
The business is organized functionally, with separately managed areas.
There is no measure of machine effectiveness. Production of samples for new products can be problematic.
Recommendation: • Use value stream mapping to identify “waste” within the operation. This will enable a • • plan to be produced to reduce stock and lead time. Consider the need for annualised hours to cope with the seasonal variances in • • • • demand. (This may not be necessary if the lead time can be reduced). Consider a “value stream management” organisational structure. Consider the introduction of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Consider the creation of new product samples as a separate “value stream”, • • perhaps with dedicated processes? A project team was formed, consisting of the two directors, the machine shop manager and assembly supervisor. 24
• • •
Implementation of improvement took place over next four month. 5S was implemented. Internal audits are done to see whether the company is complying the 5S. (The format of the audit form can be referred from Sheet-2 attached with the essay)
• • • • • • • • • 10% improvement in productivity (£40.9k benefit) 5% improvement in delivery performance 33% reduction in stock (£54.5k benefit) 33% reduction in lead time (3 weeks to 2 weeks) 2 jobs safeguarded £75k sales safeguarded £23k of value added safeguarded 10% reduction in sub standard supplies (£1.2k benefit) 10% reduction in travel distances
• http/:www.kdr-associates.com [Assesed on 07 Apr’09] 25
• • • • •
http://www.envision-hc.com[Assesed on 07 Apr’09] http://www.nasfm.org [Assesed on 09 Apr’09 ] www.cbi.nl [Assesed on 09 Apr’09] Ho S.K.M. [1995-9], TQM: An IntegratedApproach — Implementing TQ through Japanese 5-S and ISO 9000, Kogan Page,UK (95 & 97 Ed.), HK Baptist Uni. (99 Ed.). Management & Marketing (2008) Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 115-120. Hirano, Hiroyuki and Dr. J.T. Black. 1988. JIT Factory Revolution. Cambridge. Productivity Press
http://www.businessknowledgesource.com/manufacturing/the_5_s_appro ach_to_lean_manufacturing_extended_entry_026157.html [Assesed on 20 Apr’09]
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