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# Thermodynamics

1. A gas undergoes a thermodynamics cycle consisting of three process beginning at the

initial state where P1 = 1 Bar, V1 =1.5 m3 and U1 = 512 KJ. The processes are as followsI. II. III.

**Process 1-2 compression with PV = C to P2 = 2 Bar, U2 = 690KJ Process 2-3 W23 = 0, Q23 = -150 KJ Process 3-1 W3 1= +50KJ
**

a. Neglecting KE and PE changes, determine the heat interaction Q12 and Q31.

(74KJ, 22KJ) 2. A mass of 1.5 Kg of air is compressed in a quasi-static process from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 MPa for which PV = C. The initial density of air is 1.6 Kg/m 3. Find the work done by the piston to compress the air. (251.62 KJ) 3. A of the inlet of the certain nozzle, the enthalpy of fluid passing is 3000 kJ/kg and the velocity is 60 m/s. At the discharge end, the enthalpy is 2762 kJ/kg. the nozzle is horizontal and there is a negligible heat loss from it.

I. II.

Find the velocity at the exit of nozzle If the inlet area is 0.1 m2 and the specific volume at inlet is 0.187 m 3/kg, find the mass flow rate. If the specific volume at the nozzle exit is 0.498 m 3/kg. find the exit area of nozzle (692.5 m/s, 32.08 kg/s, 0.023 m2)

III.

4. A heat engine is used to drive a heat pump. The heat transfers from the heat engine and from the heat pump are used to heat the water circulating through the radiator of a building. The efficiency of the heat engine is 27% and the COP of the heat pump is 4. Evaluate the ratio to the heat transfer to the circulating water to the heat transfer to the heat engine. (1.81) 5. Two reversible heat engine A and B are arranged in the series, A rejecting heat directly to B. Engine A receive 200 kJ at a temperature of 421°C from a hot source while the engine B is in communication with a cold sink of 4.4°C. If the work output A is twice of that of B. Find

I. II.

**Intermediate temperature between A and B The efficiency of each engine
**

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2 kg of air at 300 °C is heated reversibly at constant pressure to 2066 K. 300 °C expands reversibly and adiabatically in a steam turbine to 40 °C. Determine the ideal work output to the turbine per kg of steam.95 dryness. The rate at which heat is radiated is proportional to fourth power of absolute temperature and to the area of the radiating surface.05 m3. Steam initially at 1. compute the rate of availability and irreversibility. 0. (2451 kJ/kg. Calculate the internal energy of 0.3 MPa.014 J/K and B = 4. Find the available energy and unavailable energy of the heat added.1 MPa. The inlet conditions are 1 bar and 310 K and the exit conditions are 7 Bar and 560 K. Determine the heat added and change in internal energy.2*10 -4 J/K2 a heat reservoir at 0°C and a reversible work source are available.951) 14. 171. What is the maximum amount of work that can be transferred to the reversible work source as the system is cooled from 100°C to the temperature of reservoir? (4.4 °C. 0. 119 kJ. 120 °C.508 J) 8.III. Show that for a given power output and a given T 1. Find the quality of steam sample taken from the boiler. 40% & 33% and 80 kJ) 6.2 m 3 to 0. (0. Consider an engine in outer space which operates on the Carnot cycle. according to the law PV1. with A= 0. A fluid undergoes a reversible adiabatic compression from 0. The only way in which heat can be transferred from the engine by radiation. 0. At what temperature will the steam become saturated vapor? . Take T0 = 30 °C and Cp = 1. A sample of steam from a boiler drum at 3 MPa is put through a throttling calorimeter in which pressure and temperature are found to be 0.5 MPa.1 kJ) 11. Take T0 = 298K (481.3 m3 of steam at 4 Bar and 0. Determine the change in enthalpy. 107.1 kW and 21.2 kW) 10. In the temperature range between 0 °C and 100 °C in a particular system maintained at constant volume has a heat capacity CV = A+2BT. Heat rejected to cold sink (143.77 kJ) 9. (885.3= C.5 kJ/kg) 12. Air flow through an adiabatic compressor at 2 kg/s. 250 °C is cooled at constant volume I.77 kJ. 0. the area of the radiator will be a minimum when T2/T1 = ¾ 7. internal energy and entropy and the heat transfer and the work transfer during the process.5 MPa.0047 kJ/kg-K (211. Steam initially at 0. -171.03 kJ/kg) 13. If the steam is super heated at constant pressure through 30 °C. (223.9 kJ and 78.3 kJ.

What will be the change in entropy of the combined system of iron and water? Specific heat of iron and water are 0. The final pressure is 5 kPa. The initial pressure is 1000 kPa and the initial volume is 1m 3. (54.09 MJ/s to the surroundings.234) 15.276MPa. The gases are cooled from 260 to 120°C.38 kg/s and 0. find the heat transfer in magnitude and direction. A heat engine operating between two reservoirs at 1000 K and 300 K is used to drive the heat pump which extracts heat from the reservoirs at 300 K at a rate twice which the engine rejects heat to it. If the efficiency of the engine is 40%of the maximum possible and the COP of the heat pump is 50% of the maximum possible. while water enters at 65°C.9 °C. there is a heat transfer of 0.5m/s 2m If the volume flow rate of the fluid is 40 m 3/s. 86 kW) 16.33 m3/s at 0. 43°C which is heated at this pressure to 430°C and finally expanded in a turbine which delivers 1860 kW.18 kJ/kg-K respectively.5 K. (157°C) 19. estimate the net energy transfer from the fluid as work. What is the quality at 80 °C (123.45 and 4. what is temperature of reservoir to which the heat pump rejects heat? What is the rate of the heat rejection from the heat pump if the rate of heat supply to the engine is 50 kW? (326. (+ 2615 kJ) 17.Thermodynamics II. A Turbo compressor delivers 2.50 kg/s respectively.the condition of the fluid at the rotor entry and exit are as given below Pressure Velocity Height above datum Inlet 1. In a Turbo machine handling an incompressible fluid with a density of 1000 kg/m 3. 0. During the expansion. The exhaust gases from a gas turbine are used to heat water in an adiabatic counter flow heat exchanger. The flow rates of the gas and water are 0.2 = constant.15 MPa 30m/s 10 m Exit 0. If the specific internal energy of the gas decreases by 40 kJ/kg.3 MW) 18.05 MPa 15.1328 kJ/K) 20. A mass of 8 kg gas expands within a flexible container so that the p-v relationship is of the form PV1. A block of iron weighing 100 kg and having a temperature of 100°Cis immersed in 50 kg of water at a temperature of 20°C. (1. Calculate the turbine exhaust temperature if changes in kinetic and potential energy are negligible. The Constant pressure specific Page 3 .

5 kW) 21. 250°C. calculate the power required to drive the plant. The latent heat of fusion of ice is 333. the specific heat of ice and water are 2.07 and 4. A refrigeration plant for a food store operates as a reversed Carnot heat engine cycle.2 kJ/kg-K respectively and ice melts at 273. (0. A thermally insulated 50 Ω resistor carries a current of 1 A for 1 s.173 J/K .56 kW) 25. If the heat is transferred from the cycle to the atmosphere at a temperature of 25°C. A lump of ice with a mass of 1. In a rotary compressor air enter at 1. 0.heats for the gas and water are 1. What is the change in entropy of the universe? (0. I. (19 kJ/kg. Calculate the entropy production associated with this process. Its mass is 5 g and its specific heat is 0.064 kJ/kg-k) 22. (The enthalpy of fusion of ice at atmospheric pressure is 333.15 K. What is the change in entropy of the resistor? II. Calculate the irreversibility and the entropy production for unit mass flow rate. The atmosphere is at 1. 21°C where it is compressed adiabatically to 6.4 kJ/kg. The mean temperature of the cooling water circulating through the condenser of the refrigerating machine is 18°C. Neglect the KE changes.03 bar. (6. Take T0 = 35°C.186 kJ/kg-K respectively. After some time has elapsed the resulting water attains the temperature of the environment 293K. Calculate the rate of exergy loss due to heat transfer.5 kg at an initial temperature of 260 K melts at a pressure of 1 bar as a result of heat transfer from the environment.09and 4. (0.1514 kJ/K) 23.5 kJ/kg). Evaluate the minimum electrical work in kWh required to produce 1 tonne of ice. An ice making plant produces ice at atmospheric pressure and 0°C from water. 0.11 kWh) . The store is to be maintained at a temperature of -5°C and the heat transfer from the store to the cycle is at the rate of 5 kW.85 J/kg-K.173 J/K) 24.1 bar. (12. 20°C. The initial temperature of resistor is 10°C.6 bar.