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Control and Coordination

Living organisms respond and react to various stimuli like heat, light, cold, touch, pressure etc. Plants and animals both respond to stimuli but in different manner. Example : withdrawl of hand on touching a hot object. Control and Coordination in Animals It is brought about in all animals with the help of two main systems a) Nervous System Nervous System : Functions i) To receive the information from environment body parts. (Stimuli Response) iii) To act accordingly through muscles and glands. Stimulus : Any change in environment or within that bring about the reaction eg: touching a hot plate. Response : The reaction of our body to these changes. eg. withdrawal of our hand How do we detect that we are touching a hot object? Receptors : Are specialised tips of some nerve cells that detect the information from the environment. Receptors are Sense Organs Inner Ear Hearing/ Balance of the body Photo receptors Eyes Visual Stimulus Skin Olfactory Receptor (Nose) Smell Detection Gustatory Receptor (Tongue) Taste Detection ii) To receive the information from various b) Endocrine System

Pain Touch Heat



Neuron : Structural and functional unit of nervous system. Neuron (3 main parts) I Dendrite Information is acquired II Cell body and Axon Information travels as an electrical impulse III Synapse Part where electrical signal is converted into chemical message for onward transmission to next neuron by release of neurotransmitters Nerve ending Axon

Nucleus Dendrite


Structure of neuron Fig. 7.1 (a) P 115

Synapse : The point of contact between the terminal branches of axon of one neuron with the dendrite of another neuron is called synapse. Reflex Action A quick, sudden, immediate response of the body to the certain stimuli that involves Spinal cord. eg. (not brain) withdrawal of hand, knee jerk etc. Reflex arc : The pathway through which impulses pass is called reflex arc.



Stimulus eg. Heat


Sensory Nerves

Spinal Cord Response eg. Withdrawal of Hand Response Responses are of three main types Voluntary : Controlled by fore brain eg. Talking, Writing Involuntary : Controlled by mid and hind brain eg. Heart beat, vomiting, regulation of heartbeat Reflex action : controlled by spinal cord eg. Withdrawl of hand on touching a hot object. Human Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS Brain Spinal Cord. Fore Brain Mid Brain Hind Brain Cranial Nerves Arise from the brain Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Spinal Nerves Arise from Spinal Card Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic Nervous System Para Sympathetic Nervous System EFFECTOR ORGAN (MUSCLE)

Motor Nerves

Refer to diagram Fig 7.2 Reflex arc



Human Brain
Human brain has three major parts or regions a) Forebrain b) Mid Brain c) Hind Brain FOREBRAIN Most complex/specialized part of the brain is CEREBRUM FUNCTIONS : 1. Thinking part of the brain 2. Control the voluntary actions. 3. Store information (Memory) 4. Centre associated with HUNGER 5. Receives sensory impulses from various body parts and integrates it Mid Brain : HYPOTHALAMUS : Chemical co-ordination PITUITARY GLAND : Secretes hormones Hind Brain : CEREBELLUM i) Controls posture and balance ii) Control precision of voluntary actions MEDULLA PONS Controls involuntary actions eg. blood pressure, salivation, vomiting Involuntary action, regulation of respiration

Fig 7.3 Human Brain

66 X-Science

PROTECTION OF BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD Brain : Spinal Cord : Brain is protected by a fluid filled balloon which acts as shock absorber and enclosed in cranium (Brain Box) Spinal Cord is enclosed in Vertebral column.

Coordination between Nervous and Muscular Tissue Information [collected by Nervous tissue] (Sensory Nerve) Action Muscle shorten Contraction [Muscle cell] Muscles [Change in shape and arrangement of proteins] Central Nervous System [CNS] Information Processed by [CNS] Decesion made [by CNS] (Motor Nerves) Message Passed to muscles

Coordination in Plants
Movement in Plants Movement dependent on growth Movement independent of growth [immediate response to stimulus] eg. dropping of leaves of Touch-me-not plant on touching it

Tropic movements [directional movements in response to stimulus] Phototropism Movement towards light Geotropism Movement towards gravity Chemotropism

Hydrotropism Movement towards / water

Movement towards Chemicals/ growth of pollen tube towards avule



Plant hormones : Are chemical compounds which help to coordinate growth, development and responses to the environment. Plant hormones : Main plant hormones are : a) Auxin : [Synthesized at shoot tip] Function : Helps in growth Phototropism : more growth of cells towards light. b) Gibberellin : Helps in the growth of the stem c) Cytokinins : Promotes cell division d) Abscisic acid : Inhibits growth, cause witting of leaves. (Stress hormone)

Hormones in Animals
Hormones : These are the chemical messengers secreted in very small amounts by specialised tissues called ductless glands. They act on target tissues/organs usually away from their source. Endocrine System helps in control and coordination through chemical compounds called HORMONES



S. No. 1.

Hormone Thyroxine

Endocrine Gland Thyroid

Location Neck/ Throat region Mid Above both kidneys

Functions Regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Regulates growth and development. Regulation (increasing) of blood pressure, heart heat, carbohydrate metabolism (during emergency) Changes associated with puberty (Sexual maturity) Reduces and regulates blood sugar level

2. 3.

Growth hormone Adrenaline

Pituitary Adrenal

4. SEX

Testosterone in Males estrogen Insulin

Testes Ovaries Pancreas


Genital/ lower abdomen area Below stomach


IODISED SALT IS NECESSARY BECAUSE : Iodine mineral is essential part of thyronine hormone so it is important that we must consume iodised salt as in turn it is essential for thyroid gland as it controls carbohydrate, proteins and fat metabolism for best balance of growth deficiency of iodine might cause disease called goitre Diabetes : Cause : It is due to deficiency of Insulin hormone secreted by Pancreas that is responsible to lower/control the blood sugar levels. Treatment : Patients have to internally administer injections of insulin hormone which helps in regulating blood-sugar level. Feedback Mechanism makes sure that hormones should be secreted in precise quantities and at right time, which is regulated by feedback mechanism.



Sugar level in the blood rises SWITCH OFF Feedback sent Detected by cells of Pancreas Synthesis insulin Blood sugar level falls Stop secreting more insulin

(like a float in watertank)

(Question Bank)
Very Short Answers (1 Mark) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. Where is auxin synthesized in plants? Which gland is known as Master gland? Name the hormone that regulates blood sugar level. What is synapse. What are tropic movements? Give one examples Define hormones Which hormone has inhibiting effect on growth of plants What is phototropism? What are the components of central Nervous System. What happens at synapse between two neurons. Draw diagram of neuron and label cell body, dendrites and axon. What is reflex arc? Explain with the help of a flow-chart. Mention one function of each of the following i) ii) 4. 5. Cerebellum Pons.

Short Answers (2 Marks)

What is the cause of diabetes? How it can be controlled. Why it is advisable to use iodised salt.



6. 7. 8. 1.

What are the different receptors present in our body? What are their functions. What are plant hormones? Name a plant hormone that promotes growth in plants. What are sensory and motor neurons? Write their functions. What are hormones (in animals) List four characteristics of hormones. Name the hormone required for the following. i) ii) Development of moustache and beard in human male Lowering of blood glucose. Fore brain Mid brain Hind brain

Long Answers (5 Marks)


Mention the functions of a) b) c)