Daily Recommendations

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Vegan For Life by Jack Norris, RD & Ginny Messina, MPH, RD

Daily Recommendations
These recommendations address the nutrients which are of more concern in vegan than omnivore diets, but they are not everything anyone needs to know about eating for optimal health. If, in addition to the nutrients that are of more concern in vegan diets, you would like general information on eating healthfully as a vegan, Vegan For Life, by Jack Norris and Ginny Messina, contains a comprehensive discussion and menu planning for vegans. Where suggested below, "synthetic" vitamins and minerals are effective at preventing deficiencies.
Nutrient Recommendations for Vegans

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamina) Recommendations Follow one of these dose regimens. Age US RDA (µg) 2 Doses per Day (µg) n/a 0.4 - 1 0.8 - 1.5 1-2 1.5 - 2.5 2 - 3.5 2.5 - 4 2.5 - 4 Daily Dose (µg) 2 Doses per Week (µg) n/a 200 375 500 750 1000 1000 1000

0 - 5 mos 6 - 11 mos 1 - 3 yrs 4 - 8 yrs 9 - 13 yrs 14+ yrs pregnancy lactation

0.4 0.4 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.4 2.6 2.8

n/a 5 - 20 10 - 40 13 - 50 20 - 75 25 - 100 25 - 100 30 - 100

µg = mcg = microgram = 1/1,000 of a milligram (mg) n/a - Not applicable. Infants should be receiving breast milk or commercial formula which contains the necessary amounts of vitamin B12. There is a large difference between amounts taken twice daily and once daily because beyond 3 µg (for adults), absorption drops significantly. Amounts much larger than these are considered safe, but it's probably best not to take more than twice the recommended amounts.

These recommendations are for cyanocobalamin only. There is not enough research on other forms of vitamin B12 to recommend specific dosages from supplements. For more information, see Alternatives to Cyanocobalamin: Methylcobalamin & Dibencozide.




• Vegetarians over 60 years old should err on the side of Option A. peanut. but it's best not to take more than twice the recommendations without a doctor's supervision. Caution: Too much omega-3s can result in bleeding and bruising. older vegans have close to no DHA in the blood. Because DHA supplements are relatively expensive we suggest two options for vegetarians under Step 1.5 g of uncooked ALA to your diet daily (see chart). butternut squash. b 10 µg (400 IU) 15 µg (600 IU) to 25 µg (1. supplementing with 200 . safflower. and in some cases.000 IU) 20 µg (800 IU) to 25 µ (1. This would be the equivalent of: 1/5 oz English* walnuts (3 halves) 1/4 tsp of flaxseed oil 1 tsp of canola oil 1 tsp ground flaxseeds *English walnuts are the typical walnuts for sale in grocery stores. or are already consuming plenty of omega-3s. Only cook canola under low heat and for short periods. supplementing with 300 mg per day will likely accomplish that. They are distinct from black walnuts. Vitamin A Protein 900 RAEb for men. consult a health professional before following these recommendations or adding more omega-3 to your diet. avocado.000 IU) 15 µg (600 IU) to 25 µg (1.000 IU) 15 µg (600 IU) to 25 µg (1. kale.veganhealth. Step 3: Add some ALA • Add 0.orga. It is not clear whether these lower blood levels are harmful (and it is not likely to be well understood any time soon).000 IU) VeganHealth. most vegetable oil blends (typically labeled "vegetable oil") and sesame oil. use low omega-6 oils like olive. Step 2: Minimize Omega-6 Oils • Do not prepare food with oils high in omega-6 such as corn. spinach.Daily Recommendations Page 2 of 3 Contact | Copyright © 2003-2013 VeganHealth. 700 RAE for women Good sources: carrot juice.300 mg every 2-3 days will provide that.4 servings of high lysine foods which include: http://www.org/articles/dailyrecs 13-Jun-13 . If you have reason to believe you have problems with easy bleeding or bruising. • Option B – If you just want some insurance that you are getting a source of DHA in case your body isn't efficient at making it.150 mcg every few days Without diet planning.org recommendations. Iodine Omega3s 75 . vegans and vegetarians have low omega-3 intakes and blood levels. soy. Step 1: DHA Suppplement • Option A – If you want your DHA levels to be the same as non-vegetarians. sweet potatoes. Amounts somewhat larger are considered safe. Instead. carrots.org Vitamin D On days when you do not get enough sunlight: Vitamin D Recommendations Age 0 .12 mos 1 . sunflower.70 yrs over 70 pregnancy lactation a b US DRI 10 µg (400 IU) 15 µg (600 IU) 20 µg (800 IU) 15 µg (600 IU) 15 µg (600 IU) VH. or canola. cantaloupe 3 .

pinto. multivitamin or zinc supplement. red.1/2 cup cooked ◦ peanuts (1/4 cup) ◦ beans . green leafy vegetables (broccoli. oatmeal. tempeh. bread. 1. B12 is measured in micrograms (aka "µg" or "mcg"). they inhibit iron absorption.edamame. green or herbal tea with meals. collards. vegan men and non-menstruating women do not have much difficulty getting or absorbing enough iron. brussel sprouts). tofu. swiss chard.3 oz (85 g) • quinoa .garbanzos.split or green ◦ soyfoods . soy milk (1 cup). kidney.000 µg = 1 mg. bell peppers (yellow. but vegan menstruating women sometimes do. | bThe vitamin A content of foods is now stated as retinol activity equivalents (RAE). kale. strawberries.org/articles/dailyrecs 13-Jun-13 .veganhealth. and green).Daily Recommendations Page 3 of 3 • legumes . Anecdotally. http://www.1 cup cooked • pistachios . Zinc a Good sources are legumes. In foods.1/4 cup • pumpkin seeds . nuts. soy meats (3 oz) • seitan .1/4 cup roasted Iron Cross-sectional studies have found similar rates of iron deficiency anemia in vegetarians as in meat-eaters. Iron tips: • Eat foods high in vitamin C at meals to significantly increase iron absorption . or black. miso. tempeh. and cauliflower. seeds.citrus fruits. • Do not drink coffee. navy ◦ lentils ◦ peas .

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