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1. IUPWARE - General Information - Diplomas and Certificates offered - Courses - Admission Requirements - Management 2. PHYLARES - Objectives and contents of the programme - Selection of option and registration - Study programme 3. STUDENT THESES - IUPWARE MSc theses
- PHYLARES MSc theses - PhD theses

2 2 3 3 4 7 8 8 9 10 12 12 23 27 31 60 60 67 68 70 78


- International cooperation - ERASMUS cooperation and exchange



Interuniversity Programme in Water Resources Engineering
* General Information
The objective of the Interuniversity Programme in Water Resources Engineering (IUPWARE) is to provide multi-disciplinary and professional training in water resources engineering, and to equip future personnel with the necessary technical and managerial knowledge and skills, which they require to successfully design and operate water resources schemes. The foregoing is particularly important for personnel from developing countries where sustainable development of water resources is more crucial now than ever before. IUPWARE, organized annually by the K.U.Leuven and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, aims at accomplishing the following two main goals: (I) the training of engineers and experts in specific disciplines of water resources such as surface and groundwater hydrology, irrigation, water quality and other related disciplines; and (II) integration of technical multi-disciplinary teams, efficiently coordinated by generalists with emphasis on management. Therefore, IUPWARE will put emphasis on imparting knowledge and skills to trainees in three levels, namely, basic, specific and integrated. The first level includes disciplines such as hydrology, statistics, hydraulics, ecology, hydrogeology, fundamentals of economy and water quality, and computing. Specific disciplines refer to the various activities with water such as irrigation, water supplies, wastewater treatment, hydropower generation, hydraulic works, urban drainage, flood control, soil and water conservation and general use management. The last level relates to technical disciplines that treat water resources in an integrated way, ranging from operation research to legal and institutional sectors. The growing tendency of public participation in the planning process, even in the developing countries, necessitates that subjects of social, political and communication areas form part of the study curriculum. In addition, workshops on environmental and policy sciences are included to emphasize the close relationship between water quantity and water quality. The above aims and scope should be considered as a contribution to the worldwide effort in the field of education, training and capacity building for water resources development.


* Diplomas and Certificates Offered

IUPWARE offers
Degree of Master in Water Resources Engineering to successful students after 2 year of studies; Transcript of Academic Records is issued to all participants; a PhD (doctoral) degree can be obtained by excellent performing students, holders of an MSc/MEng degree, after 3 or 4 years of additional study and research and the public defense of a doctoral dissertation.

* Courses
First year: Study curriculum for the 1st year of the Master in Water Resources Engineering

Advanced mathematics for water engineering Statistics for water engineering Irrigation agronomy Aquatic ecology Hydraulics Surface hydrology Groundwater hydrology Water Quality Assessment, Monitoring and Treatment

Theory 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

Practicals Assignments 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30

Credits 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6


Hydrological data processing and GIS Hydrological measurements and remote sensing Total

24 24 288

42 42 324

30 30 300

6 6 60


Second year: Study curriculum for the 2nd year of the Master in Water Resources Engineering

Common core: Systems approach to water management Social, political, institutional, economic and environmental aspects Thesis research Integrated projects (select 1 project): Integrated project: humid climate case study Integrated project: arid climate case study Subtotal

Theory 24 24

Practicals Assignments 24 24 810 30 30 30 30 30 900

Credits 5 5

18 18 66

36 36 84

5 5 45


Surface water modelling Groundwater modelling River modelling Urban hydrology and hydraulics Soil water modelling Irrigation Design and Management Advanced aquatic ecology

18 18 18 18 18 18 18

36 36 36 36 36 36 36

30 30 30 30 30 30 30

5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Subtotal for three courses TOTAL

54 120

108 192

90 990

15 60

* Admission Requirements
The 2-year master degree uses the same admission criteria as for the initial master programmes organized by the Faculties of Bioscience Engineering and Engineering of the K.U.Leuven or the Faculty of Engineering of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In practice this means that students possessing a bachelor degree awarded by a university recognized by the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) in engineering (civil engineering, bioscience engineering, environmental engineering, or any other equivalent engineering degree) and sciences (biology, geography, geology, etc.) can enroll in the 1st year of the master programme. Holders of a bachelor (BSc, BEng, or BTech) degree of minimum a 4 year non-European university programme can only be admitted to the 1st year after positive evaluation of their application.


Given that the language of instruction is English, applicants should have a good command of spoken and written English (for non-native speakers an English language certificate is required, for the TOEFL written test the score has to be at least 550; the computer based test 213). Students possessing a master degree equivalent to the degrees awarded by the Faculties of Sciences, Bioscience Engineering and Engineering of the K.U.Leuven or the Faculty of Engineering of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel can apply to have an exemption of up to 60 ECTS. Equivalent master degrees typically require a total duration of 5 (European universities) to 6 years (universities in developing countries). Applicants with such a degree can apply for a direct entry into the 2nd year. All applications will be examined in detail on their eligibility. For every course and workshop, clear prerequisites are required. This is done in the format of referring to one or more handbooks, study material on the web, or by taking (a) course(s) at the university. Students who are weak in a particular subject will be requested to take remediating courses. The universities also offer English crash courses. The deadline for the submission of applications is March 1 for non-European students, and June 1 for European applicants.

Summary table of the admission requirements for the 1st year and 2nd year Master programme in Water Resources Engineering
Specification of the admission requirements * BSc/BEng degree of a 4 year university programme (minimum grade: 2nd class honours, upper division) * MSc/MEng degree of a recognised university programme (minimum grade: honours degree) * Graduates from a 5 year university programme in agriculture or engineering * Graduates from a 4 year non-university programme in industrial engineering A B B Water Resources Engineering 1st year A 2nd year

Note: These admission requirements are eligibility requirements and do not guarantee automatic admission.


All enquiries, including application forms, should be sent to: Mrs. Greta Camps IUPWARE - K.U.Leuven Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 3001 Leuven (Heverlee) Belgium Tel.: +32-16-32 17 44 Fax: +32-16-32 19 56 E-mail: E-mail: or for enquiries and ERASMUS exchange students at Vrije Universiteit Brussel: Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel Pleinlaan 2 1050 Brussel Belgium Tel.: +32-2-629 30 21 Fax: +32-2-629 30 22 E-mail: Note: PhD-candidates can only be admitted at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel when the Master curriculum has been successfully attended and the grade "good" (70%) has been awarded.

DETAILS, including the APPLICATION FORMS, are available on INTERNET


* Management
IUPWARE's management consists of an advisory board with representatives of international organisations; a steering committee with 4 members of each university; the programme each study year.

committee with all teaching staff, 2 teaching assistants of each university and 2 students of

Present composition is as follows:

Batelaan O. Bauwens W. Berlamont J. Biology)

De Meester L. De Smedt F. De Ruyck J. Wyseure G.

(K.U.Leuven, Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology and Evolutionary (VUB, Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering) (VUB, Dean Faculty of Engineering)

(K.U.Leuven, Hydraulics Laboratory)

(VUB, Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering)

(VUB, Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering)

Raes D., chairman

(K.U.Leuven, Laboratory of Soil and Water Management) (K.U.Leuven, Laboratory Soil and Water Management)


Wyseure, G.

K.U.Leuven: Brendonck, L., Declerck, S., De Meester, L., Diels, J., Geerts, S., Ibrahim, E., Monbaliu, J., Portilla, J., Raes, D., Toorman, E., Smets, I., Vanderborght, J., Willems, P.,

VUB: Batelaan, O., Bauwens, W., Dams, J., De Smedt, F., Dujardin, J., Elisio, A., Elskens, M., Getachew, A., Nossent, J., Palmans, T., Quevauviller, P., Verbeirewn, B., Willems, P.


Verhoeven, R. (UGent)


Representatives 2nd year: Baynesagne, A.G. and Pacheco Molleda, P.L. Representatives 1st year: Pham Huy Hoang and Keupers, I.


Camps, G. (K.U.Leuven), De Coninck, H. (VUB)


Master in Physical Land Resources
* Objectives and contents of the programme
The general objective of the Master of Science programme in "Physical Land Resources" is to train experts who, in their future careers are expected to be able to answer questions as: what is (a) soil, and which factors and properties determine the soil suitability to be used for both agricultural and non-agricultural purposes and how is this established; how can the soil be improved to suit specific applications; how to address problems of degradation and desertification; how to manage the land and how to protect it; what is the impact of the soil factor in the dynamics of natural eco systems and how can this knowledge be applied in the area of nature conservation; what does the soil teach us about current environmental issues; how can the soil and water management be improved in the frame of sustainable agriculture; how can we manage our scarce water supplies. There are two majors: Physical Land Resources Major Soil Science (UGent) Physical Land Resources Major Land Resources Engineering (VUB) The objective of the major "Soil Science" is to train researchers, policymakers and academic staff who are specialists in compiling an inventory and putting forward a detailed character profile of the land potential, with a emphasis on soils, and in the study of the evolution of soils under natural and/or human-impacted conditions. Amongst other things, this fundamental knowledge is required to enable a morally responsible modification of existing technologies or the development of new technologies, geared to the singularity of specific development areas. In addition, this training programme is intended to cater to the necessary background expertise which is to enable graduates to contribute to the sustainable use and integrated management of land and water and the optimization of various forms of land use (and of their physical, ecological and social properties) with a view to long-term perspectives. In a concrete sense, this explains the need for university-trained, poly-technical executives with due people management skills who are capable of


plotting the land, using field survey, map and laboratory data, including satellite and remote sensing information, and/or to make an assessment on the basis of these and other (ecological) data, as part of assignments or projects in connection with outlining land use, land development and land planning, measures for soil conservation, and such like. The major "Land Resources Engineering" is designed to train scientific researchers and executive staff in non-agricultural applications of land, as geotechnical aspects (including the use of land as construction and foundation material and the stability of taluses and excavations), the role of soil and groundwater in water resources management and water supplies, and of land management in relation to other environmental and land use aspects (including erosion, sediment transport, coastal development and coastal protection, etc.).

* Selection of option and registration

The post-graduate programme in Physical Land Resources is organized jointly by the University of Gent and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, but the registration is in Gent, where all lectures and examinations of the first year will take place. For the second year the students remain in Gent for the option Soil Science or move to the Vrije Universiteit Brussel for the option Land Resources Engineering. The Master of Science programme is open to holders of a degree in exact or applied sciences equivalent to at least 3 years of University studies (e.g. BSc. in geology, geography, chemistry, botany, biology, agriculture, environmental sciences, civil engineering, etc.) with sufficient background in chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Holders of a specialized degree in physical land resources (e.g. Master of Science in Soil Science or Engineering Geology) can be admitted directly to the second year of the Master of Science programme.

Vrije Universiteit Brussel Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering Pleinlaan 2 B-1050 Brussels, Belgium Tel. +32-2-629.30.21 Fax +32-2-629.30.22 E-mail: Gent University International Centre for Physical Land Resources Krijgslaan 281/S8/WE1 B-9000 Gent, Belgium Tel. +32-9-264.46.18 Fax +32-9-264.49.91 E-mail:


* Study programme
First Year
A. Basic Courses
Theory * Pedology * Applied Statistics * Meteorology and Climatology * Soil Chemistry * Soil Physics * Soil Mineralogy * Land Information Systems * Soil Prospection and Classification * Seminars 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h training 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h credits 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

B. Major Courses
theory Option 1: Soil Science * Geomorphology * Plant-Water Relations in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum * Soil Genesis Option 2: Land Resources Engineering * Geomechanics * Environmental Geology * Applied Geophysics 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 30h 5 5 5 30h 30h 30h 30h 5 5 30h 30h 5 training credits

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Second Year
The student has to follow 6 courses from one of the two option packages offered to obtain a total of 30 credits. The remaining 30 credits are allocated for the MSc dissertation. All courses consist of 30h of theory, 30h of training and 5 credits. Option 1: Soil Science 6 courses, of which 4 major and 2 selective MAJOR COURSES * Soil Fertility * Soil Degradation * Land Evaluation * Soil-Water Management ELECTIVE COURSES * Remote Sensing * Properties and Management of Soils in the Tropics * Quality of Groundwater Resources Irrigation and Drainage * Soil Erosion Processes and Control * One course selected from other MSc programmes Option 2: Land Resources Engineering * Earth Observation Techniques * Soil Mechanics and Soil Stabilisation Techniques * Hydrogeology * Applied Geomorphology * Applied Geochemistry * Geological Aspects of Geotechnical Engineering

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IUPWARE MSc Theses Academic Year 2007-2008
* Theses promoted by VUB ALADENOLA Olanike Olowoiya
Impact of Climate Change on Water Supply in Nigeria

Promotor: P. Quevauviller

Water scarcity is a driver of many environmental, social and health issues and Nigeria is faced with inter and intra annual scarcity despite its abundant water resources potentials. The major factors affecting water supply were identified, the role of science and politics, policies and institutional framework in managing climate change impact on water resources was examined and possible adaptation measures were also determined by administering a questionnaire to scientists, government representatives, water managers and other relevant stakeholders. 77.5% of the questionnaires were returned and analysed. Out of these, 58%, 19.4% and 16% of the respondents showed that increased population and urbanization, ageing infrastructure and climate variability and climate change respectively were the major factors affecting water supply respectively. The contribution of scientists to managing climate change impact on water resources was rated to be good despite being handicapped by inadequate hydro meteorological data, funds and equipment. Water issues have been highly politicized and politics is found to play a negative role. Findings showed that existing water management structure lacks the capacity to manage climate change impact on water resources. Finally six suitable adaptation measures were identified.


Water Interaction, a FEMME Approach Development of Analytical and Numerical Solutions for Groundwater-Surface

Promotor: O. Batelaan

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Groundwater-surface water interaction needs to be evaluated in order to optimize water management. Surface water commonly is hydraulically connected to groundwater, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure and commonly have been ignored in water-management considerations and policies. The hydraulics of groundwater interaction with adjoining streams, canals, and drains is an important aspect of many hydrogeologic systems. In recent years, additional surface water modules have been added to the commonly modular groundwater flow model MODFLOW to study the hydraulic interaction of stream-aquifer systems. In this study, numerical and analytical solutions have been compared to evaluate the hydraulic interaction of stream-aquifer systems. They are implemented by using FEMME (Flexible Environment for Mathematically Modelling the Environment), because in FEMME there are many facilities for the implementation and coupling a groundwater model to a hydrodynamic surface water model. The analytical solutions from Edelman (1947) and Lockington (1997) for unconfined aquifers and from Bruggeman (1999) for confined aquifers to calculate the groundwater heads and discharges were studied and implemented in the Femme environment. The numerical solutions used in this study are mathematical solutions of the transient flow equation. The solutions are based on the explicit finite difference approximation of transient one-dimensional flow equation in a saturated, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer (the hydraulic conductivity of aquifer is essentially the same in all directions). The aquifer is either confined or unconfined. The effects of a 0.5-m sudden rise in the water level at the downstream of the Aariver (Antwerpen, Belgium) in 24 hours are studied for the cases of the numerical and analytical solutions. To validate the implementations of the analytical solutions in FEMME, the Excel Microsoft calculation was used as well. A two-dimensional groundwater model for an unconfined aquifer was developed in FEMME under STRIVE -package (STReam RIVer Ecosystem model), and coupled with an available one-dimensional hydrodynamic model in FEMME. This model was applied on a 1-km long reach of the Aa-river. The groundwater model developed in FEMME was run for two cases depending on the type of the river boundary conditions and the type of the simulation (steady-state and transient). The MODFLOW was run for these cases as well, in order to validate the implementation in FEMME. The results of the analytical solutions for confined and unconfined aquifers showed that the FEMME implementation compared most favorably with the Excel results. The results of onedimensional numerical solutions were in a good agreement with the implemented

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analytical solutions. The mean squared error (RMSE) of Edelman solution and numerical solutions for the calculation of discharges and heads was 0.1 (m2/day) and 0.0075 m respectively at the first 1.5 hours. For the Lockington solution and numerical solutions for the calculation of groundwater heads in the aquifer, RMSE was 0.0048 m. The RMSE of Bruggeman and numerical solutions for the calculation of the groundwater heads was 0.0056 m. The effects of a 0.5 m sudden rise in the river stage disappeared at a distance of 90 m from the river-aquifer boundary. The results of the two-dimensional groundwater model developed in FEMME showed that there is a good agreement with MODFLOW application with a correlation of 0.998 and the root mean square error is 0.0028 m. The error water balance of the model area was 0.05% and 0.04% for steady-state and transient simulations respectively. Finally, the facilities of FEMME were tested for studying the interaction between confined or unconfined aquifers and streams in one or two-dimensions. The facilities can be used to understand the procedures of groundwater-surface water interaction and to couple the groundwater model with any modules developed in FEMME.

HAREDASHT Sara Amirpour

Estimating Soil Moisture and Evaporative Fraction with the Triangle Method for Doode Bembe Wetland in Belgium: an Application of AHS Data

Promotor: O. Batelaan

This study applies a triangle method to estimate soil moisture and evaporative fraction from AHS (airborne hyper spectral scanner) data set from Deede Bemde natural reserve, Belgium, on the 18th of June 2005.This method provides a third order polynomial function with cross products of scaled surface radiant temperature (T*) and fractional vegetation cover (Fr) for calculating soil moisture (Mo) and evaporative fraction (Fr). The triangle method is based on the interpretation of normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) and surface radiant temperature (T) scatter plot. On the presents of sufficient large number of pixels and spatially variable vegetation cover and soil moisture, the shapes of the pixels envelop will resemble the triangle. The elements of triangle compromise the physical limitations: the Warm edge of the triangle stands for the points with zero soil moisture, the cold edge represents the MO = 1. NDVIs and NDVI0 respectively stands for the full (100%) vegetation cover and bare soils.

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Scaling surface radiant temperature between Tmin (the temperature pertaining to a dense clump of vegetation in well-watered soil) and Tmax (the temperature of dry, bare soil represents by the highest temperatures in the image), makes the coordinates of the triangle not to depend on ambient conditions. Scaling the NDVI values to fractional vegetation cover decreases the sensitivity of the model to atmospheric correction. Fractional vegetation cover is the key element in determining surface fluxes over partial vegetation cover. The triangle model allows the pixels distribution from the image to fix a boundary condition for SVAT (soil, vegetation, atmosphere, transfer) model, therefore, largely bypassing the need for ancillary atmospheric and surface data. Changing fractional vegetation cover (Fr) and soil moisture (MO) for all ranges and importing the surface radiant temperature and other surface fluxes from the model simulation at the time that aircraft or satellite pass, gives us the opportunity to calculate the MO and EF values from the images.

A Multi-Model Approach to Uncertainty Estimation in Groundwater Modelling: Application to Walenbos Region, Belgium.

Promotor: O. Batelaan

One challenge faced in modelling of hydrological systems is uncertainty of predictions obtained. Uncertainty generally arises from lack of complete knowledge of the system, inconsistency of system properties and stresses, measurement and sampling errors, and disparity among sampling, simulation and actual scales of the system. In groundwater modelling, uncertainty has been attributed mainly to input parameters (lack of complete knowledge of system and its properties), model structure and future scenarios. This study sought to identify, quantify and address two sources of this uncertainty, namely model structure and scenario uncertainties for the Walenbos groundwater system region, in Belgium. A multi-model approach for uncertainty estimation was applied whereby the groundwater system was conceptualised using three alternative conceptual models and predictions made for three hydrological scenarios of dry, average and wet recharge conditions. Individual models were given weights, which represent the Following Bayesian Model Averaging estimated posterior model probabilities, representing the ability of each model to simulate the observed groundwater levels. (BMA) concept, a multi-model average of predictions was obtained from the

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alternative Likelihood

conceptual Bayesian



hydrological (MLBMA)

scenarios and


Maximum Likelihood




Uncertainty Estimation Bayesian Model Averaging (GLUE-BMA) methods of approximation. Predictive variance of different groundwater flow components was obtained. Results obtained showed there is not a single model that can sufficiently describe the groundwater system but an array of plausible representations, e.g., MLBMA favoured Model 3 while GLUE-BMA favoured Model 1 based on calculated posterior model probabilities. To avoid biased and over confident statistical predictions from a single model, a combination of representative models predictions gave a more realistic range of uncertainty for groundwater flow components of interest. Results showed that predictive variance due to model structure (values near 0% to 37%) and scenarios (80% to 99%) were significant to the modelling experience.

Characterization Parameters for Sediment Transport in Estuarine Environment

Promotors: F. De Smedt, M. Chen

This study presents a calculation of the characterization parameters for sediment transport in turbulent flow in the Scheldt estuary, located in the Netherlands and Belgium. The understanding of estuarine sediment transport processes is essential for engineering works, aquatic health and environmental management. In this thesis the field data from three study sites (Kruibeke, Zandvliet and Lippenbroek) located along the Scheldt estuary was analytically examined. The main objectives were to derive the characterization parameters for sediment transport in estuarine environment and to analyze their change during the tidal cycle. Zero plane displacements, shear velocities, bed shear stresses, Rouse numbers and bulk settling velocities were calculated for the three study locations. These parameters are important for sediment transport because they control the initiation, degree and rates of deposition and erosion. The majority of the velocity profiles showed a logarithmical distribution either for the whole velocity profile or near the bed. The shear velocities and bed shear stresses followed the changes in the current velocities, increasing in the middle of ebb and flood periods and decreasing close to the slack period. The changes in suspended sediment concentration were analyzed during the tidal cycle. It was shown that the strong bed shear stresses reaching 8 - 17 Pa enhanced resuspension

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of the top layer of the bottom sediments. The suspended sediment concentrations deviated from a straightforward correlation with the current velocities due to phenomena of scour lag and settling lag in the middle estuary. The calculated Rouse numbers were smaller than one indicating full suspension. The bulk settling velocity was found to be 1.8 3.1 mm/s, which is in agreement with other studies of suspended sediments in the Scheldt estuary.

MEKONNEN Balew Admas

Hydrological Modelling of the Nile Using SWAT

Promotor: W. Bauwens

In order to make any decision and future plan with the intention of enhancing water resources management; the hydrological variability across time and space, impact of landuse and climate change in the Nile have to be predictable. As a tool for decision making and scenario analysis in large area watershed like the Nile, semi-distributed hydrological models have proven to be very useful. One of these models is Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). In this study, the hydrological component of SWAT is applied for the Nile river basin (including: Blue Nile river, Atbara river, Main Nile river and part of the White Nile river). The model was set up using readily available input data which includes topographical, land cover, soil, climatic and stream flow data. Major irrigation water abstractions and reservoirs are implemented during model development. Multi-site calibration and validation was done for the different measuring stations in the Nile basin. Parameter adjustment was done based on the sensitivity analysis. It was carried out through a combined manual and autocalibration technique. Performance of the model was evaluated through multiobjective criteria. Results are presented to show model performances in the calibration and validation periods. The analysis of observed and estimated hydrographs showed that the rainfall data used in the Blue Nile river are not representative and more accurate rainfall data is required, which may produce better model fits and higher NSE values. Considering the satisfactory result of SWAT in this study and comprehensiveness of the model in land surface processes representation, the model is very promising for land and water management studies and is expected to give valuable information to land and water resources managers in the Nile.

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Morphological and Hydrodynamic Investigation on the Confluence of PadmaMeghna River and its Downstream Part up to Chandpur, Bangladesh

Promotors: W. Bauwens, J.J. Peters

In Bangladesh, river erosion is considered as one of the worst catastrophes to affect the country, almost on an annual basis, as it destroys productive land, livelihood and much needed infrastructures permanently. The Present study aims itq analysis on the confluence of the Padma and the Meghna river and its downstream river reach of the lower Meghna river. The vibrant Morphological and hydrodynamic natures of such two large rivers make this region one of the most unstable and erosion prone areas of the country, particularly at the left bank of the upper Meghna river around the Meghna Dhonagoda Irrigation Project (MDIP) and further downstream at the left bank of the lower Meghna river at Chandpur town and around Chandpur Irrigation Project (CIP). There has been a hypothetical argument among the experts from different disciplines and people of the country which states that due to this decreased conveyance of the river at Chandpur, exaggerated amounts of water during the high flood year cannot recede through this point as quickly as it should be. This phenomenon of confinement is widely known as Chandpur Constriction among expert level of the country. The present study, therefore, aims to examine the case of constriction at Chandpur and adjoining area. To do so, understanding the long-term morphological development of the region along with hydrodynamic and geological characteristics with a special focus on the river dynamics of the Padma-Meghna confluence is certainly required and this study therefore makes an attempt to investigate that.


Evaluation of Science-Policy Interfacing and its Impact on Water Policies

Promotor: P. Quevauviller

Despite enormous scientific, socio-economic and political progress made so far, sustainable development and ecological modernization has however not been achieved to an extent desirable. In many instances, lack of proper communication and clear coordination mechanisms have lead to research outputs not being used or simply not known by end-users, and research needs (identified by end-users) not

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being communicated to the scientific communities in a timely fashion. Employing a conceptual framework based on systems theory, insights from Shannon communication model and dynamic control theory this study endeavours to comprehensively address the communication and coordination problems in the staggeringly complex environmental science policy process. A closed loop codingdecoding control (feedforward-feedback) scheme is devised, to serve as a regulatory framework for an operational science policy interface, to enhance future prospects and possibilities towards sustainable development and ecological modernization in water resources.

Identification of the Hydraulic Behaviour of the Sewer Systems of Beyseghem and Marly (Brussels) Using SWMM

Promotor: W. Bauwens

Beyseghem and Marly sewer network has been experiencing flooding lately and on the fourteenth of June 2007 they experienced their worst flooding ever. The purpose of this thesis was to assess the hydraulic behaviour of the sewer network using sixteen different scenarios. These scenarios involved using design storms with different return period and also changes of landuse that will be expected in the future. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) was used to investigate the hydraulic behaviour of the sewer network. Areas where flooding would occur for a particular design storm were obtained and the flood and surcharged maps were produced. The produced results allow the designer and the management to see bottlenecks in the area and also areas that will be flooded for a particular design storm for now and also in the near future. The city administrators can also use this model to test their proposed options of upgrading and rehabilitation of the drainage system. The Marly sewer system will be resilient to flooding for a 50 years design storm and with the whole area fully developed. Flooding will start occuring in the Beyseghem sewer system for design storm with return period of 10 years. Anticipated future changes resulting from urbanisation and design storms with higher return periods suggest that flooding will become more serious over time.

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ZUZANI Petros Nandolo

Impact of Climate Change on the Wetlands of Kleine Nete Catchment, Belgium

Promotor: O. Batelaan

Global climate is changing and will continue to do so in the future. How it will change mainly depends on the global temperature rise as well as on the changes in air circulation patterns and related changes in the wind. These changes are expected to bring about changes in hydrologic conditions of catchment areas. Based on this background, the impact of climate change on the wetlands of Kleine Nete catchment, Belgium, covering an area of about 581 km, was modelled using the Moderate (G), Moderate with air circulation (G+), Warm (W) and Warm with air circulation (W+) climate scenarios developed by the Royal Meteorological Institute of Netherlands (KNMI). Using these scenarios, climatic variables of precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and temperature for the year 2050 were generated. The WetSpa model, using the generated future climatic variables as input, was used to model groundwater recharge, actual evapotranspiration and surface runoff. The distributed groundwater recharge obtained from WetSpa was used in the MODFLOW2000 model to model groundwater levels and associated discharge areas. Wetter winters and drier summers are predicted for the G+ and W+ scenarios whereas the G and W scenarios predict wetter seasons throughout the year. Moderate increase in monthly average groundwater levels for Olens Broek wetland are predicted for the W and G scenarios in all months; with the maximum increase of 66 mm predicted for the W scenario in December and with very little seasonal variability. For the W+ and G+ scenarios, monthly average groundwater levels will increase in winter and spring and decrease in summer and autumn. The maximum decrease will be 33 mm observed for the W+ in November and maximum increase will be 17 mm observed for the same W+ scenario in March indicating a groundwater level fluctuation of up to 50 mm between March and November. These scenarios will therefore be characterized by reasonably high seasonal variability in groundwater levels. Model results also indicate that the current discharge area (0.8 km) of the Olens Broek wetland will increase by 0.013 km (1.6%) and 0.003 km (0.3%) for the W and G scenarios respectively. Predicted groundwater fluctuations will most likely impact on the distribution and species richness of phreatophytes, since they are strongly influenced by fine-scale variations in groundwater levels.

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* Theses promoted by K.U.Leuevn ALCN MAMANI Claudia Luisa

Determination of Levels of Water Stress Affecting Crop Development of Quinoa for the Water Productivity Model AquaCrop

Promotor: D. Raes

Conceptual Flood Modelling for the Marke River

Promotor: P. Willems

DE ROO Sieglien
Interactions Between Urban Drainage and River Hydrology in the Grote Nete Basin

Promotor: P. Willems


Real Time Control of Flood Reservoirs

Promotor: P. Willems

JUMLA Francis Gaston

Quantification of Root Dynamics of Barley Using the Minirhizotron Method

Promotor: J. Vanderborght

KAMARA Abrassac
Assessment of Groundnut Productivity in the Newton Agro-ecology (Sierra Leone) with the FAO-AquaCrop Water Productivity Model

Promotor: D. Raes

KARKI Nawa Raj

Investigation of Possibilities to Reduce the Sediment Content at an Irrigation Intake Along the Narayani River (Nepal)

Promotor: E. A. Toorman

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LOGAH Frederick
Coupling North Sea and Schelde River Hydrodynamics

Promotors: J. Monbaliu, E. Toorman

MHANNA Muamaraldin Ghassan

Rainwater Harvesting for recharging Groundwater

Promotor: G. Wyseure

MILLE Sara Girma

Economical Flood Damage Analysis for Demer Basin

Promotor: P. Willems

ORDEZ Luis Pineda

Floodplain Modelling for the Grote Nete River Basin

Promotor: P. Willems

REGMI Pujan Raj

Tradeoffs Integrated in Different Types of Remote Sensing Data for Sediment Classification of Intertidal Flats

Promotors: J. Monbaliu, A. Vervoort

Water Quality Modelling and Low Flow Analysis for the River Dender Basin, Belgium

Promotor: P. Willems

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PHYLARES MSc Theses Academic Year 2007-2008

Assessment of Potential Wetland Decline in Western Cape (South Africa) by Classification of Landsat TM and ETM Multispectral Images

Promotor: O. Batelaan

Wetlands in South Africa significantly determine the quality of life of people as well as animals and plants. They perform various important economical, social and environmental roles; however, they are threatened by human activities, socioeconomic development and climate change. This study assesses the status and potential decline of wetlands in Western Cape by means of optical remote sensing. 7 multispectral Landsat TM and ETM+ images and GIS supported software (Idrisi 32 Release Two) were used to successfully classify, delineate and determine wetlands in the region (6916.323 km of land). Three supervised classification methods (Maximum likelihood, Minimized distance-to-means and Fisher) were used and tested for their accuracy. The method with the highest accuracy was used as a basis for all further analyses. The classified images were analyzed for the following features: number and size of wetlands, occurrence of wetlands, amount of permanent and temporary wetlands, and the distances between wetlands. The results showed that the Maxlike method classified wetlands most accurately (overall accuracies between 99.8% and 99.9%). The number of wetlands varied within years and seasons and showed to increase: during winter 4136 wetlands (June 2002) and 1819 wetlands (October 1990), and in summer; 504 wetlands (January 1987) and 878 wetlands (February 2001). The size of wetlands in this region ranged from 0.081 ha to more than 20 ha. Most small wetlands were detected once in all images, few wetlands appeared in all images (a period of 19 years). Furthermore, 1421 temporary wetlands and 778 permanent wetlands were observed in the area. The mean distance between wetlands varied from summer to winter: longer distances were observed in summer and shorter in winter. Moreover, an outline of the procedures and methods to classify open water bodies (wetlands) using multispectral image data was developed. It was concluded that remote sensing techniques are a useful tool in characterizing wetlands and that they should be

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integrated in the study of wetlands. The Maximum likelihood classification method is furthermore very suitable for classification of wetlands using multispectral optical imagery. The potential decline of wetlands in Western Cape should be further investigated using lower resolution images and more consistent (in term of acquisition time) image series. The obtained results can be incorporated in further studies and in implementation of conservation measures.

GEBRESLASSIE Tesfahunegn Abera

Landslide Risk Assessment with the Help of GIS and Remote Sensing in and around Hagere Selam

Promotors: F. De Smedt, J. Moeyersons (Royal Museum for Central Africa)

In this research, landslide risk assessment has been analysed with help of Arcview 3.2, ArcGIS 9.2 MapInfo 7.8 and surfer 8. Landslide is a common natural hazard that usually occurs in mountainous areas. Landslide risk assessment is important to take quick and safe mitigation measures and make strategic planning for the future. The objective of this thesis is a landslide risk assessment map at scale (1:50,000). The model is applied for the Hagere Selam province Region of Tigray, Northern part of Ethiopia, covering approximately 490 km2. During this research the maps for landslide risk assessment for three areas have been produced. I.e. three steady state condition: assuming completely dry condition, half saturated condition and fully saturated condition. In addition to this inventory of the landslide map was prepared by interpreting aerial photographs. The methodology delineates areas most prone to shallow land sliding in function of topography and soil types. It has been found that 0.54% of the area unstable, 2.31% of the area quasi stable, 4.33% of the area moderately stable and 92.82% of the area stable for completely dry condition. For the half saturated condition: 4.59% of the area unstable, 4.94% of the area quasi stable, 5.56% of the area moderately stable and 84.90% of the area stable. And for the fully saturated condition: 25.49% of the area unstable, 5.95% of the area quasi stable, and 5.11% of the area moderately stable and 63.45% of the area stable.

Soil Mixing: A Study on 'Brusselian Sand' Mixed with Slag Cement Binder

Promotor: J. Wastiels

This thesis gives an overview of The Soil Mix Technology, as one of the most

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striking renewals today in the field of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental ground improvement. Majority of the thesis incorporates the laboratory work which focuses on two important aspects Effect of Binder dosage in the strength of soil mixed columns, and the Effect of Curing time in the strength of soil mixed columns. It takes into account the effect of total water in the strength gain parameter and also studies the workability parameter. The work thus aims to be a part of the lesson or as a part of the technical information note capable of being guiding the contractors in Belgium during the construction work and aims to be useful for all those interested in this field.

Regional Landslide Susceptibility Mapping Using GIS for Thua Thien Hue Area, Vietnam

Promotor: F. De Smedt

Thua Thien Hue is a middle province of Vietnam, where landslides occur frequently that affects human life and social-economic developing plans. To gain a better understanding of landslide susceptibility spatial distribution in the study area, three approaches of probabilistic, certainty factor and slope stability models are applied. These are used 198 observed landslides and 33 causative factors that are transferred and prepared in GIS formats to produce maps of landslide susceptibility zonation in regional scales. Based on consideration of these three maps, the map obtains from the CF approach was chosen as the final one. As a result, recommendations about landslide risk in the study area are formulated for policy makers and local inhabitants.



Promotor: F. De Smedt

Two small sub-catchments of Lai Chu province in the north-western part of Vietnam are under study due to increasing landslide activity. In the first attempt, landsliding factors are combined, assessed and ranked with statistical methods;

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weathering processes, geomorphological complexes, fault density, distance to road, rainfall patterns and slope gradients are determined as most causative factors among others as topographical elevation, geology, distance to rivers, and vegetation. In the second stage, a physically based model is implemented; this model focuses on a deep analysis of extreme rainfall features (i.e. intensity and storm duration) for the determination of the slope stability. Based on 50 monitored shallow landslides in 2006, the obtained susceptibility map with the statistical weighting method is selected as the most accurate, since it correctly predicted 86% of the landslides. Furthermore, results from the physically based model are also considerable (48% accuracy) and more advantageous for estimating stability safety factors in a long-term variation of hydrologic conditions.

WAKE Jemaneh Shibru

Groundwater - Surface water interaction modelling using visual MODFLOW and GIS

Promotor: F. De Smedt

Ground water and surface water are hydraulically interconnected, but the interactions are difficult to observe and measure. In many situations, surface-water bodies gain water and solutes from ground-water systems and in others the surface-water body is a source of ground-water recharge and causes changes in ground-water quality. As a result, withdrawal of water from streams can deplete ground water or conversely, pumping of ground water can deplete water in streams, lakes, or wetlands. Pollution of surface water can cause degradation of groundwater quality and conversely pollution of ground water can degrade surface water. Thus, effective land and water management requires a clear understanding of the linkages between ground water and surface water as it applies to any given hydrologic setting. In this work, surface water and groundwater interaction model was developed for a study area located in the Nete Catchment, Belgium

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PhD Theses 2008

GITHUI Faith Wairimu
Assessing the Impacts of Environmental Change on the Hydrology of the Nzoia Catchment, in the Lake Victoria Basin

Promotors: W. Bauwens, F. Mutua

The main objective of this study was to assess the past and potential future environmental changes, and their impact on the hydrology of the Nzoia catchment. More specifically, the study has analyzed the historical climatic (1962-2004) and land cover changes (1973-2001) that have taken place in the Nzoia River catchment in Kenya, and the effect these have had on the hydrology of the catchment. It has also made use of land cover and climate change scenarios for the future to determine the potential effects these will have on the catchment. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to investigate the impact of land cover and climatic change on streamflow of the study area. The model was set up using readily available spatial and temporal data, and calibrated against measured daily discharge. The land cover changes within the watershed were examined through classification of satellite images and a land cover change model generated the land cover change scenarios for the year 2020. Climate change scenarios were obtained from general circulation models (GCMs) for the period 2010-2039 (i.e. 2020s) and 2040-2069 (i.e. 2050s). The climate change IPCC SRES scenarios A2 and B2 were selected. To this purpose, rainfall and temperature scenarios based on the GCMs CCSR, CSIRO, ECHAM4, GFDL and HADCM3 were superimposed on the calibrated SWAT model. Trend analysis of rainfall shows that, in general, the annual rainfall has increased by about 2.3 mm/year between 1962 and 2004. Although this is not statistically significant, analysis of monthly rainfall has shown that out of a total of 14 stations, four have shown significant trends at 5% significance level. An important observation is that out of 10 rainfall stations that show an increasing trend, eight are found in the highland areas. The lower catchment receives much less rainfall and some stations exhibit decreasing rainfall trends. The variation of trends on a monthly basis, show that the months May to September and December have shown decreasing amounts although not statistically significant. Temperature shows increasing trends, though not statistically significant, with higher increases in the

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lowlands (0.79C) than in the highlands (0.21C) between 1978 and 2003. Land cover change analysis has shown that the agricultural area has increased from about 39.6 to 64.3% between 1973 and 2001, while forest area has decreased from 12.3 to 7.0%. Results from the calibrated model showed that generally, runoff was highest from agricultural lands, followed by shrubland, grasslands and forest. Considering the land cover changes between the two time periods, 1970-1975 and 1980-1985, the study has shown that without climate change, land cover changes would account for a difference in runoff of about 55-68%. On the other hand, change in climate without land cover change accounted for a difference in runoff of about 30-41%. This shows that land cover changes have resulted in greater runoff changes than changes in climate. From the GCM future climate change scenarios, scenarios A2 and B2 indicate increased amounts of annual rainfall with variations on a monthly basis. All - but one - GCMs show consistency in the monthly rainfall amounts, indicating that the seasonal rainfall pattern will be maintained, but with higher amounts in the 2050s than in the 2020s. The monthly changes in rainfall range from -16 to +49%, while mean annual rainfall changes range between 2.4-23.2%. Temperature will increase in this region, with the 2050s experiencing much higher increases than the 2020s, with a monthly temperature change range of 0-1.7oC. Analysis of the impact of rainfall and temperature changes on surface runoff showed the highest and least increases in annual runoff by the ECHAM4 and CCSR models respectively. The monthly peak runoff would be observed in the months of April, May and November. The range of change in mean annual rainfall of 2.4-23.2% corresponded to a change in streamflow of about 6-115%. Monthly changes are much more variable and it follows that these figures would be much larger for monthly changes. The analysis has revealed important linear relationships between rainfall and runoff for certain months. These relationships have been derived from climate change scenarios and could be extrapolated to estimate amounts of streamflow under various scenarios of change in rainfall. Streamflow response was not sensitive to changes in temperature for the scenarios considered and no significant relationships were derived. According to the future climate change scenarios, with all the other variables held constant e.g. land cover, population growth etc., a significant increase in streamflow may be expected in the coming decades as a consequence of increased rainfall amounts. Thus, to mitigate possible frequent flooding which has been a major problem in this region, there is need to reverse trends in land degradation. In

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addition, water harvesting of excess water could alleviate drought problems that may be experienced with a changing climate.

NGUYEN Thanh Long

Landslide Susceptibility Mapping of the Mountainous Area in a Luoi District, Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam

Promotor: F. De Smedt

A Luoi is a Vietnamese-Laotian border district situated in the Western part of Thua Thien Hue province, Vietnam. Landslides occur frequently in the area and seriously affect local living conditions. Therefore, spatial analysis of landslide susceptibility in the mountainous regions of the A Luoi is very important. Hence, this study focuses on a particular mountainous region of about 262.7 km2 in the A Luoi district. In the study area, recently 181 landslides have been observed. In order to explain these landslides, various factors, i.e. slope, land-use, weathering, geomorphology, geology, soil, elevation, distance from streams or rivers, long-term annual total precipitation, and fault density, were selected and prepared in GIS for landslide susceptibility mapping. Four types of approaches for landslide susceptibility mapping are applied: landslide inventory analysis, heuristic methods, statistical analysis, and process-based or deterministic modeling. In each approach, several methods are applied, i.e. indexbased and analytical hierarchical process in the heuristic approach, statistical index, certainty factor, conditional analysis, weight of evidence modeling, landslide susceptibility analysis, probability, multiple linear regression and logistic regression method in the statistical analysis approach, and slope safety factor modeling based on static or dynamic hydrological condition in the deterministic approach. The goal is to learn about the difficulties to apply a certain technique and to select the best technique for application in central Vietnam. In total ten different methods are tested to determine the landslide susceptibility in the study area. The results are discussed and compared in order to evaluate the agreement or disagreement between these methods. The analysis and comparison of these results show that: There are large differences of results between the three approaches: heuristic, statistical, and deterministic analyses. The certainty factor is the best method for landslide susceptibility mapping in the study area because it can indicate the zones that are susceptible to landsliding most accurately. Hence, the map based on the certainty factor

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method is selected as the final result of this study. The final landslide susceptibility map of the study area indicates that the low, moderate, high and very high landslide susceptibility classes are respectively covering 107.5 km2 (40.9%), 48.5 km2 (18.5%), 44.5 km2 (16.9%), and 62.1 km2 (23.6%) of the study area. The detected landslide areas in the low, moderate, high and very high landslide susceptibility classes are respectively 0.47 km2 (6.7%), 0.93 km2 (13.3%), 1.88 km2 (26.7%), and 3.75 km2 (53.3%). The high and very high landslide susceptibility zones are predominant characterized by: Slope angles higher than 15, and predominantly higher than 25. Land-use features are mostly afforested land. Geological features are mainly Dai Loc complex or the Lower A Vuong formation. Geomorphological units Quaternary-Neogene slow gravity slopes, and Quaternary-Neogene erosional-denudational slopes, are the most prominent. Weathering features are mostly Sialfelite or Sialite. Fault density is larger than 1500 m/km2.

On the basis of these results, recommendations about landslide risk in the study area are formulated for administrators and local inhabitants.

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A fundamental study on exchange processes in river ecosystems
This FWO (Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek - Vlaanderen) financed project started in 2004, officially finished in the end of 2007, but was granted for continuation until end of 2009. It is a fundamental research project performed on a multidisciplinary basis and includes scientists from the Civil Engineering Department, Hydraulics Laboratory of the University of Ghent and the Department of Biology, Ecosystem Management Research Group (ECOBE) of the University of Antwerp. The latter works also as promoter of the project. The main aim of the research project is to investigate how the diverse physical and biological processes and their interactions determine the exchange of water, dissolved compounds and particulate matter in margins and inundation areas of water courses. These two transition systems are of high importance for the ecological functioning of river basins. The VUB-team investigates the interaction of the groundwater with the ecosystem, more particularly the exchange of water between the water course or inundation areas with the hyporheic zone. The introduction of innovative, but cost effective field investigation methods as nested piezometers placed in the riverbed and equipped with data loggers, the Temperature stick and seepage meters lead to a better perception of the diverse physical and biological processes and their temporal and spatial distribution on a local scale. Several of these processes like physical transport and chemical reactions of solutes occur simultaneously, thus the investigations should finally lead to the calculation of mass balances of the exchange terms between the different parts of the system. During the year 2008 the project was focused on further integration of the different sub modules and extending their application to other river systems and data, for example on the Zenne River in Belgium, the Biebrza River in Poland and the Olewiger Bach in Germany. The field work performed by the VUB focused on gathering continuous data sets of surface water and groundwater temperatures and heads continued at the Poederlee site of the Aa River in Flanders until June 2008. In March and June further data have been collected around Rogozynek in the upper basin of the Biebrza River in Poland. The modeling of the data with heat transport routines

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gives an overview over the magnitude and the variation of vertical groundwater flow in the hyporheic zone of the rivers. The exchange, comparison and analysis of data sets, measurement plans and model formulations between the partners as well as presenting and publishing the results of the project was an important issue in the last year of the project. The modeling but especially the coupling of the different ecological, ground- and surface water processes which have different spatial and temporal dimensions, is the main challenge in this field. GIS is used for data management, while FEMME (Soetaert et al., 2002) became a platform for the integration of the different models used in this project such as MODFLOW, DAFLOW, Delft3D, and WetSpa. This platform allows a 1D-transient state simulation of several of the mentioned processes in the river simultaneously. Beside the validation of our models, extension to other sites, especially with datasets from the Biebrza where a final measurement campaign in June 2009 is planned, the coupling of the surface water model with groundwater flow formulations is a further research point for the coming year. C. Anibas and O. Batelaan participated in the summit of FH-DGG (Fachsektion Hydrogeologie in der deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Geowissenschaften) in Goettingen, Germany, from 21- 25 May 2008.

C. Anibas and O. Batelaan

Application of Multicriteria Decision Making to Sewer Rehabilitation Projects Prioritization

Sewers need to be rehabilitated to keep their integrity structural, hydraulic and environmental at par with standards. Historically, the budgets for sewer systems rehabilitation are scarce and too limited to address the requirements. Thus, utility managers need to prioritize sewer rehabilitation projects. However, the decision on which sewer rehabilitation project to prioritize is far from being straightforward due to conflicting interest and priorities from different stakeholders administrators, politicians, engineers, society, etc. Rehabilitation programs of sewer systems need to consider several perspectives. In cases like this, multi-criteria decision methods offer an able support to utility managers in forming sound decisions. In setting a priority list for sewer rehabilitation, the utility manager needs to have complete and reliable information of the systems current state, clear objectives and a clear procedure for decision making. This research focuses on the latter concern

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by establishing a formalized method for decision making. The objective is to develop a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) tool as an aid to the decision making process in the prioritization of sewer pipes rehabilitation projects for the Brussels (Belgium) region. Towards this, an Excel-based tool was developed implementing the MCDM technique ORESTE. The prioritization of the projects is based on 16 criteria derived from the following perspectives: structural, hydraulic, environmental, coordination, financial, technical, social and administrative. The developed tool is currently under evaluation by our research partner VIVAQUA.

E.V. Ana, Jr., W. Bauwens, and Vivaqua

Biebrza Wetland Research

The Biebrza River is located within the Biebrza National Park and is according to the Ramsar Convention list one of the most important wetlands even on a worldwide scale. Situated in the north-eastern part of Poland, around 200 km from the capital Warsaw, the park covers about 60.000 ha including the 156km long stretch of the Biebrza River. The catchment of the Biebrza River is divided into three geomorphologic units called Basins (Okruszko et al. 1990): the Upper Biebrza basin, the Middle and the Lower Biebrza basin. The unique ecological value of the wetlands abundant in the Biebrza national park is, especially for European circumstances, the result of the extensive usage of the area in the last decades compared to other areas showing similar character. Large peat deposits and several yearly flood events occurring along large parts of the river stretch elaborate the importance of this national park. The value of the wetlands is threatened due to changing water management and agricultural practices. Pastures in the floodplain, for a long time quasi stable ecosystems because of traditional management practices show now degradation processes as the peat lands are not accessible with modern agricultural machinery. On the other side eutrophication is increasing caused by an increase of agricultural and other human induced activities outside of the river plain. Since several years a team of scientists from different institutions, the University of Antwerp, the University of Ghent, the Agricultural University of Warsaw (SGGW) and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel perform joint field campaigns to collect data sets of the Biebrza River which includes discharge measurements at different locations, topographic measurements of the floodplain by differential GPS, examination of plant and macro- invertebrate communities in the river and on the flood plains as

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well as several ground and surface water quality and quantity parameters. The VUB team, Okke Batelaan, Jef Dams, Boud Verbeiren and Christian Anibas, stayed in Poland from 14 until 21 June 2008 to take part in this campaign. Christian Anibas performed T-stick surveys already between 3 and 7 March which were continued in June to get spatial temporal distributed estimates of groundwatersurface water interaction. In June seepage meters piezometer nests in the riverbed were used to measure pressure heads and temperatures of the surface and groundwater continuously using dataloggers. The piezometers were also used for examining the hydraulic conductivity by performing slug tests. Finally the traditional logger management, the regular reading of dataloggers spread over the Upper catchment area was performed.

C. Anibas and O. Batelaan

Climate Change Induced Tidal Flat Morphological Change and Biological Adaptation
Coastal intertidal flats are situated at the boundary zone between ocean and land, and are sites of intense biological activity that is vital to the trophic levels of the estuarine ecosystem. The tidal flats along the Scheldt Estuary have their particular social-economic importance and interests to the regional coastal zone development and management. However, little is known about the susceptibility of these tidal flats to climate change, nor about the consequences of such to biological communities that are accommodated on and adapted to this zone. Reliable predictions of the physico-biological implications are required for environment management in order to sustain the ecological health of a tidal flat under changing climatic, sea level and anthropogenic pressures. This research is to understand and to project what physical related biological feedbacks and implications respond to spatial and temporal changes with the anticipated climate change. It focuses on relations between physical and biological processes at the surface sediments on tidal flats with emphasis on effects of biofilm on biodeposition, sediment resuspension, and sediment stabilization. The research will provide more complete knowledge of what physical stress may exert an impact on modifications of biota activities. And from an ecological viewpoint, in order to construct a better condition for their survival, the biological communities may significantly contribute to the stability of intertidal structure.

M. Chen

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Comparison of observed and estimated soil moisture through application of the Wetspa model
This PhD research is conducted within the framework of the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (DMIP2) of USA, more specifically the Baron Fork River at Eldon, a subcatchment in Oklahoma, USA. This subcatchment has an area of 795 km2. DMIP2 provides researchers with multiple opportunities to access different data sets to develop hydrologic models for prediction and forecasting in complex catchments. It has also appropriate sensors to measure soil moisture data in several locations, such as the ELDO2 catchment. Moisture in the upper soil layers plays an important role in the hydrological and energy transfers and is usually an important parameter in simulation models. The WetSpa model is able to simulate soil moisture at different time steps. However, this has not been evaluated yet using soil moisture observations. In this research, the WetSpa model will be calibrated and run for ELDO2 over the time period 1995-2006. The model will run in a fully distributed mode, with grid cell size of 100 m by 100 m. The output of the model is going to be adapted so that it gives simulated soil moisture time series at specific points. These simulated soil moisture data will be compared to the observations. Based on obtained results, the accuracy of the WetSpa model to simulate soil moisture can be evaluated, and consequently can be taken into account to improve the model.

M. Tavakoli and F. De Smedt

Constrained back projection: a direct inverse model for the identification of hydraulic conductivity fields in 3D groundwater flow
The determination of spatially distributed hydraulic conductivities is one of the main challenges in groundwater flow modeling. This work in collaboration with the Netherlands Institute of Applied Geoscience (TNO) presents a new 3D stream function based approach, Constrained back projection (CBP), for inverse modeling of 3D groundwater flow. CBP is a direct inversion method to determine hydraulic conductivities using hydraulic and geohydrologic data. The hydraulic and geohydrologic data consist of flux-head pairs at locations of the model boundaries and initial hydraulic conductivities, respectively. CBP is based on a constraining and

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back projection (constrained back projection) model runs. The constraining model run calculates the fluxes throughout the modeling area using flux boundary conditions and initial conductivities. The back projection run uses the calculated fluxes and the head boundary conditions to calculate the conductivity fields. The main advantage of CBP is that the back projection system is linear in the resistivities. In addition, CBP method satisfies the continuity equation exactly and it gives the initial conductivities if they cannot be determined by the back projection run. This way the resulting conductivities honor the measured flux-head pairs and the perceived conductivity fields. The method is demonstrated on several theoretical examples using both actual and noisy data.

G.A. Mohammed, W. Zijl, O. Batelaan and F. De Smedt

Coupling of a New In-Situ Measurement Technique with a New Modelling Approach for the Determination of the Estuaries
This research project is funded by Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (FWOVlaanderen) and led by VUB partnered with other three Flemish universities (K.U.Leuevn, UGent and UA) and two Flemish institutions, Flanders Hydraulics Research (WL) and Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). It is a four-year project involving field measurements with an innovative in-situ system, comparative laboratory experiments in a water tank and the development of a new modelling approach. Estuarine particles are largely flocculated and their size and density may vary significantly over time scales of minutes. Knowledge of flocculation and accurate insitu measurements of floc are essential for understanding particle aggregation mechanisms and the resulting settling velocity and the entire sediment transport process. One of the most crucial parameters, which remains an unresolved problem known to the hydraulic research domain, is the determination of in-situ settling velocity and related floc properties as well as particle-turbulence interactions. This research is aimed to develop a new and reliable system for the in-situ real-time measurement of particle movement along with simultaneous measurement of turbulence and size and shape of settling particles; to use the aforementioned new measurement system to investigate in-situ particle settling velocity and particleturbulence interaction on meso-scale in the laboratory experiments and on macro-

Effective Settling Velocity of Flocculating Sediments in

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scale in the Scheldt estuary; and to bridge the gap between the measurements and the simulation and prediction of flocculation by numerical models. This involves feed-back from the model to the interpretation of the measurements with the new system. Consequently the complementary nature of this project will lead to the characterisation of the relation between flow and particle-turbulence interactions, and to the development of a new modelling approach for the determination of the effective settling velocity of flocculating sediments in estuaries.

F. De Smedt, M. Chen and FWO partners

Development of a numerical simulator for the integrated modelling of surface water, considering water quality processes
The research focuses on the development and the calibration of a SWAT model for the river Nete in Belgium. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) is a hydrological model developed by the USDA (US Department of Agriculture) that can be used both for the study of water quantity and water quality. It is a physically based, semidistributed model that uses GIS-maps (DEM, soil, land use), precipitation and other meteorologic data as input data and where the modelled flows and the values of dissolved oxygen are some of the output results. A first topic that was taken into consideration are the restrictions of a semidistributed model. By using HRUs (Hydrological Response Units), where the exact location of a grid cell in a subcatchment is not considered in the computations, a part of the information is lost even before the modeling starts. With distributed models, like for example WETSPA, this problem does not arise and therefore, it could be advantageous to combine SWAT with a distributed model, in order to maintain the physical background. At the same time, one has to ensure, however, that the time needed for the calculations in the distributed version does not escalate, as in that case an important advantage of the semi-distributed model would get lost. In order to shed some light on the problem, a comparison of a distributed model (WETSPA) and a semi-distributed model (SWAT) was made for a watershed in Flanders, i.e. the watershed of the river Grote Laak. Further research will be done on sensitivity analysis, calibration and uncertainty analysis. The latest versions of SWAT contain a procedure for automatic sensitivity analysis and calibration of the models. These procedures however need further

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development and the uncertainty on the final output should be taken into account.

Jiri Nossent and W. Bauwens

Development of spatially distributed hydrological WetSpa modules for snowmelt, soil erosion, and sediment transport
The overall goal of this PhD research is to develop and apply new WetSpa modules for snowmelt and for erosion and sediment transport. The snowmelt module uses a physically based energy balance approach, and is applied and verified on three watersheds: (1) Latyan dam watershed (435 km2) in Iran, (2) Hornad river (4262 km2) in Slovakia, and (3) Margecany station (1133 km2), the upstream part of the Hornad river in Slovakia. Observed daily discharge is used for model calibration and verification. The model performance proves to be accurate in predicting snow accumulation and snowmelt floods. These results demonstrate that accurate snowmelt prediction based on a physically energy budget approach is possible with controlling parameters that do not need any calibration. Erosion is modeled using a dynamic and distributed simulation of soil detachment by raindrop impact and overland flow. Transport of sediment with overland flow is modeled using a dispersion/advection approach and first-order kinetics for settlement. The sediment load is computed as a mass discharge, defined as the product of the rate of runoff and the suspended sediment concentration in the flow. This module does not need any more data than for the WetSpa model, except sediment measurements for model calibration. Three study catchments are selected for testing the applicability of the erosion and sediment transport module: (1) Latyan dam watershed, (2) Hornad, and (3) Maarkebeek (50 km2) in Belgium. The applications of this module give good overall results for the suspended sediment concentration and yield. Therefore, the module can be used as an analytical tool to determine runoff and sediment yield in a river basin, and to verify possible strategies for future land management. The PhD will be defended in 2009.

H. Zeinivand and F. De Smedt

Low flow management in Flanders (Belgium)

This is a project in cooperation with the Flanders Hydraulics Research (FHR) Institute of the Flemish Government. The main goal is the evaluation of low flow scenarios.

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River water in Flanders is often distributed over extended canal systems in the lower western part of the Flemish Region. Also water is taken for industrial use and drinking water production. Hence, during dry periods it is often difficult to maintain sufficient flows and water levels. This study examines several conditions like reducing abstractions, changes in water management, and changing climatic conditions. These scenarios are evaluated using the MikeBasin water balance model. The results show that, despite some low water levels locally, all water users can still abstract their necessary amounts without need to changing the present water resources management practices. In dry periods low flow messages are published on a monthly basis to keep all stakeholders and water managers in Flanders informed about the situation, to announce the distribution of the water resources, and to describe and predict the coming meteorological, hydrological and geohydrological status in the Flemish river basins. Also advice is given to several ongoing water resources and engineering projects and to national and international committees, like the PA7 workgroup on water scarcity and floods of the International Scheldt Commission and the EU Expert Network on Water Scarcity and Drought.

S. Michielsen, F. De Smedt

Measuring and Modelling the Impact of Urban Dynamics on Hydrology

The department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering is participating in the MAMUD project. MAMUD is an acronym for Measuring and Modelling Urban Dynamics: Impact on Quality of Life and Hydrology. The MAMUD project is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office in the framework of the STEREO II programme. This research project is a cooperation between three Belgian universities: University of Ghent (Department of Geography), Universit de Liege (Unit de Gomatique) and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Department of Geography and Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering), further partners are the Flemish institute for technological research (Centre for Integrated Environmental Studies) and the Joint Research Centre of the European Union (Land Management and Natural Hazards Unit). Prof. F. Canters of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Geography is the promoter of the project. The MAMUD project covers a four year period (20072011). Its major goal is to investigate how earth observation can contribute to a better monitoring, modelling and understanding of urban dynamics, and its impacts

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on the urban and suburban environment. Our contribution to the project will focus on the impact of the urban growth on the runoff. To this end, detailed information on urban land cover, obtained from time series of remotely sensed data, as well as future land-use patterns, linked to alternative planning scenarios, will be used as input for spatially distributed runoff modelling. The rainfall-runoff WetSpa model will therefore be adapted in this research to make optimal use of the remotely sensed land-cover information. A case study is being developed for the River Tolka, situated in Ireland near the city of Dublin. Rapid urban growth in the Tolka basin has been the cause of recent flooding events of the River Tolka, causing immense damages in some highly populated area of the Dublin region. Calibration of the WetSpa model will be based on a data assimilation approach, making optimal use of information with respect to land cover and evapotranspiration, obtained from the available time series of remotely sensed data, including the in this project established time-series of maps of sub-pixel imperviousness. Land-use prediction methodologies will be developed by partners in the MAMUD project and tested on the Greater Dublin area. Based on the outcome of these land-use simulations, the future risk of flooding under extreme rainfall conditions, for different developments scenarios, will be assessed using an adapted version of the WetSpa model. B. Verbeiren and O. Batelaan

Remote Sensing of Sediment in Suspension in the Scheldt Estuary

The hydrological component is a critical part of our living environment. Therefore hydrological components in our landscape are being monitored on a wide range of scales. The standard measuring techniques for sediment in suspension involves taking in situ samples that have to be analyzed in the laboratory. Remote sensing offers the possibility to carry out these measurements in a way that is less time and cost consuming, producing measurements that cover the entire water body. Remote sensing of sediment in suspension is a relatively new measuring method; a lot of research still has to be carried out to discover the possibilities with remote sensing data. The purpose of this project is to determine the water quality of the Scheldt estuary, more specifically the concentration of sediment in suspension, using space born remote sensors. Specific research goals of the project are: 1. The development of a standard method to determine sediment in suspension in the Scheldt estuary using spectral data.

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2. Applying this method to medium resolution remote sensing data en evaluate the results. 3. The further development of the calibration and integration possibilities that remote sensing data can offer concerning sediment in suspension in the Scheldt estuary. 4. Exploring the extra possibilities that hyperspectral sensors offer for this field of research. During simultaneously planned field en remote sensing campaigns on different times in the year, the needed spectral and meteorological data will be provided to process and analyze the remote sensing images of the study area. In a preliminary study it will have to be determined which sensors should best be used for applications on the Scheldt. The results of this study will provide a good insight in the physical aspects of remote sensing and in the complex dynamics of erosion, transport en sedimentation processes in the Scheldt estuary. For this project, there will be cooperation with the FWO-project from Dr. Chen about the settling velocity of sediment in suspension in the Scheldt estuary (see elsewhere in this activity report). Also, there will be cooperation with VITO, more specifically with projects that deal with hyperspectral remote sensing of the Scheldt. T. Palmans and O. Batelaan

Environmental impacts of leachate on Groundwater Quality: Case study Deir El Balah Landfill in Gaza, Palestine
The Gaza Strip has an area of only 365 km2 and is very densely populated. Consequently it is very expensive and difficult to find suitable and available land on which to establish new sanitary landfills. The research will concentrate on the Deir el balah landfill, where about 220 tons of municipal solid wastes are discharged every day, generated by some 350,000 people. This sanitary landfill was designed and constructed in co-operation with the German Agency for Technical Cooperation. At the onset of the project in 1994 a number of uncontrolled open dumpsites existed in the area. Adopting a strategy of containment, the first step in improving this situation was to assess soil and groundwater conditions. Based on this information and other factors, one of the existing dumpsites was chosen as the most suitable site for a central landfill. Three

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municipal groundwater wells close to the landfill provide drinking water to the Deir el Balah inhabitants. Also wells are used for agricultural purposes. Hence, an assessment is urgently needed to study the effect of pollution and contaminant transport for this landfill. The main objective of this research is to thoroughly study the landfill leachate, which consists of a complex mixture of organic in inorganic substances and contaminates the groundwater in the surrounding area. Different tools will be used, as Visual MODFLOW, MODPATH, MT3DMS, RT3D and HELP (Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance), to estimate pollutant transport and provide insight in the environmental impact. The research outline is planned as follows: Analysis of the dumping sites leachate quality to identify the organic and inorganic constituents and their possible impact on the soil and groundwater quality. Establish a framework for data collection, data screening and analysis, and database management for the specified case study. Construct a 3D groundwater flow model that can be utilized for simulation and prediction of contaminant transport through the unsaturated zone as well as the saturated zone. Assess the environmental impacts of the landfill and leachate on the aquifer water quality. Design of an environmental management plan for the mitigation of the expected impacts and monitoring of the aquifer water quality. Review and updating of the existing policies and regulations regarding landfill control and monitoring.

M. El Baba and F. De Smedt

Environmental Resources Sustainability Indicators: An Integrated Assessment Model for Tanzania.

The research aims to investigate and establish quantitative indicators for sustainable environmental resources supporting various livelihoods activities in Tanzania. Water and forest resources have been experiencing intensive and continued pressure demand from a range of direct and indirect socio-economic driving forces. There are increased deforestation, increased soil erosion, unstable microclimate, increased nutrient loss, habitat destruction, pollution and the general decline in the productivity of water and forests resources resulting to increased conflicts among

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various water and forests resources users or stakeholders. Water resources demand for domestic use, agriculture, livestock, industries, fisheries and hydroelectric generation has increased whereas, the quality and amount of water resources declines. The present declining water flow situation has resulted to increased water use conflicts existing today. The respective policy and institutional frameworks have not been adequate to address the multiplicity of the water and forests management problems. In this thesis, the attempt is to develop an integrated assessment model for sustainability indicators to be used as a decision support system and communication tool to policy makers, managers and public for the effective use and conservation of natural resources and as an essential to achieve the MDGs and Poverty Eradication policies goals in the country. The following are the specific objectives of the study: 1. to carry out a socio economic assessment to identify and establish households livelihood activities supported by water and forest resources in the Sigi catchment; 2. to establish the level of current and future demand for water and forest resources in the study area; 3. to perform a hydrological analysis of water at the catchment by using the Soil and Water Allocation Tool (SWAT model) to establish the quantitative effect of livelihood activities on the state of water in the study area; 4. to perform the land use and land cover change analysis by processing the satellite images and establish and classify types of land uses land covers in the catchment and also determine the trend, location and magnitude of land use land cover change. This is achieved by implementing the Integrated Land and Water Information System (ILWIS) and the Conversion of Land Use and its Effect (CLUE-s) Model; 5. to perform an economic analysis to establish the total economic value of the water and forests resources harvested in Sigi catchment. The study estimates the monetary and non-monetary value of these flows; 6. establish, define and classify sustainability indicators for water use in the study area; 7. develop an integrated model for sustainable water and forest resource uses. Current work: socio economic data collection, processing weather data and satellite image processing for SWAT and CLUE-s Model building.

A.S. Hepelwa, W. Bauwens and K. Kulindwa

FLAFLOM, Flash flood forecasting in Wadi Watier, Sinai, Egypt

The research is carried out in the framework of a EU Life project

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(Life06/TCY/ET/00232) that aims at setting up a flash flood forecasting system for Wadi Watier. The role of the VUB in the project consists of developing the rainfallrunoff model. The statistical analyses of the rainfall data for the region shows that the flash floods are caused by high intensity storms are limited in areal extent. As data on the latter are lacking, further analyses will be performed, using the satellite images and remote-sensing techniques. A rainfall-runoff model has been constructed using Matlab-Simulink. The distributed model considers wetting losses, depression storage and infiltration losses for the pervious and the impervious fractions within each sub-catchment. A linear reservoir model and a storage and outflow model take care of the transport processes in the subbasins and in the river network, respectively. In the wadi, transmission losses are considered too. A validation on the (scarce) available data shows that model is functioning well. The next steps of the research will include, besides the pre-mentioned rainfall analysis, a sensitivity analysis for the model parameters and an assessment of the model uncertainty.

A. Abdelkhalek and W. Bauwens

Flux-based Risk Assessment of the Impact of

Contaminants on Water Resources and Ecosytems

This project is funded by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (BELSPO) and is one of the research programs of Science for a Sustainable Development (SSD). In the first part of the project the Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering had to describe the state of the water-soil-subsoil-sediment system in order to estimate accurately water and contaminant mass balance fluxes at catchment scale for further downscaling at the level of contaminated sites. This involved the use of remote sensing of land cover with respect to high-resolution surface water budgeting, groundwater recharge and run-off modelling and variably saturated groundwater flow and transport modeling. To this end, high-resolution satellite imagery (Ikonos) was acquired in order to create a detailed land-cover map of the study test site (Vilvoorde). Because high-resolution sensors like Ikonos have a limited spectral resolution, they do not distinguish well between some types of land-cover that are important in the context of hydrological modelling: bare soil is often difficult to distinguish from certain types of sealed surfaces. Therefore an

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object-oriented classification approach was adopted. After the classification a context-based post-classification strategy was applied in order to improve the classifications accuracy. The created land cover map was then used as an input for the calculation of spatially distributed surface water budgeting. This surface water budgeting was simulated with the help of the WetSpass model, developed at the Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering of the VUB. This WetSpass model estimates spatially distributed run-off, evapotranspiration and recharge in function of land cover, soil type and topography. To model the groundwater flow of the study site an existing model of VITO has been adapted and calibrated (Master thesis Simon Boel). The information from a 123 drillings and 301 cone penetration tests were studied to refine the hydrogeology. Boundary conditions were improved and recharge was simulated with the WetSpass model, like explained before. After the calibration the model was used to simulate groundwater fluxes to the Zenne River on the study site. Measurements of the temperatures in the river bottom sediments provided via heat flow simulation an independent estimate of the groundwater fluxes. Simon Boel worked after his Master thesis for three months on this project.

J. Dujardin, S. Boel, C. Anibas and O. Batelaan

Improved Spatial and Temporal Estimation of Groundwater Recharge

Groundwater recharge is the source of all groundwater. A proper assessment of groundwater recharge is therefore essential for the management of groundwater quantity and quality. The spatial and temporal variability of groundwater recharge are key factors that need to be quantified to determine the sustainability of groundwater resources. In response to the need for better estimates of groundwater recharge, the Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Vrije Unversiteit Brussel, began an initiative in 2002 to estimate groundwater recharge rates of Flanders on a basin scale using the WetSpass spatially distributed water balance model. The aim of this present study is to improve and extend the methodology of groundwater recharge in terms of spatially but especially temporal resolution, major attention will also go to sensitivity and calibration of the estimation. This research is executed as a PhD project, which is funded by Erasmus Mundus External Cooperation window (EMECW) Programme.

Z. Zomlot and O. Batelaan

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Incorporating radar based rainfall measurements in the fully distributed, physically based hydrological model WetSpa
Accurate estimation of the spatial distribution of rainfall is critical to the successful modelling of hydrological processes. In the past, rainfall distributions have been typically estimated by assuming a spatial geometry tied to point rain gage observations using for example Thiessen polygons. Unfortunately, the spatial distributions inferred by these approaches have little connection with actual spatialtemporal precipitation patterns. In recent years, spatially distributed radar rainfall data is becoming available. Radars provide a highly accurate spatial description of the rainfall and improve the basin average rainfall estimates. A WetSpa model adapted for radar precipitation is being developed. Basin and subbasin simulated river discharges will be compared with measured discharge, this comparison will be performed both when applying the classic Thiessen polygon method to distribute point precipitation measurements over the basin and when the measured radar precipitation is incorporated. Hence, the comparison of the Thiessen polygon and the radar based approach will result in an evaluation of the benefit of including spatial distributed precipitation information. The research is carried out in collaboration with the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMI). Radar precipitation observation from 15 January - 15 February 2005 over the Kleine-Nete basin (Belgium) with a time step of one hour were delivered by the RMI.

J. Dams, O. Batelaan and L. Delobbe (RMI)

Instability Hazard Mapping and Risk Assessment in Himalayan Watersheds: Case studies from Nepal
This research intends to develop and test the hypothesis that (a) geological, geotechnical, hydrological and anthropogenic factors control the instabilities on watersheds; and (b) the same factors will also be responsible for triggering similar instabilities in the future in analogous geomorphic settings. The main aims of this research project are to investigate and compare the causative factors of instabilities (landslides, soil erosion, and debris flows) on three watersheds from different physiographic zones of the Nepal Himalaya i.e. Kulekhani

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watershed, Tinau watershed and Kankai watershed . The following specific objectives are set to achieve these aims: To conduct fieldwork for gathering temporal and spatial data (geological, geotechnical, hydrological, meteorological and socio-economic) and information regarding causative factors and triggers of instabilities on the watersheds; To carry out laboratory study of rock and soil constituting the watersheds; To assess historical landslides, soil erosion, debris flows and floods, and their impacts on both local communities and natural regimes of the watersheds; and To analyse the above data and information to come up with various maps and results for comparing the above watersheds as well as assessing their hazard, vulnerability and risk. Based on the above aims and objectives, the main outputs of the research are envisaged as following: Landslide distribution map of watersheds with their progression in time and space; Maps showing distribution of engineering rock and soil types in the watersheds; Distribution of vulnerable infrastructures and their status in the watersheds; Instability hazard maps of watersheds as well as their vulnerability and risk analysis; and Correlation and ranking of various causative factors according to their significance in triggering instabilities in the watersheds. This project is funded by Flemish Interuniversity Council (VLIR) and will be carried on jointly by VUB Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering and the Mountain Risk Engineering Unit, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. Prabin Kayastha, M.R. Dhital and F. De Smedt

Methodology for estimation of the change in the reserve of the Berg catchment, Western Cape, South Africa
Water is considered being the most important natural resource worldwide. In South Africa a big concern is the management of water resources especially since water resources in South Africa are scarce. Authorities in South Africa have adopted a policy called the reserve, which tries to make a balance between the demand on water and a healthy ecosystem. This policy needs detailed environmental, hydrological, hydrogeological and ecological studies to determine this equilibrium between the demand, quantity and quality of water.

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The study area, the Berg catchment, Western Cape, underwent many changes in the last years; a dam was built on the river creating a new ecological system behind it; and non-native hill slope vegetation upstream of the dam was cut and replaced by native vegetation. It is thought that evapotranspiration will reduce and recharge be increased due to this change in land-use. Building of the dam and cutting of the trees caused a change in land use. This change affects the ecological and hydrological functioning, which we aim to study in detail. Hence, creating a time series of land use maps is a basis for further hydrological and ecological modeling of the change. Developing a comprehensive methodology with remote sensing input and distributed hydrological modeling to determine the quantitative aspects of the reserve is the main goal of this PhD research. An important first activity was a field trip to the study area in South Africa, which took place from 17 November till 5 December 2008. During the field work sampling of the water from Berg River and springs in the study area for the purpose of water quality determination was performed; data of the study area was collected from different sources; and a short course on 'Ecohydrology' was attended at the University of Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. The PhD started in August 2008 and is funded by a scholarship of ERASMUS MUNDUS Lot 2.

M. Albhaisi and O. Batelaan

Modelling the Impact of Climate and Landuse/-cover Changes on Lake Awassa in Ethiopia
The Ethiopian rift characterized by a chain of lakes undergoing several

environmental changes in the past due to natural and anthropogenic factors. As a result of these factors, some of the lakes in the rift shrunk and some others expanded. Lake Awassa, located I n a hydrologically closed basin, is one of the rift lakes experiencing a continuous level rise causing damage to the environment and socio-economic activities in the surroundings. Pollution from agricultural fields, industries and urban runoff is also a huge threate for the lake and the surrounding environment. In the framework of this PhD research, the impact of climate and land use/cover changes with respect to the stream and lake conditions will be investigated to provide explanations for the observed lake level changes with the view to suggest intervention strategies for sustainable environment and development. For the investigation, distributed hydrological models that best represents the basin integrated with GIS and Remote Sensing will be used to analyze

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the hydrological processes and environmental dynamics of the lake and its watershed. In line with this, surface and groundwater interaction will also be modeled to understand the direction and volume of water movement from one system to the other and to understand the ultimate impact on the current problem and future scenarios. In this regard, models like WetSpass, WetSpa, MODFLOW, CLUE-s and other hydrological models will be employed. At this stage, WetSpass, a spatially distributed hydrological water balance model, is used to determine the long-term average water balance components based on the topography, land cover, soil texture, and hydrometrological parameters of the basin. Accordingly, the model estimates mean annual actual evapotranspiration (877 mm), surface runoff (119 mm), and groundwater recharge (68 mm) accounting for 85%, 11% and 6% of the mean annual precipitation (1027 mm) respectively. The result shows that the majority of the precipitation returns back to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration while the mean annual volumes of surface runoff and groundwater recharge draining to the lake are 150.5*106 m3 and 87.1*106 m3 respectively which causes the level rise and area expansion together with the direct precipitation (97.6*106 m3) on the lake. The majority of the groundwater recharge comes from the well vegetated North-Eastern part of the watershed through the only effluent River Tikur Wuha. Further investigation and analysis are underway using other surface and groundwater models to understand the quantity and direction of water flow either to/from the lake. Complete simulation of stream flow and contaminant transport will be carried out in the later stage with the WetSpa model.

A.M. Hydebo and F. De Smedt

Multi-Objective Calibration, Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analyses of a Distributed Hydrological Model (WetSpa) Using Genetic Algorithm
WetSpa is a grid-based distributed hydrologic model for water and energy transfer between soil, plants and atmosphere, capable of flood prediction and stream-flow estimation on hourly time steps. Calibration of rainfall-runoff process such as that in WetSpa is a process in which parameter adjustment are made so as to match (as closely as possible) the dynamic behavior of the model to the observed behavior of the catchment. Recently, automatic calibration methodologies have been shifted from a single-objective towards multi-objective formulation due to the advantages

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of multiple-objective model calibration. More recently, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) have become established to solve complex multi-objective optimization problems and have shown to perform better than other blind search strategies. They have also shown to be powerful search methods for multi-objective rainfall-runoff calibration. The objectives of this research include (i) development of a famous multi-objective genetic algorithms named Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) and its application to multi-objective calibration of WetSpa, (ii) comparison between the obtained results and those obtained with a more classical Parameter ESTimator software (PEST) which has shown to be a proper calibration routine for WetSpa, though in a single objective framework, and finally (iii) inferring information from the variations of parameters and outputs values to handle parameter uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. The first phase of this research has already been conducted leading to preparation of a paper which is submitted to Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) journal, and at present, it is accepted for online publication. Based on the results obtained through this phase, multi-objective calibration has shown to perform favorably giving a set of results comparable or even superior to what is produced by PEST. Moreover, it can provide stake-holders with a proper decision support system, as it gives a set of solutions (i.e. Pareto optimal solutions) instead of a single unique solution. As further scope of the research, we are going to develop a methodology within this multi-objective calibration framework, which can provide us with insights into sensitivity analysis and the uncertainties associated with different sources of vagueness, e.g. structural, parameter, and observation uncertainties. It is likely that we would be able to determine model sensitivity to the parameters and, also, to assess the uncertainties based on analysis of models parameters and outputs variations.

M. Shafiei and F. De Smedt

Predicting the impact of future land-use and climate Kleine Nete Basin, Belgium
This is a short project supporting the upcoming Flemish Nature Assessment Scenario report. There is a strong need to study the individual as well as the

change on the groundwater system, case study for the

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combined impact of climate and land-use changes on the infiltration and groundwater system on regional and local scale. The Kleine Nete basin, upstream of the limnigraph of Grobbendonk is used as a regional study area. For the local area, the groundwater dependent nature reserve Olensbroek, situated about 10 km upstream of Grobbendonk is studied. For the current condition of the groundwater system, meteorological and land-use data from 1960-1990 are input in a transient hydrological WetSpa model to calculate with a daily timestep the two weekly groundwater recharge. The obtained recharge is used as input for a transient MODFLOW model of the basin with a two weekly time step to simulate groundwater level, flow, drainage, average highest groundwater level and average lowest groundwater level in every location in the basin. Future meteorological conditions will be obtained from a joint collaboration between the Royal Meteorological Institute, K.U.Leuven-Hydraulics Laboratory and Royal Meteorological Institute of the Netherlands. Future land-use conditions are simulated by the Flemish Institute for Technological Research. Using the calibrated WetSpa and MODFLOW models, the effect of future land-use and climate changes will be simulated and compared with the current state.

E. Salvadore, J. Dams, O. Batelaan and T. Van Daele (INBO)

Regional groundwater flow modeling of the Geba basin, Northern Ethiopia

In this PhD thesis Visual MODFLOW program version 4.2 is applied to simulate the groundwater distribution and flow pattern on a regional scale in the Geba basin in northern Ethiopia. WetSpass, a GIS based distributed hydrologic model which takes into account the variation of soil, land-use, slope, topography and climate, was used to generate distributed recharge input data to the groundwater flow model. Distributed recharge and evapotranspiration data are the most important outputs of the WetSpass model for this purpose. Other input parameters such as hydraulic conductivity, topography, geology, and observed groundwater heads were derived from a combination of GIS and field survey. ArcView, with the help of SURFER extension, was the main tool used to prepare the input grid and shape data files. The cell resolution, which was initially 90 m during the data preparation and WetSpass model run, was expanded to 270 m to meet the maximum acceptable computational cells that Visual MODFLOW version 4.2 can accommodate. Due to the

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cliff-forming nature of the topography of the basin, the number of model layers were also reduced to four, based on the similarity of the hydraulic properties of the different rock units. The rivers were simulated as drains with a level 1 m below the top of each cell with conductancies between 0.3 and 1.5 m2/d. Pumping test data were used to estimate initial values of the hydraulic conductivities of the layers. These values were consequently calibrated during the simulation by comparing observed and simulated groundwater heads. A total of 317 observations, most of them obtained in shallow wells, were used for calibration. The preliminary results of the model are quite reasonable for most parts of the basin, with in general the water table following the surface topography, and groundwater flows mostly directed towards the valleys.

T.Y. Tewolde and F. De Smedt

Sewer Deterioration Modelling

This research study focuses on finding the most suitable sewer deterioration model as part of the wider effort to improve the sewer asset management procedure Hydroplan. A deterioration prediction model is considered a crucial component in the success of sewer asset management systems as this model provides the possibility of predicting the structures future performance and deterioration. This type of information is helpful in optimizing management related activities, such as CCTV inspections, repair and rehabilitation programs. The process of sewer deterioration is considered complicated, as it is affected by an extensive number of factors. Thus, part of this research is the determination of the factors that primarily affects sewer deterioration. Preliminary results show that the structural deterioration of sewers are affected, among others, by factors such as sewer age, pipe material and pipe length. The bulk of this research activity is centred on the application and comparison of the different probabilistic sewer deterioration models. The aim of which is to identify the best deterioration model. A comprehensive review of the available sewer deterioration models has been carried out. These models are currently being evaluated using routinely collected sewer condition data by municipal utilities. Some of the outputs of this research had been presented at the 11th International Conference on Urban Drainage (Edinburgh, Scotland) and at the Urban Water Conference (Leuven, Belgium).

E.V. Ana, Jr., W. Bauwens, and Aquafin

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Surface Water Resources Assessment; using spatially distributed hydrologic modeling and GIS in the Geba catchment, Ethiopia
The water resources potential of Ethiopia is estimated at about 124.6 billion cubic meters every year with surface water runoff constituting for about 98% (122 billion cubic meters per year). This indicates that the exploitation of surface water is a major component for water resources development in Ethiopia. However, so far only about 5% of the water resources have been used for agriculture, domestic and industrial sectors. The main reason for this underdevelopment is not the absence of adequate water resources, but is mainly associated with the erratic rainfall distribution and rugged topography. The Geba River is one of the major tributaries of the Tekeze (Atbara) River, which is a tributary of the Blue Nile. The Geba catchment covers an area of 5,124 km2. The catchment is characterized by rugged topography with huge elevation difference from 954 m to 3290 m. Its geographic location in Sub-Sahara Africa where rainfall is not only scarce but also concentrated in a short period of time, coupled with the rugged topography, have resulted in poor water resources assessment with inaccurate and incomplete long-term flow measurements. Hence, advanced techniques for water resources assessment supported by up-to-date hydrological modeling techniques are needed. In this research work WetSpa, a GIS-base distributed hydrological model, is to be applied to simulate the rainfall-runoff relationship in the Geba catchment. The required inputs to the model include digital elevation maps, soil type and land use, and time series of precipitation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration and river discharge. The model enables one to simulate the complex hydrological regimes of a river basin within a GIS framework, and predicts the spatial distribution of hydrological variables, such as surface runoff, interflow, soil moisture and groundwater recharge. The main objective of this research work is to simulate the hydrological processes in order to assess the water and land resources potential. Surface water run-off maps can be used for water harvesting and erosion control strategies. The specific objectives of the study are: (1) develop spatially distributed surface water resources maps, (2) detect if there are significant trends in precipitation, temperature, and

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potential evapotranspiration, (3) investigate the spatial and temporal effects of land-use changes on the surface water resources, (4) determine catchment wide characterization of hydrologic parameters such as run-off coefficient, flow velocity, and concentration time, (5) mapping of land-use cover changes and trends, and (6) present a modeling approach that can be used in the future to investigate different aspect of water resources as flood events, erosion and sediment transport, irrigation and hydropower potential assessment, and groundwater-surface water interaction.

H. Aforki and F. De Smedt

Suspended Solids and Sediments in the Scheldt Estuary Environmental Impact of the Sigmaplan
This project is under the framework of Onderzoek Milieu Effecten van het Sigmaplan (OMES). OMES entails a multidisciplinary study of the environmental consequences of human interference in the Scheldt Estuary (Belgium). More specifically attention is given to effects of the Sigmaplan, dredging activities and harbour extension in the Zeeschelde, on habitats and pollutions. The complete research project consists of eight (8) major aspects relating to the monthly monitoring of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the pelagic, intertidal and subtidal areas as well as of the lateral load of the Zeeschelde and its tributaries. The obtained database aims to develop an ecological model and to put the model into practice. This multidisciplinary research project is carried out by partners from Universiteit Antwerpen, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Universiteit Gent, Universit Libre de Bruxelles and Universit Paul Sabatier Toulouse. Our research task mainly deals with the physical and sedimentological study of the Scheldt Estuary including water flow characteristics, suspended solid concentrations and loads, the physical properties of the suspended solid, as well as the sediment accumulation rates on marshes.

M. Chen, S. Wartel, and F. De Smedt

Towards a pixel based parameterization, calibration and validation of spatial distributed hydrological models
Physically based hydrological models can simulate the impact of a number of human induced changes on hydrological process such as groundwater infiltration and flooding events. Due to the importance of the spatial variation in a basin of both

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groundwater infiltration and surface runoff, most modern hydrological models are linked with Geographical Information Systems to perform spatial distributed calculations. As such, these models require distributed data for the physical characteristics of the watershed as well as for the meteorological input. Due to the lack of detailed geospatial data on basin level most current model parameterizations are based on class maps, such as land-use or soil maps, in which the pixels in a basin are assigned to a certain class carrying specific parameters. Remote sensing based methods offer new possibilities for a pixel based parameterization of these distributed models. New methodologies developed in this research will be applied on the Kleine Nete basin (Belgium), simulations are performed using the WetSpa model. In the first part of this research (January 2008 March 2009) a methodology is being developed to measure pixel imperviousness fractions using remote sensing imagery. Two alternative approaches are tested. The first approach uses an overlay of an IKONOS high spatial resolution image, covering a part of the total studied basin, and a medium spatial resolution ASTER image, covering the whole basin. Based on the part of the study basin covered by both images a statistical correlation is developed between the high resolution imperviousness, obtained from the IKONOS image, and the spectral information of the ASTER pixels. The statistical correlation is used to define a sub-pixel imperviousness fraction for every ASTER pixel. The second approach applies spectral unmixing techniques on the same ASTER image, starting from so-called pure-pixels, to define pixel imperviousness fractions. The obtained pixel imperviousness fraction maps will be incorporated directly in WetSpa. In the future (2009-2011) more methodologies, aiming to improve spatial distributed simulations, will be developed in this research project. These methods will focus on incorporation of vegetation dynamics and remote sensing derived actual evapotranspiration.

J. Dams, O. Batelaan and F. Canters

Variability of soil physical and hydraulic properties in New Valley, Egypt

Differences in soil physical properties from location to location and the subsequent variation in soil water characteristics are commonly referred to as spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties. Any characterization of an area used to manage or

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inventory water resources in that area must account for this variability. The research is carried out in the New Valley in Egypt, which is a large area of newly reclaimed land. Our objective is to describe the spatial variability of soil physical and hydraulic properties and to identify the important soil variables that define most of the variability within a field. A plot of 120 m by 120 m was selected and soil samples were collected at 10 m intervals. The soil samples were analyzed in the laboratory for different parameters. Investigated parameters are bulk density, texture, water content, and hydraulic conductivity. The variability will be determined using geostatistical tools that quantify the spatial dependence and spatial structure of a measured property and, in turn, use that spatial structure to predict values of the property at unsampled location. These two steps typically involve spatial modeling (variography) and spatial interpolation (kriging). Especially the relationship between hydraulic conductivity and other soil properties will be investigated using covariograms and cokriging techniques. The PhD study is funded by Erasmus Mundus External Cooperation Window (EMECW) Program.

R. Gamie and F. De Smedt

Development to Support Decision making in water management in the Mekong delta (AquaSID)
The Aquaculture Sustainability Index Development to Support Decision making water management in the Mekong Delta (AquaSID) project aims at providing the end-user in Vietnam with a new decision support tool to manage their environment particularly in terms of freshwater fish farming development and monitoring with a particular focus on water resources inventory and loading capacity of the rivers in Mekong delta. The Vietnamese-Belgian Bilateral project started in 2007 and will finish in 2009; it is financed by the Belgian Science Policy Office. Promoter of the project is SPACEBEL S.A., Hoeilaart (F. Lupo), Ghent University (Prof. V. Pauwels), VUB (Prof. O. Batelaan), Aquaple Liege, the Vietnamese Association of Seafood Exporters & Producers (VASEP) and the Vietnam Institute for Fisheries Economics and Planning (VIVEP). O. Batelaan participated in a project visit to VIVEP from 13-19 January in which the project methodology was presented and refined. O. Batelaan and T. Palmans

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Hydraulic modelling of the Tra Khuc - Song Ve - Tra Cau flood plain in Quang Ngai province, Vietnam
The central region of Viet Nam is subjected to typhoons and tropical rain depressions each year particularly during the seasonal monsoon from mid September to mid December when over 70% of the total annual rainfall occurs. In Quang Ngai Province there are three main rivers of concern, namely Tra Khuc, Song Ve, and Tra Cau. The regional topography features an extensive mountainous area in the west dropping rapidly to a low-lying, relatively narrow depositional coastal plain. Flooding often occurs when watercourses breakout out from their normal confines and spread out overland resulting in inundation of normally dry land. This flooding causes severe problems when affecting community assets such as crops, roads and dwellings, causing lots of damages with resulting economic loss and, in more severe circumstances, injury and loss of life. To investigate the hydraulics of the floodplains, a two-dimensional hydraulic model is developed for the study area. The model is based on surveyed ground level data for the floodplain areas and is developed to simulate the patterns of river breakout and overland flooding so that the flood behaviour can be better understood and modelled for mitigation and impact testing. The data of the December 1999 flood event is used for calibration the model. Analysis of flooding is performed using the 2D modelling software Mike 21. Surveyed floodplain topographic data is used to construct a DEM grid (50 m x 50 m grid cell) of the floodplains, including special features having significant hydraulic effects such as road and canal embankments, culverts and bridges. River geometry was surveyed separately for inclusion in the DEM grid in addition to the general floodplain topographic data. A Manning roughness coefficient grid was constructed using the available land use data. Several land use types were identified in the floodplain, as rice fields, aquaculture, urban areas, other cultivated areas, and forests. Each type of land use was assigned an initial Mannings roughness coefficient in accordance with published guidelines and field observations. Features such as culverts, roads and water ways were also assigned Manning roughness coefficients in accordance with published guidelines. Manning roughness was also adjusted as part of the calibration process. Future work will deal with potential impacts of some development scenarios in the Tra Khuc floodplain, as well as impacts of sea level rise. N. H. Phuong and F. De Smedt

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Development and integration of a physically based flood prediction in the Huong river basin, Vietnam

distributed hydrologic and hydraulic model for real-time

The Huong river basin is located in Central Vietnam and covers an area of 2960 km2. The basin is often affected by large floods and inundations causing considerable damages to people and infrastructure. Due to the complexity of the hydrological processes and the basin characteristics, the physically based distributed hydrologic model (WetSpa) is integrated with the one dimension hydraulic model (HECRAS). WetSpa is used to simulate and predict floods in three sub-catchments, Huu Trach, Ta Trach and Bo in the upstream part of the Huong river basin, as input to the hydraulic model. The WetSpa model uses GIS-maps (DEM, soil, land use) and time series of precipitation and other meteorological data to simulate runoff. Simulation results from the model are compared to observed stream flow data in the three subcatchments for the calibration periods (flood seasons 2001-2005). After calibration a good agreement between calculated and simulated hydrographs is obtained with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients between 0,64 to 0,82. For the verification periods (flood seasons 2006-2007), the model also predicts the hydrographs with high accuracy with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients from 0,62 to 0,78. These results for calibration and verification indicate that the model can represent both low-flow and high-flow runoff in the subcatchments. The hydraulic model HECRAS is applied to simulate the flow and water profiles in the downstream Huong river system, which is also affected by the tide. More than 120 cross sections are used to develop the model. The simulation discharges from the three upstream subcatchments calculated by the WetSpa model are used as upstream boundary conditions, while measured tidal data is used as downstream boundary condition for the hydraulic simulations. Data for calibration and verification of the HECRAS model are observed stage hydrographs at Kim Long and Phu Oc stations. The simulation results show that the calculated hydrographs are generally in good agreement with the observations. The peak flood levels at Phu Oc and Kim Long are well simulated with a maximum error of 0.55 m. Future work in this PhD research will concentrate on effects of climate change in the study area using the calibrated distributed hydrologic-hydraulic modelling approach and statistical downscaling of climate scenarios. Dang Thanh Mai and F. De Smedt

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Application of the WetSpa model to the Distributed Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP)
The department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering is participating in the second phase of the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP II) of the Hydrology Lab of the National Weather Service, Office of Hydrologic Development (NWS-OHD), USA. This project intends to evaluate the capabilities of existing distributed hydrologic models forced with radar-based precipitation data. In this PhD research, the WetSpa model is applied to simulate runoff in five watersheds of the DMIP project. The model implementation is based on 30 m spatial resolution and one-hour time step. Rainfall inputs are derived from NEXRAD (radar). The distributed model parameters are based on an extensive database of watershed characteristics available for the region, including digital maps of DEM, soil type, and land use. The WetSpa model was calibrated with the automatic parameter estimation tool, PEST, and validated on part of the river flow records for each basin and applied to the smaller interior watersheds not used in calibration to assess the model performance in ungaged basins. The model performance is assessed by calculating the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. The statistics improve significantly with calibration of the global model parameters but even for uncalibrated simulations, the WetSpa model produces flow rates of acceptable accuracy for most cases. The overall statistics during the validation period remain good, indicating that the model is able to simulate the relevant hydrologic processes in the basins accurately. In the nested watersheds, model performance during calibration and validation periods showed a wider range of variation. It has been found that this must be attributed to a mixture of the influence of drier conditions in the validation period compared to the calibration period, and the lack of fit of the base flow recession coefficient between subbasin and parent basin. Current research for further WetSpa development is to improve baseflow calculation by improving the estimation of the baseflow recession coefficient. Also model parameter sensitivity analysis and model prediction uncertainty analysis will be performed. In addition, the model will be validated in watersheds where snow accumulation and ablation is significant. A. Safari and F. De Smedt

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* International Cooperation
IUPWARE supports UNESCO projects
In the framework of the Fund-in-trust agreement between the Flemish Government and UNESCO, W. Bauwens continued to support the projects FRIEND Nile Capacity building and training in environmental planning and management in Palestine

Technical support for the research on the optimisation of the dredging activities on the river Scheldt
The Hydraulic Research Laboratory of the Flemish Community has been developing 2D numerical models for the simulation of the flow and the sediment transport in the river Scheldt. The research aims at the improvement of these models, using terrain data, in view of their use for analysing the impact of alternative dredging scenarios. The research also includes research on physical scale models. W. Bauwens, J.J. Peters and S. Ides Funding: AWZ, Afdeling Waterbouwkundig Laboratorium en Hydrologisch Onderzoek (16EB/03/10)

Technical support for the modelling tools of the Hydraulic Research Laboratory of the Flemish Community
The laboratory supports the Hydrologic Information Centre of the Ministry of the Flemish Community for the exploitation of its modelling tools. The support includes

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The updating and improvement (sensitivity analysis, calibration) of the available models The use of models for scenario analysis The development of a version and scenario management system W. Bauwens, B. Pannemans and L. Coen Funding: AWZ, Afdeling Waterbouwkundig Laboratorium en Hydrologisch Onderzoek

Flash floods in Egypt: protection and management (Flash Flood Manager FlaFloM)
EU LIFE Third Countries Fund Project (LIFE06/TCY/ET/00232) An overall aim of this project is to achieve sustainable management of water resources in the study area. This includes protection against flash floods and consequent wise use of floodwater. Ironically, in Sinai peninsula of Egypt that suffers from severe water shortages, flash floods are responsible for the loss of life, a severe blow to regional development and the main source of erosion and accidental pollution. The main objective of the project is to develop and implement an integrated flash flood management plan for Wadi Watier (South Sinai). This consists of an innovative early warning system, named Flash Flood Manager (FlaFloM) together with integrated management plans based on stakeholder participation. In the pilot area, flash floods are characterized by an enormous flow which carries large amounts of sediments and debris to the tourist hub and harbour of Nuweiba, located in the Delta of Wadi Watier. This project will serve tourism, Bedouin and trade on a sustainable basis. The role of the VUB in this project mainly consists of the development of the Rainfall-runoff forecast model for FlaFloM. Partners: WRRI, Egypt (co-ordinator), Soresma n.v. and VUB (W. Bauwens & Ahmed Abdelkhalek)

Institutional University Cooperation program with Mekelle University, Ethiopia

The Institutional University Cooperation program with Mekelle University (IUC-MU), Ethiopia, sponsored by the VLIR, started in September 2003 has been extended by 5 more years until 2012. There are several projects in which professors of IUPWARE are involved. Project 7 Geo-hydrology deals with water resources assessment and

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management in the Geba catchment. The main goal is water resources assessment and hydrogeological data collection in the catchment for sustainable and economical development of water resources. The ultimate target is to set up a database in GIS form of water related information, which will form a basis for future sustainable water use planning and impact analyses of water management strategies. Also assessment of water quantity and quality will is conducted in some selected areas for impact analysis. The project also includes local capacity building, in particular acquiring expertise needed for research in surface and subsurface water use and harvesting techniques, groundwater and surface water modeling, and application of remote sensing and GIS technologies in water resources assessment and management. The local team consists of staff of the departments of Applied Geology and Civil engineering of Mekelle University, with Mr. Aforki Haddush Goitom acting as present local coordinator. The Flemish team consists of: Prof. F. De Smedt (team leader) and Prof. O. Batelaan, Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel Dr. J. Moeyersons, Dr. J. Lavreau, and Dr. Max Fernandez, Royal Museum for Central Africa Prof. K. Walraevens, Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Universiteit Gent Prof. R. Swennen, Section Geology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Activities of the past year included: Continuation of the geological and hydrogeological mapping of the Geba basin by the local staff in Mekelle. Graduation of Tesfahunegn Aberea Gebreslassie, July 2008, MSc Physical land Resources, option Engineering Geology, and finalization of his MSc thesis Landslide risk assessment with the help of GIS and remote sensing around Hagere Selam. Continuation of the PhD research by Tesfamichael Yohannes, who is staying at the department since August 2008. Aforki Haddush Goitom started his PhD research on Surface Water Resources Assessment, using spatially distributed hydrologic modeling and GIS in the Geba catchment; he stayed at the department from September 2008 till January 2009.

T.Y. Tewolde and F. De Smedt

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Poverty reduction through research-based sustainable development in mountainous karst areas in North Vietnam
This VLIR Own Initiative project originates in a co-operation between the Belgian and Vietnamese partners in two former VLIR Own Initiative projects. Both projects contributed to capacity building in the natural and the social sciences relevant to sustainable development of the poorest karst (limestone) regions. However, the outcomes of these projects and the conclusions of an international Transkarst (2004) conference pointed clearly (1) to the necessity of a systematic organisation, intensive strengthening and concrete institutionalisation of transdisciplinary research emphasizing inclusion of social sciences, (2) to the need of strengthening educational and training capacity (elaborating education and training programmes at these institutes for own staff and students, but also for professionals and staff of government agencies, local NGOs, etc.) and (3) to the need of strengthening the capacity of the staff of the institutes for research-based extension and for the elaboration of research-based local development projects involving local policy makers and development agencies. These needs constitute the main focus of the proposed project, which creates the methodology and builds the foundation for the implementation of a geopark. A UNESCO Geopark is defined as a territory with well-defined limits that has a large enough surface area for it to serve local economic development. The Geopark would comprise a number of geological heritage sites of special scientific importance, rarity or beauty, and may not be solely of geological significance but also of archaeological, ecological, historical or cultural value. The sites would be linked to one another and safeguarded in a formally managed park-type situation. The Geopark would be run by a designated authority which would adopt its own territorial policy for sustainable regional socioeconomic development. This would have a direct impact on the areas involved by improving human living conditions and the rural environment, strengthening the identification of the population with their area and triggering cultural renaissance. Promoter of the project is Prof. J. Masschelein, K.U.Leuven, other partners are Prof. Rudy Swennen and Prof. D. Wildemeersch of the K.U.Leuven, Prof. O. Batelaan of the VUB, Prof. R. Renard of the UA, Dr. M. Dusar of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences Geological Survey of Belgium. Local Vietnamse promoter is Dr. Tran Tan Van of the Research Institute on Geology and Mineral Resources (RIGMR), Ministry of

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Natural Resources and Environment; Center for Karst, Geoheritage and Geotourism. Second Vietnamse partner is the Institute of Anthropology (IA), Vietnamese Academy of Social Sciences; local promoter Prof. Dr. Pham Quang Hoan. O. Batelaan participated in a mission from 14-25 November to visit possible Geopark area and discuss with provincial authorities the set up of a Geopark in the region of Ha Giang.

O. Batelaan

A Practical Guide (including a CD) for Tracing Experiments in Karst Areas in Vietnam
In Vietnam, karst areas cover approximately 60,000 km2 and are mainly located in the NW part. The karst aspect of this region plays an important role in the socioeconomical development. In many karst areas, the landform and groundwater is under high pressure in response to urbanization, economical development and increase of population. Karst landscapes and aquifers are extremely vulnerable. Hence, a comprehensive understanding of the hydrogeological system and groundwater protection in karst areas is necessary. However, the existing knowledge on karst hydrogeology is too general and descriptive. The application of particularly quantitative methods in karst study is still limited. Tracing tests are a primary tool for the karst hydrogeologists. The technique is often used in karst studies to determine an underground water flow path, travel times, catchment boundaries and recharge areas. Tracer tests have also been applied to define contamination problems and to assess the vulnerability, and determination of protection zones in karst areas. Although many authors have referred to the use of the tracer techniques in karst studies around the world, tracer tests are still a novel investigation in karst research in Vietnam. This VLIR south initiative project will introduce the general information about tracing technique and their application in hydrogeology with particular emphasize on karst research. The main techniques for various steps of tracer experiments in practical conditions of Vietnam will be described in detail. The expected outcomes are practical guidelines (in Vietnamese) for tracing experiments in karst areas, and improving the interest of all those who are involved in karst investigations. The local promoter of this project is Dr. Vu Thi Minh Nguyet, Senior researcher of the Karst Research Centre, Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Vietnam. Vu Thi Minh, O. Batelaan and F. De Smedt

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VLIR Inetruniversity Cooperation project with University of Western Cape, South Africa
The VLIR sponsored Interuniversity Cooperation (IUS) project with the University of Western Cape (UWC) is an umbrella project consisting of several sub-projects. The department is partner in the research cooperation Sustainable utilization of subterranean water resources for improvement of quality of life, coordinated by the IUPWARE lecturer Prof. L. Brendonck (K.U.Leuven). Objective of this project is to increase the critical mass to integrate research on subterranean water and surface ecosystems in order to facilitate the implementation of the Resource Directed Measures (RDM) of the national water act (1998) in the Table Mountain Group (TMG) area and enhance education in water and environmental sciences. Also with UWC a Fund for Scientific Research project is running on impact of hydrology on diversity of aquatic organisms in temporary wetlands in the Cape Region, South Africa. Promotor is Prof. L. Brendonck and partners are Prof. N.E.C. Verhoest (U. Ghent), Prof. P. Meire (U. Antwerp) and the HYDR department. Jaco Nel from UWC stayed at the Department from 3-12 December 2008 for research cooperation. The MSc thesis student Candice Lasher was in Belgium from 3-18 December. Okke Batelaan and Luk Peeters (K.U.Leuven) participated in the intensive field measurement campaign in the Berg catchment from 28 August till 5 September. PhD student Maher Albhaisi participated in an ecohydrology course at UWC and did fieldwork in the Berg catchment from 17 November till 5 December. O. Batelaan

Master of Science Course in Applied Environmental Geosciences and Water Resources Management
MEGWRM is a 3 year TEMPUS Joint European Project (CD_JEP-32005-2004) which started on 1/09/2005 and ended on 31/12/2008. The grant holder was Prof. Peter Wycisk, Dean of the Faculty of Natural Sciences III, Martin-Luther University, HalleWittenberg, Germany, and the Project Coordinator was Prof. Esmat Keheila of the Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. The objective of the project was to establish an MSc programme in Applied Environmental Geosciences and Water Resources Management at the Geology Department of the Assiut University. This program started officially on October 2008, see: The program has been designed along similar lines has IUPWARE, but is more

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specifically tailored for Egyptian students. The Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering also provided training for Egyptian teaching and assistant staff: Dr. Mohamed Fekry Khalil Hassan, Dr. Nageh Abdel Rahman A. Ali, and Eng. Ahmed khaled Abdella Ahmed stayed at the department from 31 July to 1 September 2008 for a training on Remote sensing and image processing, and GIS and remote sensing applications in Water Resources Management, Cartography, and Geological Mapping. Dr. Galal Hamed Sayed Elhabaak, Dr. Mohamed Abd El Moneim Mohamed, and Dr. Hassan Ibrahim Mohamed Mohamed were in Belgium from 1 to 14 September 2008 to participate in the International Summer Course on Sustainable Water Management & Technology in Urbanized Areas, University of Antwerp. Dr. Esmat Abd El Hamid A. Keheila, visited the department from 25 August to 15 September 2008 for Planning of the outcomes and future scientific cooperation activities of the TEMPUS Project, and to participle in the International Summer Course on Sustainable Water Management & Technology in Urbanized Areas, University of Antwerp.

F. De Smedt

The Impact of Climate Change and Climate Variability on the Water resources in Suriname
Riad Nurmohammed defended his PhD thesis at the Anton De Kom University of Suriname, Faculty of Technology, on 5 March 2008, with Prof. De Smedt as his main promoter. The main objective of this PhD research was to investigate the impact of global climate change and variability on water resources in Suriname. Historical meteorological and hydrological data in Suriname were analysed with respect to climate change and climate variability, using statistical tests and graphical analyses. Outputs from global circulation models were taken from the Magicc/Scengen climate model 4.1 and used to estimate future changes in temperature and precipitation in Suriname under global climate change conditions. The WetSpa hydrological model was finally used to estimate plausible changes in water resources in the Upper Suriname River basin (case study area) under these conditions.

F. De Smedt

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* ERASMUS cooperation and exchange

Student and staff mobility is governed by the Institutional Contract-scheme of the ERASMUS Programme, which the European Commission signs with each university. The International Relations and Mobility Office (IRMO) of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel has its website at: where details and forms for applications can be found. The following ERASMUS student studied with IUPWARE in the academic year 2007-2008:
Magdalena Korbinska. Maciej Neska. Dario Rebagliati Universit degli Studi di Genova. Gulzat Kokoeva of Kyrgizstan started in October 2008 the first year of the MSc in Physical Land Resources at the University of Gent. Dr. Nurzat Kokoeva started in October 2008 a postdoc research program at the department.

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Prof. Dr. R. Thierrien of the Dpartement de Gologie et de Gnie Gologique, Universit Laval, Qubec, Canada, gave a seminar for IUPWARE students March 5 on Flow and contaminant Transport in Integrated Surface-subsurface Flow systems: Model Development, Applications and challenges. Dr. Wouter Zijl, Netherlands Institute of Applied Geoscience TNO, Utrecht, The Netherlands, and Prof. Marek Nawalany, of the Institute of Environmental Engineering Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, visited the department on 11 April 2008 to discuss about the PhD work of Adem Getachew. Prof. Allard Meijerink, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, Enschede, The Netherlands presented on 30 April for IUPWARE students a seminar on Remote sensing and groundwater. Dr. Jaroslaw Chormanski of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences visited the Department in May, September and October in the framework of ERASMUS agreement, he gave seminars/lectures for IUPWARE and civil engineering students and participated in exercises in topographic field measurements using GPS and total station, which were supported with his equipment. Dr. Jing Yang of the Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Switzerland, visited the department on 7 August 2008 to discuss about the WetSpa model. Prof. Megh Raj Dhital of the Mountain Risk Engineering Unit, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal, visited the department from 3 to 8 November 2008, to discuss about the PhD work of Prabin Kayastha. Prof. Felipe Cisneros-Promas, Universidad de Cuenca, Ecuador, visited Willy Bauwens from November 28 to December 7, 2008 in the framework of the Integrated Water Quality Project of the Institutional University Program between the Universidad de Cuenca and VLIR. Prof. Charles (Steve) Melching of Marquette University, Department of Civil Engineering, Milwaukee, US, visited the department from 21 December 2008 to 6 January 2009.

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Profs. Melching and De Smedt in front of the town hall in Antwerp

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For the full list of the publications of the Department, surf to:

Nossent, J., W. Bauwens (2006) Application of SWAT for the analysis of the water quality of the river Grote Nete, Geophysical Research Abstracts, 2006, Vol. 8, ISBN-ISSN: 1029-7006, Vienna, Austria

Bahremand, A. & F. De Smedt, 2007. Parameter Sensitivity, Uncertainty and Predictive Analysis of a Distributed Hydrological Model. International Conference on Approximation Methods and Numerical Modelling in Environment and Natural Resources, Granada (Spain), July 11-13, 4 pp. Bahremand, A., De Smedt, F., Corluy, J., Liu, Y., Porov, J., Velcick, L. & Kunikov, E., 2007. WetSpa model application for assessing reforestation impacts on floods by in Margecany-Hornad watershed, Slovakia. Water Resources Management 21: 1376-1391 (IF 2006: 0.614) Batelaan, O. & F. De Smedt, 2007. De grondwatervoeding in Vlaanderen. Water 28: 64-71. Batelaan, O. & F. De Smedt, 2007. GIS based recharge estimation by coupling surface-subsurface water balances. Journal of Hydrology, 337 (3-4), 337-335 (IF 2007: 2.161) Chormanski, J., Batelaan, O., De Smedt, F., Van de Voorde, T. & Canters, F., 2007. Application of a distributed GIS model for studying surface runoff processes in an urban wetland. In: Kotowski, W., Maltby, E., Miroslaw-Swiatek, D., Okruszko, T. & Szatylowicz, J. (eds.), Wetlands: modelling, monitoring, management. Taylor & Francis, A. A. Balkema Publisher, The Netherlands: 189-196. De Smedt, F., 2007. Analytical solution and analysis of solute transport in rivers affected by diffusive transfer in the hyporheic zone. Journal of Hydrology 339: 2938. (IF 2007: 2.161)

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De Smedt, F., W. Brevis & P. Debels, 2007. Reply to comment: Analytical solution for solute transport resulting from instantaneous injection in streams with transient storage by F. De Smedt, W. Brevis & P. Debels, 2005. Journal of Hydrology 315, 25-39. Journal of Hydrology 338, 149-151 (2007): 2.161)El Idrysy, E. H. & F. De Smedt, 2007. A comparative study of hydraulic conductivity estimations using geostatistics. Hydrogeology journal 15(3): 471-482. (IF 2007: 1.122) Nurmohamed, R., S. Naipal & F. De Smedt, 2007. Modelling hydrological response of the Upper Suriname river basin to climate change. Journal of Spatial Hydrology 7(1): 1-22. Verbeiren, B., O. Batelaan & F. De Smedt, 2007. Hydrologische modellering als basis voor het bepalen van potenties voor vegetatie en natuur in het kader van Ecosysteemvisies in Vlaanderen. Water 31: 56-59. Woldeamlak, S. T., O. Batelaan & F. De Smedt, 2007. Effects of climate change on the groundwater system in the Grote-Nete Catchment, Belgium. Hydrogeology Journal 15: 891-901. (IF 2007: 1.122) Zeinivand, H., F. De Smedt & A. Bahremand, 2007. Simulation of basin runoff due to rainfall and snowmelt. In Oxley, L. & D. Kulasiri (eds), MODSIM 2007 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, December 2007: 1796-1802.

Ana, E., W. Bauwens, M. Pessemier, C. Thoeye, S. Smolders, I. Boonen & G. De Gueldre (2008). Determining factors influencing sewer structural deterioration Leuven (Belgium) case study. Int. Conf. on water and urban development paradigms. 15 - 19 Sep. 2008, Leuven, Belgium. Ana, E., W. Bauwens, M. Pessemier, C. Thoeye, S. Smolders, I. Boonen & G. De Gueldre (2008). Investigating the effect of specific sewer attributes on sewer ageing - a Belgian case study. 11th Int. Conf. on Urban Drainage, 31 Aug. - 5 sep. 2008, Edinborough. Anibas, C., Buis, K., Getachew, A., Batelaan, O., Meire, P. & Verhoeven, R. (2008). Determination of groundwater fluxes in the Belgian Aa River by sensing and simulation of streambed temperatures. Groundwater Surface Water Interaction: Process Understanding, Conceptualization and Modelling (Proceedings of Symposium HS1002 at IUGG2007, Perugia, july 2008). IAHS Publ. 321, 2008. 46 Anibas, C., Buis, K., Getachew, A., Batelaan, O., Meire, P. & Verhoeven, R. (2008). Rumliche und zeitliche Verteilung von Grundwasser-Oberflchen-

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wasserinteraktion in Fliessbewssern: Eine Vergleichsstudie zwischen der Aa (Belgien) und der Biebrza (Polen). Tagung der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie in der DGG (FH-DGG), Goettingen, Germany; Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Geowissenschaften, Heft 57. Anibas, C., Fleckenstein, Batelaan, O., J., Buis, K., Meire, P. & Verhoeven, R. (2008). Stationr oder instationr? Verwendung vertikaler Temperaturprofile zur Quantifizierung von Oberflchen-Grundwasseraustausch. Tagung der Fachsektion Hydrogeologie in der DGG (FH-DGG), Goettingen, Germany; Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Geowissenschaften 2008, Heft 57. Bahremand, A., De Smedt, F., 2008. Distributed hydrological modeling and sensitivity analysis in Torysa watershed, Slovakia. Water Resources Management Journal 22(3): 393-408 (IF 2008: 0.790) doi:10.1007/s11269-007-9168-x Batelaan, O. & J. P. M. Witte, 2008, Ecohydrology and groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (Irish Group), Tullamore, Ireland, 22-23 April, 1-8. Chormanski, J., Van de Voorde, T., De Roeck, T., Batelaan, O. & Canters, F. 2008. Improving distributed runoff prediction in urbanized catchments with remote sensing based estimates of impervious surface cover, Sensors, 8, 910-932. (IF 2006=1.37) Dams, J., O. Batelaan, J. Nossent and J. Chormanski (2009) Improving hydrological model parameterisation in urbanised catchments: Remote sensing derived impervious surface cover maps, Proceedings of the international urban water conference, Heverlee, Belgium, 15-19 September, 2008. Water and Urban Development Paradigms. Towards an Integration of Engineering, Design and Management Approach, eds: Feyen J., Shannon K. and Neville M., published by: Taylor and Francis Group, Londen, ISBN-ISSN: ISBN 978-0-415-48334-6 Dams, J., Woldeamlak, S. T. & O. Batelaan, 2008. Predicting land-use change and its impact on the groundwater system of the Kleine Nete catchment, Belgium. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 1369-1385. (IF 2007=2.27) Dassargues, A., Dejonghe, W., Diels, L., Brouyre, S., Caterina, D., Batelaan, O., Dujardin, J., Canters, F., Thom, J. P., Debacker, V., Crevecoeur, S. & C. Hrivaux, 2008, Investigating the worth of flux-based approaches in development of brownfields: the FRAC-WECO project. Abstract in proceedings of I-SUP 2008, Innovation for sustainable Production 2008 Conference, Bruges, 22-25/04/08. Degand, E., R. Adams, M. Hoffmann, F. De Smedt, H. van Nieuwenhuyze, and J-L.

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Herrier, 2008. Optimisation of nature development scenarios for the integrated nature reserve of the Hemmepolder (Belgium). GroundwaterSurface Water Interaction: 320: 11 pp. De Roeck, E. R., Verhoest, N. E. C., Miya, M. H., Lievens, H., Batelaan, O., Thomas, A. & L. Brendonck, 2008. Remote sensing and wetland ecology: a case study in South Africa. Sensors, 8, 3542-3556. (IF 2006=1.37) Dusar, M., Tran, T. V., Pham, Q. H. Masschelein, J., Batelaan, O., Swennen, R., Wildemeersch, D., 2008, Why Vietnam is likely to succeed in creating geoparks: the research-based geopark development program in the karst areas of Northern Vietnam. In Escher, H., Hrtling, J. W., Kluttig, T., Meuser, H., Mueller, K. (Eds), 3rd International Conference UNESCO Conference on Geoparks, 22-26 June, Osnabrck, 37-38. El Desouky, H., Batelaan, O., Keppens, E., Eliwa, H., Dawoud, M., Al-Boghdady, A. & Hung, L. Q., 2008, Evaluation of the Abu Kharif tungsten ore deposit, North Eastern Desert, Egypt, based on integration of field work, remote sensing and geochemistry. In: Book of abstracts SEG-GSSA 2008 Conference Africa uncovered: Mineral resources for the future, 7-10 July. Poster and extended abstract, 308311. Kooistra, L., Wamelink, W., Schaepman-Strub, G., Schaepman, M., Van Dobben, H., Aduaka, U. & Batelaan, O., 2008. Assessing and predicting biodiversity in a floodplain ecosystem: assimilation of Net Primary Production derived from imaging spectrometer data into a dynamic vegetation model. Remote Sensing of Environment 112(5), 2118-2130. (IF 2006=3.06) Nossent, J. and W. Bauwens (2008) Comparing SWAT and WetSpa on the River Grote Laak, Belgium, Proceedings of 4th international SWAT conference 2007, Delft, The Netherlands Nyenje, P. M. & Batelaan, O., 2008, Estimating effects of climate change on groundwater: case of Ssezibwa catchment in Uganda. In: Book of abstracts International Conference Groundwater & Climate in Africa, Kampala, Uganda, June 24-28, p. 45. Ray, R.L., and F. De Smedt, 2008. Slope stability analysis on a regional scale using GIS: A case study from Dhading, Nepal. Environmental Geology, online first. (IF 2008: 0.772) doi:10.1007/s00254-008-1435-5 Roets, W., Xu, Y., Raitt, L., El-Kahloun, M., Meire, P., Calitz, F., Batelaan, O., Anibas, Process Understanding, Conceptualization and Modelling, Proceedings of Symposium HS1002 at IUGG2007, Perugia, July 2007. IAHS Publ.

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C., Paridaens, K., Vandenbroucke, T., Verhoest, N. E. C. & Brendonck, L. (2008). Determining discharges from the Table Mountain Group (TMG) aquifer to wetlands in the Southern Cape, South Africa. Hydrobiologia 607:175-186; DOI 10.1007/s10750-008-9389-x. Safari, A., and F. De Smedt, 2008. Streamflow simulation using radar-based precipitation applied to the Illinois River basin in Oklahoma, USA. BALWOIS Conference on Water Observation and Information System for Decision Support, 27-31 May 2008, Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia: 17 pp. Vandenberghe V., W. Bauwens & P.A. Vanrolleghem (2007). Evaluation of uncertainty propagation into river water quality predictions to guide future monitoring campaigns. Environmental Modelling & Software, 22(5), 725-732 Verbeiren, B., De Smedt, F. & Batelaan, O., 2008. Improved calibration of groundwater models using baseflow estimates for sub-catchments. Case-study: Upper Alzette, Luxembourg. In: Bruthans, J., Kovar, K. & Hrkal, Z. (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Interdisciplinary Conference HydroPredict 2008, Prague, Czech Republic, 15-18 September 2008, 197-200. Vlieghe P., J. Nossent and W. Bauwens (2008) Uncertainty reduction in multi-variable hydrological modelling, Proceedings of IUGG XXIV General Assembly Perugia, Italy 2007, Earth: Our Changing Planet, Issue: IAHS ASSOCIATION SYMPOSIA AND WORKSHOPS, pp: 646 - 646, eds: Lucio Ubertini, Piergiorgio Manciola, Stefano Casadei, Salvatore Grimaldi; Umbria Scientific Meeting Association 2007, c/o IRPI CNR, ISBN-ISSN: 978-88-95852-25-4 Walraevens, K., Van Camp, M., Pennequin, D., Pointet, T., Batelaan, O. & De Marsily, G., 2008, Impact van klimaatsverandering op grondwatersystemen. In: abstracts van lezingen voor Congres Water en klimaatverandering, 14-15 oktober, 15-17. Woldeamlak, S. T., Batelaan, O. & De Smedt, F., 2008, Effecten van klimaatverandering op het grondwatersysteem in het Grote-Nete bekken, Belgi. In: abstracts van posters voor Congres Water en klimaatverandering, 14-15 oktober, 44 pp. Zeinivand, H., and F. De Smedt, 2008. Hydrological modeling of snow accumulation and melting on river basin scale. Accepted for publication in Water Resources Management. (IF 2008:0.790) doi:10.1007/s11269-008-9381-2

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Nossent, J., poster presentation, EGU General Assembly 2006, Vienna, Austria, 2-7 April Nossent, J., Current Challenges and Future of Hydrology; Launching of the Report of Hydrology 2020; An Integrating Science to Meet Water Challenges; Inaugural address from Prof. S. Uhlenbrook, Delft, The Netherlands, 28 June Nossent, J., European SWAT Summer School 2006, Workshop, Delft, The Netherlands, 25-29 September Nossent, J., Vlaamse Innovaties in Watersysteemkennis: Oppervlaktewaterkwantiteit, Study day, Leuven, Belgium, 10 December

Nossent, J., Modellen voor Integraal Waterbeheer in Vlaanderen, Study day, Brussels, Belgium, 3 May Nossent, J., 4th International SWAT Conference, Oral Presentation, Delft, The Netherlands, 2-6 July Nossent, J., 6de waterforum: Informatie voor Watersysteemkennis, Study day, Antwerp, Belgium, 4 October Nossent, J. Congres Watersysteemkennis, Antwerp, Belgium, 6-7 December

Anibas, C., Stationaer oder Instationaer ? Verwendung vertikaler Temperaturprofile zur Quantifizierung von Oberflchen-Grundwasseraustausch at the Tagung der FH-DGG : Grundwasserressourcen in Goettingen, Germany, 21-25.05.2008 Batelaan, O., Public lecture in frame of International Year of Planet Earth, Groundwater a reservoir for a thirsty planet?, K. U. Leuven, 22 January, 2008. Batelaan, O., Keynote lecture Ecohydrology and groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems, IAH Irish Annual Groundwater Conference, Tullamore, Ireland, 2223 April, 2008. Batelaan, O., Guest lecture on Phreatology for International students at ITC, Enschede, The Netherlands, 9 May, 2008. Nossent, J., Confrence Eau et Changement Climatique, Congress, Antwerp, Belgium, 14-15 October

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To be ordered at Department of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, VUB, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels. fax +32-2-6293022, e-mail: Your order will be followed by an invoice which must be paid prior to the dispatching of the publication.

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Academic Staff
O. Batelaan, W. Bauwens, M. Chen, F. De Smedt, P. Quevauvillier, S. Wartel, P. Willems

Scientific Staff and PhD Students

A. Abdelkhalek, G. Adem, M. Albhaisi, E. Ana, C. Anibas, J. Ciu, J. Dams, M. Dang Thanh, J. Dujardin, M. Elbaba, R. Gamie, A. Haddush, A. Hepelwa, S. Ides, P. Kayastha, G. Kokoeva, A. Madebo, M. Muamaraldin, P. Nguyen Huy, J. Nossent, T. Palmans, Y. Plancke, A. Safari, E. Salvadore, M. Shafiei, M. Tavakole, T. Tewolde, B. Verbeiren, E. Wiesam, H. Zeinivand, Z. Zomlot

Administrative and Technical Staff

A. Cosemans, H. De Coninck, A. Vanaeken, E. Van den Storme

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