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Master of Business Administration (MBA) Semester – 3 MB0050 – Research Methodology (4 Credits) (Book ID: B1206) Assignment Set- 2
MB0050: Research Methodology
Roll No. : 541110058
Fall /August 2012, MBA-3rd Semester
1. Define Research. What are the features and types of Research?
Research simply means a search of facts – answers to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: Features 1. It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. 2. It is a purposive investigation aiming at describing, interpreting and explaining a phenomenon. 3. It adopts scientific method. 4. It is objective and logical, applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and the conclusions reached. 5. It is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. 6. Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. 7. It emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories. 8. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism. Types of Research - Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as:
MB0050: Research Methodology
Roll No. : 541110058
Fall /August 2012, MBA-3rd Semester
Pure Research - It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e.g., Einstein’s theory of relativity, Newton’s contributions, Galileo’s contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. Applied Research - It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a new market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. Research - It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is illstructured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.”
MB0050: Research Methodology
Roll No. : 541110058
Fall /August 2012, MBA-3rd Semester
Descriptive Study - It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. Diagnostic Study - It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance. Evaluation Studies - It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time.
MB0050: Research Methodology
Roll No. : 541110058
Survey Research . Analytical Study – It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. MBA-3rd Semester Action Research . The outcome may be experienced by a sample group or those conducting the research. a possible application of survey research to a business context might involve looking at how effective mass media is in helping form and shift public opinion.A method of sociological investigation that uses question based or statistical surveys to collect information about how people think and act. : 541110058 Page 5 . According to methods of study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an exiting situation. and post experimental evaluation. sharing of diagnostic information. applicable to numerical data.Fall /August 2012. research may be classified as: Experimental Research .It is a type of evaluation study. developing change programme. implementation of participation and communication process. initiation of organizational change. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. Hence it is also known as the statistical method.Market research conducted by experiencing the outcome achieved through the use of a good or service. For example. planning. It includes six major steps: diagnosis.
MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No.In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won. Research is a time-consuming process. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. experience. Researcher’s competence: . Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. Interest in a problem depends upon the researcher’s educational background. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. : 541110058 Page 6 . How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be able to identify research problems? The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria.. Therefore. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter. relevant methodology and statistical procedures. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem.e. 3. Without interest and curiosity. MBA-3rd Semester 2. B. hence it should be properly utilized.The problem should be researchable. Research-ability of the problem:. unless he gets some external financial support. External Source – 1. Time resource is more important than finance. i. he will not be able to complete the work. Internal Source 1. outlook and sensitivity. Importance and urgency:-Problems requiring investigation are unlimited. which may be grouped into: A. Researcher’s own resource: . If it is beyond his means. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. 2. Researcher’s interest: .The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him.A mere interest in a problem will not do.Fall /August 2012. consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. he may not develop sustained perseverance. in selecting problems for research. their relative importance and significance should be considered. 2. but available research efforts are very much limited. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer.
There is no use of wasting one’s time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. research has not yet become a prospective profession. it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation.Fall /August 2012. In social sciences in some cases. 6. 7.Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects.The problem must have novelty. 4. but if research on it is not feasible. Feasibility:-A problem may be a new one and also important. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. : 541110058 Page 7 . it cannot be selected. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration 5. The sources from which one may be able to identify research problems or develop problems awareness are: Review of literature Academic experience Daily experience Exposure to field situations Consultations Brain storming Research Intuition MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. MBA-3rd Semester 3. suitable and competent guidance. Usefulness and social relevance:-Above all. data analysis facility. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. etc. But in India and other developing countries. This does not mean that replication is always needless. It should be socially relevant. the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. Novelty of the problem:. Facilities:. Research personnel:.Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers.
reflect the real intention of the researcher. if the title is “The Financial Problem of Small-scale industries”. Without adequate background knowledge. its properties /elements and their inter-relations should be identified and structured into framework. a researcher cannot grasp and comprehend the nature of the research problem. on the hypothesis to be tested.The title should be carefully worded. This conceptual model gives an exact idea of the research problem and shows its various properties and variables to be studied. The process of defining a problem includes: Developing title .” This shows that the focus is on commercial banks and not on small-scale industries.Fall /August 2012. the focus is on small-scale industries.g. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. It requires intensive reading of a few selected articles or chapters in books in order to understand the nature of the problem selected. : 541110058 Page 8 . and show on what is the focus e. Hence the selected problem should be defined and formulated. a researcher is expected to select a problem for research in his field of specialization. This is a difficult process. It should indicate the core of the study.On the basis of our theoretical knowledge of the phenomenon under study. On the other hand. It is for this reason. the nature of the phenomenon. “Financing small-scale industries by commercial banks.. Building a conceptual model . It serves as a basis for the formulation of the objectives of the study. MBA-3rd Semester The problem selected for research may initially be a vague topic. The question to be studied or the problem to be solved may not be known. In order to work out a conceptual model we must make a careful and critical study of the available literature on the subject-matter of the selected research problem.
They state which elements in the conceptual model-which levels of. specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process. the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. which properties. but it is the conceptual model that defines.Fall /August 2012. MBA-3rd Semester Define the Objective of the Study . and which connections among properties – are to be investigated. They indicate what we are trying to get through the study. features that are under study. describes. which kinds of cases. In research. : 541110058 Page 9 . and states the assumptions underlying these elements. The objectives are derived from the conceptual model. time and space boundaries. The objectives may be specified in the form of either the statements or the questions Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology.The objectives refer to the questions to be answered through the study. The objectives may aim at description or explanation or analysis of causal relationship between variables. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. and indicate the expected results or outcome of the study. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis.
For example. it may be classified into (a) participant observation and (b) non-participant observation. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. What are the types of Observations? What is the utility of Observation in Business Research? Observations may be classified in different ways. Observation is classified into (e) controlled observation. For example. and get a deeper insight of their experiences. In terms of mode of observation. Advantages: The advantages of participant observation are: 1. the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. it may be classified into (c) direct observation. and participation can interfere with MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. 2. Then only their behavior will be ‘natural’. The observer can understand the emotional reactions of the observed group. 2. and (f) uncontrolled observation. With reference to investigator’s role. The persons who are observed should not be aware of the researcher’s purpose. 1.In this observation.Fall /August 2012. if there is a hierarchy of power in the group/community under study. and thus other avenues of information are closed to him. MBA-3rd Semester 3. Disadvantages: Participant observation suffers from some demerits. Another limitation of this method is the dual demand made on the observer. the objectivity is lost. Participant Observation . The participant observer narrows his range of observation. he comes to occupy one position within in. The concealment of research objective and researcher’s identity is justified on the ground that it makes it possible to study certain aspects of the group’s culture which are not revealed to outsiders. The observer will be able to record context which gives meaning to the observed behavior and heard statements. Recording can interfere with participation. a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. To the extent that the participant observer participates emotionally. 3. : 541110058 Page 10 .
Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. It is also provides a permanent record for an analysis of different aspects of the event. e. A limitation of this method is that the observe r’s perception circuit may not be able to cover all relevant events when the latter move quickly.g. Such time lag results in some inaccuracy in recording Non-participant observations -In this method. but it is less biasing and less erratic in recording accuracy. Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field. recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store. Recording on the spot is not possible and it has to be postponed until the observer is alone. Uncontrolled observation This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables. change the focus of the observation. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behaviour as they occur. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner. MBA-3rd Semester 4. It may be used for studying MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. photographic or electronic devices. Controlled observation . It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what. resulting in the incompleteness of the observation. how and when to observe. there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. Direct observation -This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place. Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one . He is also free to shift places. This method is less flexible than direct observations.This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations. : 541110058 Page 11 . It is primary used for descriptive research. the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed. observation.Fall /August 2012. and the recording is done by mechanical. Naturally. Indirect observation -This does not involve the physical presence of the observer.
It may be used for studying (a) the behavior of human beings in purchasing goods and services. group dynamics. MBA-3rd Semester (a) The behaviour of human beings in purchasing goods and services. managerial styles. life style. animals etc. interpersonal relations. crowd behavior. :-life style. interpersonal relations.Fall /August 2012. (b) The behavior of other living creatures like birds. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) Movement of materials and products through a plant. animals etc. leadership styles. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. : 541110058 Page 12 . group dynamics. (d) Flow of traffic and parking problems (e) Movement of materials and products through a plant. customs. crowd behaviour. (c) Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. other behaviours and actions. (b) The behaviour of other living creatures like birds. residences etc. and manner. customs. other behaviors and actions. managerial style. factories. Utilities of observation in business research Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. leadership styles. and manner.
It counts and classifies components and creates statistical models to explain what is observed. some of which are: 1. Research design plans manage and systematize quantitative or qualitative data collection. Experimental. Qualitative research is subjective in approach. the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. MBA-3rd Semester 4. : 541110058 Page 13 . It generates mainly verbal data that is analyzed and interpreted. 3. descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz. Experimental. ‘quasi-experimental’ (Nachmias and Nachmias) MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. experiments in field settings. What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs? A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) 5. Jahoda. Historical method. field studies. Exploratory. and expost fact (Kerlinger) 4. and attempts to understand human behavior and the rationales that govern it. descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) 7. Quantitative research finds the answer to an inquiry by compiling numerical evidence. Exploratory. It specifies the objective of the study. Experimental. various writers advance different classifications schemes. Deutsch and Cook). descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) 8. Under each of these two main categories fall a variety of research designs suitable to particular studies.Fall /August 2012. There are number of crucial research choices. Sample surveys. and laboratory experiments (Festiiinger and Katz) 6. historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association) 2. Exploratory.
3. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. 10. Experimental. the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method. Probability samples only allow such computation. Decision process of sampling is complicated one. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise. 2. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: 1. probability sampling should be used. quasi-experimental designs and survey research (Kidder and Judd). True experimental. MBA-3rd Semester 9. or even rough results could serve the purpose? The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. Where even crude results would serve the purpose (E. quasi – experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. 5. depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. Explain the Sampling Process and briefly describe the methods of Sampling. Hence.. readership surveys etc) any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough. where the research objective requires statistical inference.Fall /August 2012. : 541110058 Page 14 . marketing surveys. Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself.g. pre-experimental.
the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent. single stage probability sampling methods could be used. However. as a compromise. 5. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. 9. The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied. it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size. stratified random sampling is appropriate. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. But if the area and the size of the population are small. If the population is heterogeneous. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available. there is no alternative than to give up the proposed survey. appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. : 541110058 Page 15 . it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. Then exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be made to gain a better idea of population. is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. 8. if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget. 7. Then.Fall /August 2012. even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. MBA-3rd Semester 4. Of course. 6. Where the finance is not a constraint. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large. multi-stage cluster sampling instead of single-stage sampling of elements. Financial resources: If the available finance is limited. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high or the cost per unit of variance is low.
It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. The following are the types of probability sampling: I. and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of population parameters is required. Suitability: This type of sampling is suited for a small homogeneous population. : 541110058 Page 16 . MBA-3rd Semester The above criteria frequently conflict and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain to obtain a good sampling plan. The cost and time required is high hence the benefit derived from it should justify the costs. Advantages: The advantage of this is that it is one of the easiest methods. all the elements in the population have an equal chance of being selected. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. giving them numbers in serial order 1. It is also known as random sampling. (ii) a table of random numbers or (iii) a computer. It is used when generalization is the objective of study. it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. That is. An independent chance means that the draw of one element will not affect the chances of other elements being selected. An equal chance means equal probability of selection. simple to understand.Fall /August 2012. 2. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. B. Drawing sample numbers by using (i) lottery method. does not require prior knowledge of the true composition of the population. and so on. One should use simple workable methods instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques Sampling techniques or methods may be classified into two generic types: Probability or Random Sampling Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. The procedure of drawing a simple random sample consists of enumeration of all elements in the population. a. and b. Simple Random Sampling: This sampling technique gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected. Preparation of a List of all elements.
It gives proper representation to each stratum and its statistical efficiency is generally higher. if the Management Faculty of a University consists of the following specialization groups: Specialization stream Production Finance Marketing Rural development 100 No. does not ensure proportionate representation and it may be expensive in time and money. Stratification process involves three major decisions... Stratified random sampling may be classified into: a) Proportionate stratified sampling: This sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in proportion to the latter’s share in the total population.g. MBA-3rd Semester Disadvantages: It is often impractical because of non-availability of population list or of difficulty in enumerating the population. II.0 of MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. Stratified Random Sampling: This is an improved type of random or probability sampling.2 0. university students may be divided on the basis of discipline. random sample is drawn. and each discipline group may again be divided into juniors and seniors.g.Fall /August 2012. the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata. E. They are stratification base or bases. The amount of sampling error associated with any sample drawn can easily be computed. because it is less precise than other methods. of students 40 20 30 10 Proportion each stream 0. In this method.4 0. providing adequate data for analyzing the various sub-populations and applying different methods to different strata. : 541110058 Page 17 . number of strata and strata sample sizes. The stratified random sampling is appropriate for a large heterogeneous population. Stratification is necessary for increasing a sample’s statistical efficiency.1 1. But it is greater than that in other probability samples of the same size.3 0. E. and from each stratum. This method is therefore very popular.
1 3 .Fall /August 2012. (b) internal variances among strata. easy to carry out. b) Disproportionate stratified random sampling: This method does not give proportionate representation to strata. and gives a self-weighing sample. The desirability of disproportionate sampling is usually determined by three factors. gives higher statistical efficiency. Disadvantages: The disadvantage is that it does not give each stratum proportionate representation. Suitability: This method is used when the population contains some small but important subgroups. viz. Then the strata sample sizes would be: Strata Production Finance Marketing Rural development 30 Advantages: Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each sample. and (c) sampling costs. MBA-3rd Semester The research wants to draw an overall sample of 30.4 12 30 x 0.2 6 30 x 0. requires prior knowledge of composition of the population.3 9 30 x 0. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. when certain groups are quite heterogeneous. (a) the sizes of strata. It necessarily involves giving overrepresentation to some strata and under-representation to others. Advantages: The advantages of this type is it is less time consuming and facilitates giving appropriate weighing to particular groups which are small but more important. while others are homogeneous and when it is expected that there will be appreciable differences in the response rates of the subgroups in the population. it is very expensive in time and money and identification of the strata may lead to classification of errors. : 541110058 Page 18 Sample size 30 x 0. Disadvantages: A prior knowledge of the composition of the population and the distribution of the population. is subject to classification errors and its practical feasibility is doubtful.
Then from each selected sampling unit. examine the nature of clusters. cost of this is much less. and determine the number of stages. Suitability: The application of cluster sampling is extensive in farm management surveys. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. Disadvantages: The disadvantages are it ignores all elements between two kth elements selected. easy to instruct.. Cluster Sampling It means random selection of sampling units consisting of population elements. it does not require more time. Advantages: The advantages are it is simpler than random sampling. sample is spread evenly o ver the population. easy to use. E. Suitability: Systematic selection can be applied to various populations such as students in a class. Each such sampling unit is a cluster of population elements. and it is statistically more efficient. units of study can be readily substituted for other units and it is more flexible.g. demographic studies. It consists of taking kth item in the population after a random start with an item form 1 to k. public opinion polls. The cluster sampling process involves: identify clusters. telephone directory etc. ecological studies. each element does not have equal chance of being selected. and this method sometimes gives a biased sample.Fall /August 2012. In such cases cluster sampling is usually adopted. It possesses characteristics of randomness and some non-probability traits. attitude surveys and so on. it’s cheaper. 1st. Advantages: The advantages of this method is it is easier and more convenient. this method of sampling is not a probability sampling. Disadvantages: The cluster sizes may vary and this variation could increase the bias of the resulting sample. promotes the convenience of field work as it could be done in compact places. rural credit surveys. and large scale surveys of political and social behavior. MBA-3rd Semester iii) Systematic Random Sampling: This method of sampling is an alternative to random selection. The sampling error in this method of sampling is greater and the adjacent units of study tend to have more similar characteristics than do units distantly apart. It is also known as fixed interval method. Where the element is not readily available. socio-economic surveys. easier to check. requires less time. 21st ……… Strictly speaking. : 541110058 Page 19 . the use of simple or stratified random sampling method would be too expensive and time-consuming. 11th. a sample of population elements is drawn by either simple random selection or stratified random selection. houses in a street.
The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. If one primary cluster has twice as large a population as another. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No.. cost and sampling errors. Sub-sampling is a part of multi-stage sampling process. That is. their sampling is called area sampling. It is not a separate method of sampling. Advantages: The advantages are clusters of various sizes get proportionate representation. the overall probability of any person will be the same. In larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific geographical areas like districts. PPS leads to greater precision than would a simple random sample of clusters and a constant sampling fraction at the second stage. then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit. In a multi-stage sampling. the sampling in second and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. at each stage. sampling is carried out in two or more stages. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. equal-sized samples from each selected primary cluster are convenient for field work. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn. Multi-stage and sub-sampling In multi-stage sampling method. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. If the same number of persons is then selected from each of the selected clusters. First. villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. Sub-sampling balances the two conflicting effects of clustering i. Disadvantages: PPS cannot be used if the sizes of the primary sampling clusters are not known. talluks. Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size The procedure of selecting clusters with probability Proportional to size (PPS) is widely used. It is appropriate where the population survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. but forms part of cluster sampling. Thus PPS is a better method for securing a representative sample of population elements in multistage cluster sampling. : 541110058 Page 20 . MBA-3rd Semester Area sampling This is an important form of cluster sampling. it is give twice the chance of being selected. As the geographical areas are selected as sampling units in such cases.Fall /August 2012.e.
Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes. as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. : 541110058 Page 21 . The selection probability sample may not be a representative one. it is then. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection. The replicated samples can throw light on variable non-sampling errors. Advantages: The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity. The reasons for usage of this sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to non-availability of a list of population. information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample. But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. Disadvantages: The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each population unit. MBA-3rd Semester Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error. when probability sampling required more time. This is also known as sequential sampling. Instead. Non-probability or Non Random Sampling Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. It suffers from sampling bias which will distort results. Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified. when the study does not aim at generalizing the findings to the population. It may be MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. when the costs required for probability sampling may be too large. The selection probability is unknown. convenience and low cost. It is practical. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population. but the time constraints and the time limit for completing the study do not permit it. called multi-phase sampling. single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element.Fall /August 2012.
It does not aim at securing a cross section of a population..Fall /August 2012. Quota sampling This is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex. does not ensure the representativeness. This method is also known as accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidentally are included in the sample. requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics. Suitability: Though this type of sampling has no status. This involves selection of cases which we judge as the most appropriate ones for the given study. age. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it is highly biased because of researcher’s subjectivity.g. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. : 541110058 Page 22 . It is based on the judgement of the researcher or some expert. Disadvantage: It is less efficient for generalizing. It is this Non-random element that constitutes its greatest weakness. Advantage: It is the cheapest and simplest. it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. This is also known as judgment sampling. Advantage: It is less costly and more convenient and guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample. This sampling also means selecting whatever sampling units are conveniently available. MBA-3rd Semester classified into: Convenience or Accidental Sampling It means selecting sample units in a just ‘hit and miss’ fashion E. a teacher may select students in his class. Suitability: This is used when what is important is the typicality and specific relevance of the sampling units to the study and not their overall representativeness to the population.g.. it does not require a list of population and it does not require any statistical expertise. interviewing people whom we happen to meet. Purposive (or judgment) sampling This method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some predetermined criteria. etc. The chance that a particular case be selected for the sample depends on the subjective judgement of the researcher. e. it is the least reliable sampling method and the findings cannot be generalized. social class. it may be used for simple purposes such as testing ideas or gaining ideas or rough impression about a subject of interest.
strict control if field work is difficult. : 541110058 Page 23 . Suitability: It is very useful in studying social groups. Advantage: It is useful for smaller populations for which no frames are readily available. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. and subject to a higher degree of classification. 6. but to get quickly some crude results. or indifferent to a product concept in development. It is difficult to apply when the population is large.Fall /August 2012. It does not ensure the inclusion of all the elements in the list. attracted to. Advantage: It is less costly. Research report is a method of businesses uses to identify patterns in consumer buying and predicts future buying habits. takes less time. Disadvantage: The disadvantage is that it does not allow the use of probability statistical methods. A research report is a formal statement of the research process and it results. opinion polls. methods used for studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study. MBA-3rd Semester Suitability: It is used in studies like marketing surveys. and field work can easily be organized. It could potentially save a company millions if they know whether consumers will be repulsed by. Snow-ball sampling This is the colourful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants. It narrates the problem studied. What is a Research Report? What are the contents of Research Report? Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. Disadvantage: It is impossible to estimate sampling error. and readership surveys which do not aim at precision. and diffusion of information among professional of various kinds. informal groups in a formal organization. non need for a list of population. This sampling technique may also be used in socio-metric studies. These research reports can be developed in several ways and for varying purposes.
MB0050: Research Methodology . Reports can also be used to identify and rectify a problem within a company. Identifying the purpose of the report helps to direct the approach of the research-gathering efforts. All research reports are designed to gather knowledge to make a more informed decision before investing money into a concept. to determine the direction of a business venture or to decide whether to eliminate a product or service. Contents of Research Report I.Fall /August 2012. The report may sell an idea or change management's mind about an idea. MBA-3rd Semester The first step in all research reports is to identify the purpose. : 541110058 Page 24 II. Prefatory items Title Page Declaration Certificates Preface/acknowledgements Table of contents List of tables List of graphs/figures/charts Abstract or synopsis Body of the Report Introduction Theoretical background of the topic Statement of the problem Review of the literature The scope of the study The objective of the study Hypothesis to be tested Definition of the concepts Models if any Design of the study Methodology Method of data collection Sources of data Sampling plan Roll No.
conclusions and recommendations III. Reference Material Bibliography Appendix Copies of data collection instruments Technical details on sampling plan Complex tables Glossary of new terms used.Fall /August 2012. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. : 541110058 Page 25 . MBA-3rd Semester Data collection instruments Summary.
or vice versa.Fall /August 2012. The numbers in this level of measurement indicate only rank order and not equal distance or absolute quantities. either in ascending or descending order. Ordinal measurement . ordinal. MBA-3rd Semester ASSIGNMENT SET 2 1.Individuals may be ranked according to their “socio-economic class”. Differentiate between nominal. and so on. persons or objects are assigned numerals which indicate ranks with respect to one or more properties. The numerals or symbols are just labels and have no quantitative value. which is measured by a combination of income. It does not have characteristics such as order. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. The numbers of cases under each category are counted. : 541110058 Page 26 . distance or arithmetic origin. The individual with the highest score might be assigned rank 1. the next highest rank 2.This level of measurement consists in assigning numerals or symbols to different categories of a variable. Nominal measurement is therefore the simplest level of measurement. This means that the distance between ranks 1 and 2 is not necessarily equal to the distance between ranks 2 and 3. occupation and wealth. The example of male and female applicants to some planned activity is an example of nominal measurement. Nominal measurement . interval and ratio scales with an example of each. education.In this level of measurement. Example .
it is possible to multiply and divide the numbers on a ratio scale. distance and origin. Apart from being able to use all the MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. since it has one additional characteristic – equality of distance.Fall /August 2012. Statistical techniques that are commonly used to analyze ordinal scale data are the median and rank order correlation coefficients. distance and area. : 541110058 Page 27 . A temperature of 50 degrees is exactly 10 degrees hotter than 40 degrees and 10 degrees cooler than 60 degrees. Since there is a natural zero. they also lend themselves to more powerful statistical techniques. weight. Example The Centigrade or Fahrenheit temperature gauge is an example of the interval level of measurement. Ratio measurement . it does not have an origin or a true zero. However.This is the highest level of measurement and is appropriate when measuring characteristics which have an absolute zero point. Examples Height. rating and paired comparisons. Variables that lend themselves to ordinal measurement include preferences. MBA-3rd Semester Ordinal scales may be constructed using rank order. such as standard deviation. Since interval scales are more powerful than nominal or ordinal scales. product moment correlation and “t” tests and “F” tests of significance.This level of measurement is more powerful than the nominal and ordinal levels of measurement. This level of measurement has all the three characteristics – order. Interval measurement . This implies that it is not possible to multiply or divide the numbers on an interval scale. ratings of organizations and economic status.
satisfaction and other properties which do not have natural zero points. ordinal and interval scales. MBA-3rd Semester statistical techniques that are used with the nominal. Techniques like the geometric mean and coefficient of variation may also be used. The different levels of measurement and their characteristics may be summed up. distance and origin 2. In the table below – Levels of measurement Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio Characteristics No order. and the hypothesis translates the research question into a prediction of expected outcomes. Concepts of Testing Hypotheses. but no distance or origin Both order and distance. Some basic concepts in the context of testing of hypotheses are explained below 1) Null Hypotheses and Alternative Hypotheses: In the context of statistical analysis. but no origin Order. The main limitation of ratio measurement is that it cannot be used for characteristics such as leadership quality. we MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. It is a tentative and formal prediction about the relationship between two or more variables in the population being studied.Fall /August 2012. A hypothesis is a tool of quantitative studies. distance or origin Order. : 541110058 Page 28 . What are the types of Hypothesis? Explain the procedure for testing Hypothesis. happiness.
Then we would say that the null hypothesis is that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean 100 and symbolically we can express it as: H0: µ= µ H0=100 If our sample results do not support this null hypothesis. then we are accepting Ha. If we are to compare the superiority of method A with that of method B and we proceed on the assumption that both methods are equally good. then this assumption is termed as a null hypothesis. MBA-3rd Semester often talk about null and alternative hypotheses. These are symbolically represented as: Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean (µ H0) = 100. then we are rejecting Ha and if we reject H0. it may be more or less 100) Ha: µ>µ H0 (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is greater than 100) MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. What we conclude rejecting the null hypothesis is known as an alternative hypothesis. For H0: µ= µ H0=100. then it is known as an alternative hypothesis.. we may consider three possible alternative hypotheses as follows: Alternative Hypotheses To be read as follows Ha: µ≠µ H0 (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is not equal to 100 i.Fall /August 2012. On the other hand. we should conclude that something else is true. if we think that method A is superior. : 541110058 Page 29 .e. If we accept H0.
e.05 probability of occurring if H0 is true. in hypothesis testing. keeping the alternative hypothesis in view. while the alternative hypothesis represents all other possibilities. the 5% level of significance means that the researcher is willing to take as much as 5% risk rejecting the null hypothesis when it (H0) happens to be true. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. Hence the use of null hypotheses (at times also known as statistical hypotheses) is quite frequent. The null hypothesis should always be a specific hypothesis i. If the rejection of a certain hypothesis when it is actually true involves great risk. Thus a null hypothesis represents the hypothesis we are trying to reject. which should be chosen with great care. It is always some percentage (usually 5%). and the null hypothesis is the one that is to be disproved. 3c.Fall /August 2012. In case we take the significance level at 5%. then this implies that H0 will be rejected when the sampling result (i. 2) The Level of Significance: This is a very important concept in the context of hypothesis testing. The alternative hypothesis is usually the one. it should not state an approximate value. the following considerations are usually kept in view: 1a. Why so? The answer is that on the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.. but this cannot be done if we proceed with alternative hypotheses. Generally. one can assign the probabilities to different possible sample results. observed evidence) has a less than 0. we proceed on the basis of the null hypothesis. : 541110058 Page 30 . it is taken as null hypothesis. In other words.e. In the choice of null hypothesis. 2b. Thus the significance level is the maximum value of the probability of rejecting H0 when it is true and is usually determined in advance before testing the hypothesis. because then the probability of rejecting it when it is true is α (the level of significance) which is chosen very small. MBA-3rd Semester Ha: µ< µ H0 (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is less than 100) The null hypotheses and the alternative hypotheses are chosen before the sample is drawn (the researcher must avoid the error of deriving hypotheses from the data he collects and testing the hypotheses from the same data). thought and reason. which is to be proved..
when we try to reduce type I error.e. and Type II error is denoted by β(beta). Type I error is denoted by α (alpha).e. In other words. accept Ha). : 541110058 Page 31 . Both types of errors cannot be reduced simultaneously. since there is a trade-off in business situations. it means there are about 5 chances in 100 that we will reject H0 when H0 is true. Type I error means rejection of hypotheses. For instance.. reject Ha) or reject H0 (i. we will accept H0. We might test 10 items in the lot and plan our decision saying that if there are none or only 1 defective item among the 10. against Ha. we will say that the maximum probability of committing type I error would only be 0. according to which we accept H0 (i. MBA-3rd Semester 3) Decision Rule or Test of Hypotheses: Given a hypothesis Ha and an alternative hypothesis H0. Decision Accept H0 Reject H0 H0 (true) Correct decision Type I error (α error) Ho (false) Type II error (β error) Correct decision The probability of Type I error is usually determined in advance and is understood as the level of significance of testing the hypotheses. that the lot is not good (there are many defective items in it). if we fix it at 1%. and Type II error means accepting of hypotheses. there are basically two types of errors that we can make. This sort of basis is known as a decision rule. if H0 is that a certain lot is good (there are very few defective items in it). which should have been accepted. which should have been rejected. We can control type I error just by fixing it at a lower level. we make a rule.Fall /August 2012. Decision makers decide the appropriate level of type I error by examining the costs of penalties attached to both MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. and then we must decide the number of items to be tested and the criterion for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. otherwise we will reject H0 (or accept Ha). For instance. We may reject H0 when H0 is true and we may accept H0 when it is not true. 4) Type II Errors & I: In the context of testing of hypotheses. also called as level of significance of test. which is known as a decision rule. If type I error is fixed at 5%. the probability of committing type II error increases. The former is known as Type I and the latter is known as Type II.01. But with a fixed sample size n..
Hence.Fall /August 2012.95. whether the population mean is either lower or higher than some Hypothesized value. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. say. whereas type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned. the probability of the rejection area will be 0. If we take µ = 100 and if our sample mean deviates significantly from µ. one must set a very high level for type I error in one’s testing techniques of a given hypothesis. then in such a situation one should prefer a type I error to a type II error. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to test. Such a test is inappropriate when we have H0: µ= µ H0 and Ha: µ≠µ H0 which may µ>µ H0 or µ<µ H0. MBA-3rd Semester types of errors. these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood.025) and that of the acceptance region will be 0. : 541110058 Page 32 . A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if. the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypothesized value of the mean of the population. say. in that case we shall accept the null hypothesis. If significance level is 5 % and the two-tailed test is to be applied. one must make all possible efforts to strike an adequate balance between Type I & Type II error. But there are situations when only a onetailed test is considered appropriate. in testing of hypotheses. If type I error involves time and trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted. As a result.05 (equally split on both tails of the curve as 0. 25) Two Tailed Test & One Tailed Test: In the context of hypothesis testing.
(i) Being an exhaustive study of a social unit. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. the case study method enables us to understand fully the behavior pattern of the concerned unit. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Case Study Method? How is Case Study method useful to Business Research? CASE STUDY METHOD The case study method is a very popular form of qualitative analysis and involves a careful and complete observation of a social unit.Fall /August 2012. tensions and motivations that drive him to action along with the forces that direct him to adopt ascertain pattern of behavior. Mention may be made here of the important advantages.” (ii) Through case study a researcher can obtain a real and enlightened record of personal experiences which would reveal man’s inner strivings. be that unit a person. an institution. a family. “case study deepens our perception and gives us a clearer insight into life it gets at behavior directly and not by an indirect and abstract approach. Advantages There are several advantages of the case study method that follow from the various characteristics outlined above. MBA-3rd Semester 3. In the words of Charles Horton Cooley. : 541110058 Page 33 . a cultural group or even the entire community.
particularly in social researches. but also Freudian theory in general. thus. This can be attributed to them being case studies. (vi) Information collected under the case study method helps a lot to the researcher in the task of constructing the appropriate questionnaire or schedule for the said task requires thorough knowledge of the concerning universe. Disadvantages (i) One of the main criticisms is that the data collected cannot necessarily be generalized to the wider population. This is the reason why case study method is being frequently used.Fall /August 2012. This leads to data being collected over longitudinal case studies not always being relevant or particularly useful. Both of these are not scientific nor are they able to be generalized. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. Case studies. (iv) It helps in formulating relevant hypotheses along with the data which may be helpful in testing them. : 541110058 Page 34 . (v) The method facilitates intensive study of social units which is generally not possible if we use either the observation method or the method of collecting information through schedules. MBA-3rd Semester (iii) This method enables the researcher to trace out the natural history of the social unit and its relationship with the social factors and the forces involved in its surrounding environment. enable the generalized knowledge to get richer and richer. Freud used case studies for many of his theories or studies. (ii) Some case studies are not scientific. Such examples are that of Anna O and Little Hans.
It would be extremely unethical to go taking parts of peoples brains out just to make a larger sample size to use a different experimental design method. eyewitness accounts. primary sources are often empirical studies -. as data is collected on new cases I think it is important to always refer back to previous data in order to build on existing knowledge and ensure findings are as applicable to real life as possible. What are the Primary and Secondary sources of Data? Primary sources .the raw material or first-hand information. : 541110058 Page 35 . MBA-3rd Semester (iii) Case studies are generally on one person. However. Primary sources include historical and legal documents. results of experiments. pieces of creative writing. The results of empirical studies are typically found in scholarly articles or papers delivered at conferences. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. and art objects.research where an experiment was done or a direct observation was made. This can lead to bias in data collection. case studies are an important and useful method of data collection. Case study method is useful to businesses which are mentioned above in the advantages of case study method overall. 4. especially in cases of rare phenomena.A primary source is an original object or document -. In the natural and social sciences. but there also tends to only be one experimenter collecting the data. statistical data. so those articles and papers that present the original results are considered primary sources.Fall /August 2012. (iv) It is also very difficult to draw a definite cause/effect from case studies. which can influence results more than in different designs.
I am the primary source. speeches. or discussions about the original material. music. You can think of secondary sources as second-hand information. and art Articles about people and events from the past MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. : 541110058 Page 36 . If I tell you something. furniture. data. photographs. or findings never before shared Original hand-written manuscripts Government documents and public records Art. If you tell someone else what I told you. Secondary sources include comments on. Secondary source materials can be articles in newspapers or popular magazines. maps. letters. or articles found in scholarly journals that discuss or evaluate someone else's original research. and music Newspaper and magazine clippings Artifacts. autobiographies. you are the secondary source. MBA-3rd Semester Primary sources can include Interviews. Secondary sources can include Textbooks Review articles and critical analysis essays Biographies Historical films. fiction. films. journals. book or movie reviews. buildings.A secondary source is something written about a primary source. and clothing Secondary sources . diaries.Fall /August 2012. and witness statements Articles containing original research. interpretations of.
questionnaire may be used for the following purposes: Reasons to Use a Questionnaire Marketing Campaigns . Often. MBA-3rd Semester 5. Healthcare . and it is used to collect information about specific subjects. and needs. marketing executives will pay people to fill out questionnaires. There is much resemblance in the nature of these two methods and this fact has made many people to remark that from a practical point of view A questionnaire will feature a series of queries which must be answered by a person. By getting answers to questions that pertain to a business concern or market sub-segment. marketing executives will use questionnaires to get valuable feedback from customers or potential clients. patients seeking healthcare are often asked to fill out questionnaires that outline their medical histories. whereas a schedule is a listing of events and meetings over a defined period. A questionnaire may also be called a survey. Differentiate between Schedules and Questionnaire.Fall /August 2012. At other times. : 541110058 Page 37 . these will be filled out voluntarily.In clinics or hospitals. These sorts MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. for no compensation. habits. Sometimes. marketing executives can prepare timely and relevant ad campaigns that meet the needs of their target demographic. What are the alternative modes of sending Questionnaires? Difference between questionnaires and schedules Both questionnaire and schedule are popularly used methods of collecting data in research surveys.Commonly.
There is much resemblance in the nature of these two methods and this fact has made many people to remark that from a practical point of view. knowing what is happening during a weekly. MBA-3rd Semester of questionnaires allow medical professionals to achieve accurate diagnoses. and to design courses of treatment that are safe and effective. bi-weekly. Reasons for Using Schedules Organization . or important events may be missed. For example.By analyzing a schedule. if a person wants to get fitter.Fall /August 2012. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. the two methods can be taken to be the same. appointments may be forgotten. But from the technical point of view there is difference between the two. Goal Setting . he or she can track their workouts via a schedule. : 541110058 Page 38 . and record results based on the success of their regimen over time. for example. Both questionnaire and schedule are popularly used methods of collecting data in research surveys. Without a schedule. or monthly period will allow a person to plan ahead and be prepared for every circumstance.A schedule can be an essential component of time management. a person can determine whether or not they are moving closer to his or her goals.
Direct personal contact is established questionnaire 6.Questionnaire is generally sent through mail to 1. Identity of respondent is known 5. data MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. Without access to relevant data. Non response is very low because this is filled by do not respond enumerators 4. The questionnaire method is likely to be very 5. Data is an integral part of all business processes. businesses would get completely paralyzed. It is the invisible backbone that supports all the operations and activities within a business. It is not clear that who replies 4. Therefore. Non response is usually high as many people 3. No personal contact is possible in case of 6. This is because quality data helps formulate effective business strategies and fruitful business decisions. who can interpret the questions when necessary 2. MBA-3rd Semester 1.Fall /August 2012. the quality of data should be maintained in good condition in order to facilitate smooth business proceedings. In order to enhance business proceedings. Data collection is more expensive as money is spent on enumerators 3. Data collection is cheap 2. Schedules is generally filled by the research informants to be answered worker or enumerator. Explain the various steps in processing of Data. Information is collected well in time slow since many respondents do not return the questionnaire 6. : 541110058 Page 39 .
It transforms plain data into valuable information and information into data. Companies and organizations across the world make use of data processing services in order to facilitate their market research interests. or plain printed material. Extracting relevant data is one of the core procedures of data processing. Here are the 5 steps that are included in data processing: Editing . While there are huge volumes of data available on the internet. Data processing ensures that the data is presented in a clean and systematic manner and is easy to understand and be used for further purposes. useful data has to be extracted from the huge volumes of the same. When companies and organizations have access to useful information. MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. based on which important conclusions can be drawn. MBA-3rd Semester should be made available in all possible forms in order to increase the accessibility of the same. audio devices. Data processing refers to the process of converting data from one format to another. When data has been accumulated from various sources. it is edited in order to discard the inappropriate data and retain relevant data. thus expanding the profit margins. be it excels sheets.Fall /August 2012. Data processing services take the raw data and process it accordingly to produce sensible information. they can utilize it for strategizing powerful business moves that would eventually increase the company revenue and decrease the costs. Data consists of facts and figures. The various applications of data processing can convert raw data into useful information that can be used further for business processes. Clients can supply data in a variety of forms. : 541110058 Page 40 .There is a big difference between data and useful data.
Validation .After the cleansing phase. Data validation refers to the process of thoroughly checking the collected data to ensure optimal quality levels. The method of coding ensures just that and arranges data in a comprehendible format. Data Entry . it needs to be aligned into a particular system.Fall /August 2012. the data is tabulated and arranged in a systematic format so that it can be further analyzed. Data entry professionals do the task efficiently.Even after the editing process.This is the final step in data processing.e. Tabulation . To make it more sensible and usable for further use. All the accumulated data is double checked in order to ensure that it contains no inconsistencies and is utterly relevant. it is entered into the software that performs the eventual cross tabulation. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. MBA-3rd Semester Coding . The process is also known as netting or bucketing. the available data is not in any specific order. The final product i.After the data has been properly arranged and coded. : 541110058 Page 41 . All these processes make up the complete data processing activity which ensures the said data is available for access. comes the validation process.
MBA-3rd Semester MB0050: Research Methodology Roll No. : 541110058 Page 42 .Fall /August 2012.
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