EHV AC Substations : Layout, Equipment, Bus arrangements 1.

0 Contents: a) PURPOSE b) CLASSIFICATIONS c) VOLTAGE CLASS & RATINGS d) Bus switching schemes e) SLD & Lay outs f) SUBSTATION EQUIPMENTS. g) GIS 2.0 Purpose: 1.1 The substations are very much essential to a) Evacuate power from generating stations. b) Transmit to the load centers. c) Distribute to the utilities & ultimate consumers. 1.2. The Electrical power generation from Hydel, Thermal, Nuclear and other generating stations has to be evacuated to load centers. The generation voltage is limited to 15/18 KV due to the limitation of the rotating machinery. This bulk power has to be stepped up to higher voltages depending on quantum of power generated and distance to the load centers. Again the power has to be stepped down to different lower voltages for transmission and distribution. 1.3 In between the power houses and ultimate consumers a number of Transformation and switching stations have to be created. These are generally known as sub-stations

3.0

CLASSIFICATIONS 3.1. Accordingly the substations are classified as a) Generating substations called as step up substations b) Grid substations

2 The grid substations are created at suitable load centers along the primary transmission lines. depending on the load points. c) For providing effective protection to the system in the A.0 PLANNING OF SUBSTATION INSTALLATION 5. 3. e) The number of outgoing lines will be more than the incoming lines.C. -------- c) 220/230KV .4. 11 KV. 400 KV. 22KV. 3. VOLTAGE CLASS AND RATINGS Generally the following voltage class substations prevailing in India a) 6.1. Secondary substations are located at actual load points along the secondary transmission lines where the voltage is further stepped down to: a) Sub transmission voltages b) Primary distribution voltage.c) Switching stations d) Secondary substations 3.1 The process of planning sub-station installations consists in . c) Distribution substations are created where the sub-transmission voltage and primary distribution voltage are stepped down to supply voltage and feed the actual consumers through a network of distribution and service line 4. b) For easy segregation of faulty zones.0. ---------Primary distribution Voltage High voltage Extra high Voltage b) 33 kV. network. d) The switching stations also required wherever the EHT line are to be tapped and line to be extended to different load centers without any step down facility at the switching stations. The generating substations are step up stations as the generation voltage needs to be stepped up to the primary transmission voltage so that huge blocks of power can be transmitted over long distances to load centers.6 KV. 66KV.3 Switching stations are provided in between lengthy primary transmission lines: a) To avoid switching surges. 765 kV ---------5. 3. 110/132KV.

The Sub Station Engineering comprises. b) Environmental conditions.0.Conventional Air insulated substations (AIS) b) c) d) In door substations Compressed Air insulated Gas insulated substations (GIS ) 6. b) Defining the plant concept. Sub-Station Engineering. type.0. 7. Types of substations: a) Out door. & Planning principles. a) Sub-station site selection b) Bus Switching schemes.1 The types of Sub Stations depends upon: a) The availability of the land in the required place.1. Type. a) Local climatic factors b) Influence of environment c) The overall power system voltage level d) Short circuit rating e) Arrangement of neutral point f) The frequency of operation g) The required availability or reliability h) Safety requirements i) Specific operating conditions 6.a) Establishing the boundary conditions. Size d) Safety clearances. c) Bus-Bar: i. . 5. 7.2 The boundary conditions are governed by following environmental circumstances & availability of the land in the required place. ii.

vii. ii. e) Sectional clearance. iv. clamps & connectors. etc . x. g) Bus levels.G & Fire fighting room. Insulators.Cross Bus / Jack Bus level. Phase to ground clearances. Bus bar formation. i. Control Room D. Station structures: Tower. ii. f) Ground clearance.Bus levels. ii. Third level ---. Second level ---. corona rings & rubber mats.i. ix. m) Civil Engineering works: i. Equipment mounting structures.Equipment interconnection level. h) Bay widths i) j) Yard levels. Water supply & drainage Colony Anti weed treatment Spreading of Jelly ( broken stones) in the substation yard n) Electrical Installation works: i. Lightning cum Lighting masts. v. k) Lightning protection. iii. xi. iii. l) Earth mat. viii. vi. Phase to phase clearances. Beams. Cable ducts Foundations of all equipments & Mounting structures Yard leveling Approach Roads & Roads inside the substation Security fencing & boundary wall. Single line diagram & Layout. First level ---.

8. xiii. ii. v. can be arranged to achieve a particular switching scheme. ii. Shunt & Bus Reactors. Supply.Battery & Battery chargers D. x. Switching schemes 8.L.C & D. Substation Automation Fire Fighting equipments p) Auxiliary supplies: i. Reactive compensation. bus-bars. vii. Circuit breakers.C. viii. iii. ix.1 The selection of switching scheme depend upon: a) Reliability factor b) Availability of the space c) Economics (project cost) d) There can be several combinations in which the equipments.C panels / switch Boards 8. vi. Power Transformers ( ICTs).2. A. xii.C Equipments Control & Power cables. iv.The various types of switching schemes along with its advantages and disadvantages: a) Single Bus arrangement: .C Supply: D.G Sets A. P. iv.o) Main electrical equipments: i. xi. structures etc.0. Instrument Transformers Isolators Lightning / Surge Arrestors Control panels Protection & Relay panels.C. iii.

Simple in Design 2.ADVANTAGES 1. that faulty section alone will be isolated while the . Even if a fault occurs on one section of the Bus. Less Expenditure DISADVANTAGES 1. Similarly for Line also. b) Single Bus with bus sectionaliser: Main Bus is divided into two sections with a Circuit Breaker and isolators in between the adjoining sections. One complete section can be taken out for Maintenance without disturbing the continuity of other section. 2. In case of bus fault or bus bar isolator fault or maintenance Total Substation is out of service. In case of maintenance of transformer circuit breaker the associated transformer has also to be shut-down.

that particular feeder/ transformer . ii. It will be a little more costly with the addition of one isolator and some cases with Circuit breaker. For Maintenance or on fault occurrence. DOUBLE BUSBAR SYSTEM. all the feeders are normally on the Main Bus Bar. DOUBLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM. Salient features: Only one Circuit at a time can be transferred on the Transfer Bus. entire bus becomes deenergized. C.Ts and C&R panel c) SINGLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS SYSTEM: •T/ F-1 •T/ F-2 •TRANSFER BUS •BUS-1 •BAY1 •BAY2 •BAY3 • L P O C U B E F S N A R T •BAY4 •BAY5 •BAY6 •BAY7 •FEEDER1 •FEEDER2 •FEEDER3 •FEEDER4 i. . • • d) DOUBLE BUSBAR: There are six types of Bus switching schemes double bus bars i. can be transferred on to the Transfer Bus. If at any time. iii. The feeder protection thus gets transferred to trip Transfer Bus Coupler Breaker. a Line Circuit Breaker/ Transformer circuit breaker Maintenance is required or break down of Circuit breaker or CTs.other section continues to be in service. ii. total Bus becomes dead. DOUBLE BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM. With this arrangement. On fault occurrence or maintenance.

that particular Circuit has to be taken out of service.iv. DOUBLE BUS & TRANSFER BUS WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM. v.For Maintenance or on fault occurrence on one Bus. vi. For Maintenance of a Circuit Breaker. ONE & HALF BREAKER SYSTEM ONE & HALF BREAKER WITH SECTIONALISER SYSTEM d-i) Double main Bus system ( Bus -1 & Bus-2) & Double main Bus with transfer Bus scheme Lines Lines Lines Lines Main Bus1 Main Bus Transfer Bus Main Bus2 Transformer Transformer Transformer Transformer • Main Bus with Transfer Bus •Double Main Bus 19 Double main bus: This system has got flexibility of transferring any Circuit to any of the Bus. an additional bypass isolator is provided as indicated in figure above . To overcome this. while the other Bus remains in service. then only that Bus becomes dead.

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