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Andang Bachtiar1, Joko Wiyono1, Liyanto2, Mohammad Syaiful1, Yudi Satria Purnama1, Muhammad Rozalli2, Andi Krisyunianto2, and A.S. Purnama2 Search and Discovery Article #50363 (2010)
Posted December 17, 2010 *Adapted from oral presentation at AAPG International Conference and Exhibition, September 12-15, 2010
PT Exploration Think Tank Indonesia (ETTI), Jakarta, Indonesia (firstname.lastname@example.org) Geosciences Delta Andalan (GSA) Consulting, Jakarta, Indonesia
Abstract During years 2005-2009, observations on modern sediment of Mahakam Delta in the southern and the northern lobes were conducted using grab samples on the river bed in conjunction with echo sounding, shallow core sampling, and salinity measurements. The delta environments observed were head of passes, upper delta plain, lower delta plain, and delta front. The purpose was to try to develop analogues, as detailed as possible, for the Miocene/Pliocene deltas being explored and exploited in the area. Decreasing grain size on the river bed from the head of passes to delta front was observed in the northern lobe. Similar pattern, however, was not apparent in the southern lobe, where there was a distinct anomaly of coarser grain size from lower delta plain to delta front area. This indicates by-pass sedimentation or effect of relics of submerged previous lower delta delta plain sands which are now being transgressed. Most of the thalweg areas in the channels were devoid of sands; instead, grab samples usually found semi-consolidated clay. Active sand transportation and deposition locus were the slopes of the point bars and side bars. Shallow cores in the lower delta plain were generally characterized by clay drapes, both in the northern and the southern lobes, suggesting tidal processes were operational in almost the same intensity in both areas. Salinity measurements in the water and sediments both showed an increasing trend from upstream to downstream, with the northern lobe being more intruded by the seawater profiles. Variations of salinity with times were also observed to be controlled by tidal-activity periods. The implications of these new observations to the subsurface mapping of the Miocene/Pliocene delta are very interesting ones. Updip shaleout trap of delta front mouth-bar sands maybe worth pursuing, as well as a new model of fluvial sands, in contrast to delta plain sand geometry with respect to clay-plugs and edge-of-channel. Tidal-effect reservoir models may also be revisited in the context of lobe relative positions and formation-water salinity.
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Selected References Alllen, G.P., 1991, Sedimentary processes and facies in the Gironde estuary; a Recent model for macrotidal estuarine systems; in Tidal Clastic Sedimentology; Rahmani, R. A. et al, editors, Can. Soc. Petroleum Geol. Memoir 16. Allen, G.P., 1989, Les deltas et les basins deltaiques, in Dynamique et Methodes d'Etudes des Bassins Sedimentaires, Association des Sedimentologistes Francais, Editions Technip, Paris, France, p. 383-421. Allen, G.P., and Chambers, J.L.C., 1996, Sedimentation in the Modern and Miocene Mahakam Delta, IPA Field Guide. Allen, G.P., and J.L.C. Chambers, 1998, Sedimentation in the modern and Miocene Mahakam delta: Indonesian Petroleum Association, 236 p. Allen, G.P., and F. Mercier, 1994, Reservoir facies and geometry in mixed tide and fluvial-dominated delta mouth bars: example from the modern Mahakam delta (East Kalimantan), Proc. Indonesian Petroleum Association, Twenty Third Annual Convention, October, 1994. Allen, G.P., and F. Mercier, 1988; Subsurface sedimentology of deltaic systems; Journal of the Petroleum Exploration Society of Australia, Adelaide, Australia, p. 30-46. Duval, B.C., G. Choppin de Janvry, and B. Loiret, 1992, The Mahakam Delta province: An ever-changing picture and a bright future: Proceedings of the 1992 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston Texas, USA, May 4-7.Duval et al. 1992. Moss, S.J. and J.L.C. Chambers, 1999. Tertiary facies architecture in the Kutei Basin, Kalimantan, Indonesia: Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, v. 17 (1999), p. 157-181. Moss, S.J., J. Chambers, I. Cloke, A. Carter, D. Staria, J.R. Ali, and S. Baker, 1997, New observations on the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of the Tertiary Kutai Basin, East Kalimantan, in A. Fraser, S. Matthews, and R.W. Murphy, eds., Petroleum geology of southeast Asia: Geological Society (London) Special Publication 106, p. 395 417.
The Dynamics of Mahakam Delta Components Based on Spatial and Temporal Variations of Grab Samples, Cores, and Salinity
By : Andang Bachtiar (1), Joko Wiyono(1), Liyanto (2), Mohammad Syaiful (1), Yudi Satria Purnama (1), Muhammad Rozalli (2) , Andi Krisyunianto (2), Purnama A S (2) (1) ETTI , (2) GDA Consulting
See notes following
Presenter’s Notes: I present a sedimentological study of a modern delta depositional system based on periodic sampling both in different components of delta morphology; namely, fluvial, delta plain, and delta front areas. Mahakam Delta is a very famous delta in Indonesia which has been receiving much attention from sedimentology researchers and has been used widely as an analogue for delta depositional model in the region. The number of co-authors here reflects the complexity of the field study operation and technical challenges that require expert management by good team of researchers.
Introduction Methods Results Conclusions
Presenter’s Notes: First, I introduce the Mahakam Delta, both geologically and specifically sedimentologically. Then, I will briefly discuss the methodology that we used in conducting the field sedimentological study. A rather lengthy description of the results will follow. Finally I conclude the presentation with several statements regarding this continuing study
the Indian-Australian plate to the southwest. Indonesia KUTAI BASIN HOSTING THE MAHAKAM DELTA The tectonic setting is in the junction of three (3) major plates (Eurasia – Indian Australian – Pacific) It is contained in the Kutai Basin of Kalimantan Presenter’s Notes: Mahakam Delta is located in Kalimantan or Borneo. The delta is in the Kutai sedimentary Basin. the second largest island in Indonesia. Eurasia with Sunda Microplate to the north and northwest.INTRODUCTION Mahakam Delta is located in the island of Kalimantan (Borneo). . The tectonic setting is at the junction of 3 major plates. south and southeast. and the Pacific plate to the east.
most concentrated in and around the Mahakam Delta area.N South China Sea KUTAI BASIN: Indonesia’s 2nd most hydrocarbon prolific basin KUCHING OROGENIC COMPLEX Celebes Sea KUTAI BASIN Mahakam Delta Samarinda Balikpapan with its own. It holds at least 11 Billion Barrels of Oil equivalent recoverable reserves. unique Mahakam Delta Java Sea Presenter’s Notes: Kutai Basin is the second most hydrocarbon prolific basin in Indonesia. From its surface morphology it is quite clear that the modern Mahakam Delta is a mixed fluvial-tidal delta. . after the Central Sumatra Basin.
is a Tertiary Indonesian basin known to have thickest sediment accumulation. A total thickness of 14 km is interpreted at its depocenter.INTRODUCTION MAHAKAM DELTA IS LOCATED ON THE DEPOCENTER OF KUTAI BASIN WHICH PILED UP TO 14 KM SEDIMENT ABOVE TRANSITIONAL / ACCRETED BASEMENT Presenter’s Notes: Kutai Basin. which hosts the Mahakam River delta.5. it did not reach the Oligocene or syn-rift Eocene section.1 km). and still in middle Miocene section.800 feet (+/. The deepest onshore well drilled in this delta area reached TD of 16. .
The modern 70-meter delta package was age-dated to be as old as 6 KYA Presenter’s Notes: Mahakam Delta development can be traced back from west to east started in early Miocene. The majority of hydrocarbon production from the subsurface of Mahakam Delta is from the delta-plain delta-front sands of middle and late Miocene Mahakam Delta (Duval et al. 1992).INTRODUCTION Mahakam Delta development can be traced back from early Miocene.. with the most pronounced development occurring during middle Miocene as it is depicted by the stratigraphic diagram in the upper right (Moss and Chambers. with the most pronounced development during middle Miocene. . 1999).
INTRODUCTION The Morphology of Mahakam Delta and Sampling Site Position (Modified after Allen & Chambers. 1998) See notes following .
The river cuts across the structures downstream from Samarinda area. lower delta plain.Presenter’s Notes: The surface morphology of Mahakam River and Delta captured by satellite image (left) indicates that the river (and delta) was in existence long before the latest structural development of the onshore area. bounded by 70-meter bathymetric contour. seaward of prodelta. The deep blue is the shelf area. the moderate blue is the prodelta. Very light blue is the delta front which contain the yellow distributary mouth bar sands. as indicated by the better development of mouth-bar sands in the south compared to the north The components of the delta are: dark green is the upper delta plain which is mostly fluvial. however. does not suggest the state of lobe activity of the several lobes developed in the delta The map on the right depicts the development of mouth-bar sands (yellow colored) in front of distributary channels. The satelite image. and delta front areas. which covers fluvial. . both northern lobe and southern lobe. upper delta plain. it becomes apparent that the southern lobes are more active than the northern ones. light green is the lower delta plain which is more tidally influenced: red is the distributary channel. The yellow arrows and the white flags indicate the locations (7) of sampling for this study.
no more comprehensive research on Mahakam Delta has been conducted. OBJECTIVE ‐ Initial results of a long term sedimentological study of the modern Mahakam Delta ‐ Provide updated analogues of delta geological model in the subsurface See notes following .BACKGROUND ‐ Observations on modern sediment of Mahakam Delta during years 2005 – 2010 ‐ Since publication of Allen and Chambers’ (1998) Mahakam Delta book.
A research by Sallahudin and Lambiase (2004. The research is needed because the last publication on Mahakam Delta was by the late George Allen and John Chambers in 1998. there has not been any follow-up to their work. led by senior author. However.Presenter’s Notes: This research is based on periodic visits to the delta up to three times a year with 2-3 day from 2005 to 2010. 2006) gave some alternative insight into the initial hypothesis as to why the modern mouth bar sands are of better quality than the distributary channels. . The objective of this study is to present the initial results of a long-term sedimentological study of the modern Mahakam Delta and at the same time provide further analogues of delta geological models in the subsurface. Most of the time the visit was in association with field trip programs for geoscientists and students. cruising along the delta.
LOCATION MAP N-3 MariamIsland River Lantang N-2 M N-1 e ob L n er h t r No S-1 So ut he rn S-2 Lo be S-3 Note : M : Maryam River N‐1 : Miang Island N‐2 : Burung Island N‐3 : Lantang Island S‐1 : Muara Bayur S‐2 : Datu Island S‐3 : Muara Bujit See notes following .
S2 Datu Island in lower delta plain. includes the fluvial rather than the delta. On the southern lobe are S1 Muara Bayur in upper delta plain.Presenter’s Notes: This map shows our observation locations.Mariam River. . Location 1. . and S3 Muara Bujit in deltafront setting. We divided the area into the northern lobe and southern lobe. N2 Burung Island in lower delta plain. It is slightly upstream of the head of passes. On the northern lobe are N1 Miang Island in upper delta plain. and N3 Lantang Island in lower delta plain – delta front area.
METHODS River Bottom Profile Echo Sounding Grab Samples Core Sample Salinity See notes following .
Using grab sampler metal cone with-30 meter chain to grab bottom samples 3. Measuring salinity of the river water as well as the sediment sampled. . The core barrel was pushed into the bottom sediments by using wooden hammer. 4. Analyzing the distribution of grain size by using granulometric method in laboratory.Presenter’s Notes: The methods employed in the survey were : 1. . Using echo sounder to get river bottom profile from our boat 2. 6. 5. with metal core catcher at the base to get sediment core. Using PVC core barrel. Visually describing all the sediments (grab and core) using loupes and microscopes. 4-meters in length. by using hand-held portable conductivity meter.
location number 1: Mariam River.RESULTS MariamIsland River Lantang N-2 N-3 M N-1 e ob L ern h t r No HEAD OF PASSES – FLUVIAL MARIAM RIVER S-1 Note : M : Maryam River N-1 : Miang Island N-2 : Burung Island N-3 : Lantang Island S-1 : Muara Bayur S-2 : Datu Island S-3 : Muara Bujit rn he ut So S-2 be Lo S-3 Presenter’s Notes: Sampling in fluvial setting of the Mahakam River. .
4 m 9m See notes following .8 m A 5.2 m 6.MariamIsland River Lantang Mariam River Mariam River 1 km B to less lobe active GRAB SAMPLE AND RIVER PROFILE N Location : Mariam River Date : 2005 A to ac ti ve lo b e N 1 Km S B 10 m 11 m 7.
a river bottom profile indicated bifurcation of the thalweg. the northern being the deeper.Presenter’s Notes: In 2005. away from the river bar crest to the southern shallower thalweg. . . as well as more suspension. A small bump on the northern thalweg was initially thought to be bedform actively migrating both toward the north (following lateral accretion) and toward the east (following overall current direction) The granulometric data indicate increasing grain size toward the northern thalweg and decreasing grain size.
200 ppm NaCl eq Very fine grained sand slightly muddy. quartz. abundant organic matls Conductivity test : 70 microsiemens at 82.200 ppm NaCl eq Fine-medium grained sand.MariamIsland River Lantang Mariam River Mariam River 1 km B to less lobe active GRAB SAMPLE AND RIVER PROFILE N A to ac ti Location Date Time Weather : Mariam River : March 25. organic materials. 2009 : 09. mafic minerals. mafic minerals.400 ppm NaCl eq See notes following .1º F ± 1. quartz. organic materials.00 AM : Cloudy ve lo b e N 1 Km S B 14 m 19 m 12 m 7m 6m 8m A Clay. organic materials Conductivity test : 40 microsiemens at 83.4º F ± 1. quartz.3º F ± 1. mafic minerals. Conductivity test : 40 micro-siemens at 81.200 ppm NaCl eq Fine-medium grained sand.00 – 10. coal chunk Conductivity test : 40 microsiemens at 81.3º F ± 1.
which proved to be 19 meters. the grab sample on the edge of northern thalweg resulted in scraping off of semi-consolidated clay. but in this case.Presenter’s Notes: In 2009. . . with the deepest thalweg in the north. a similar situation in bottom river profile. The salinity of water and sediment in this area is 1200 ppm NaCl eq. at the deepest part of the thalweg. Again there is increasing grain size toward the northern thalweg. no sediment was being deposited.
chert. others. chert. org. Salinity:2200 ppm NaCl eq See notes following . hornblende. material. hornblende. hornblende. brown. quartz. frag: quartzite. org. brown. raw material. mica. well sorted.MariamIsland River Lantang Mariam River Mariam River 1 km B to less lobe active GRAB SAMPLE AND RIVER PROFILE N A to ac ti Location Date Time Weather : Mariam River : 07th Aug 2010 : 08. brown. oxides. quartz. well sorted. subangularsubrounded. org materials. slate. oxide minerals. chert. raw material. hornblende. Salinity: 2200 ppm NaCl eq Medium grained. quartz. mafic minerals. material. well sorted. well sorted. Salinity: 2200 ppm NaCl eq Fine grained. chert. others. minerals: quartz. oxide minerals. hornblende. oxides.48 Pm : Cloudy ve lo b e N 1 Km S B 15 m 11 m 5m 5 6m SM4 8m 8m A SM5 SM6 SM7 SM3 SM2 Conglomerate-pebbly. quartz. brown. others. Salinity: 2200 ppm NaCl eq Medium grained. well sorted. subangularsubrounded. reddish brown. raw material. subangularsubrounded. grayish brown. quartz. poorly sorted. Salinity:2200 ppm NaCl eq Shale-fine grained. clay. raw material. rounded-subrounded. Salinity:2200 ppm NaCl eq Fine grained. subangularsubrounded. mica. chert.
there was absence of sediment at the bottom of the greatest thalweg depth. . most recently 2200 ppm NaCl equivalent. Salinity was measured as increasing. The 6-year survey shows that the small undulation close to the thalweg area on the flank of the point bar is not really a sandwave bedform because it did not move during that time. we found conglomerate-pebble grain size at a depth of 15 meters. close to the thalweg greatest depth. However.Presenter’s Notes: In 2010. . It might be related to irregularities in the bedrock controlled by structure.
as depicted on this map. we made tentative sand distribution model of head of passes fluvial system in Mahakam RiverDelta. It is thought that sediments were not deposited in the thalweg area.R E S U L T S 5 15 10 10 Mahakam Delta Head of Passes – Fluvial 4 Sand Distribution Model BASED ON GRABBED BOTTOM SEDIMENTS & DEPTH CORRELATION 5 5 CLAY ORGANIC MATERIAL MEDIUM TO COARSE GRAINED SAND FINE TO MEDIUM GRAINED SAND 5 6 6 SILTY TO VERY FINE GRAINED SAND DEPTH INTERVAL (M) METERS METERS 1000 1000 0 0 1000 1000 2000 2000 Presenter’s Notes: As a result of our periodic sampling and bottom profiling. which is composed only of clay. which is deeper than 15 meters in the thalweg. The number indicates the depth. due to current intensity . .
especially in the delta-plain area: N1 and N2 .N-3 RESULTS MariamIsland River Lantang M er h t r N-1 o N S-1 N-2 e ob L n NORTHERN LOBE DELTA PLAIN (N1-N2) S-2 S-3 Southern Lobe Note : M : Maryam River N-1 : Miang Island N-2 : Burung Island N-3 : Lantang Island S-1 : Muara Bayur S-2 : Datu Island S-3 : Muara Bujit Presenter’s Notes: Northern Lobe sampling.
Mariam River Miang Island Lantang Island GRAB SAMPLE AND RIVER PROFILE Location : Miang Island Date : 2005 N S Nipah vegetation Nipah vegetation 6m 8m 5m 3m 5m 6m 8m Presenter’s Notes: The greatest depth in this upper delta plain distributary channel is 8 meters. The irregularities of the river bottom might be associated with the abandonment processes of the northern lobe. On the surface of the mid-channel bar we also found some clay in grab samples. indicating very low energy. . Suspension-laden deposition seems to be dominating the granulometric profile.
which is now in the process of abandonment. resulting in sandy mud deposition. the sand is mixed with some clays.MAHAKAM DELTA INACTIVE LOBE UPPER DELTA PLAIN DISTRIBUTARY CHANNEL SAND DISTRIBUTION MODEL (N1 – MIANG ISLAND) BASED ON GRABBED BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND DEPTH CORRELATION 6 5 SAND SANDY MUD MIANG ISLAND DEPTH INTERVAL (M) METERS 0 1000 2000 Presenter’s Notes: This is the model of sand distribution in the upper delta plain of the northern lobe. . while in the deeper part. The sand usually is concentrated only on mid-channel bar.
Very fine to fine grained sand.200 ppm NaCl eq. Very fine to medium grained sand Conductivity test : 50 micro-siemens at 83.500 ppm NaCl eq.MariamIsland River Lantang GRAB SAMPLE AND RIVER PROFILE Location Date Time Weather : Burung Island : March 26.8º F ± 5. 2009 : 10. lower delta plain Burung Island sampling indicates that the deepest thalweg is only 7 meter and is occupied by organic clays.3º F ± 1.30 PM : Bright Burung Island Burung Island A B C D N S Nipah vegetation Nipah vegetation A 5m 3m 4. organic materials Conductivity test : 70 micro-siemens at 81.8º F ± 1.8º F ± 1. wood. carbonaceous.5 m 7m B Medium grained sand Conductivity test : 170 micro-siemens at 83. . The sands developed in shallower depths represent the remnant of previous active distributary channel. Salinity of water can be up to 5000 ppm NaCl eq at this location.00-11. etc Conductivity test : 40 micro-siemens at 83.500 ppm NaCl eq Presenter’s Notes: Downstream of N1.400 ppm NaCl eq. Clay.
with clays and organic material deposited during high tide. indicates that the sand in this area is a remnant of previous active processes of distriibutary channel. the deep thalweg resulted from the scouring of tidal currents. lower delta plain distributary channel (suggested to be N2 Burung Island).MAHAKAM DELTA INACTIVE LOBE LOWER DELTA PLAIN DISTRIBUTARY CHANNEL SAND DISTRIBUTION MODEL (N2 – BURUNG ISLAND) BASED ON GRABBED BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND DEPTH CORRELATION 2 CLAY ORGANIC MUD VERY FINE TO MEDIUM GRAINED SAND 7 BURUNG ISLAND METERS DEPTH INTERVAL (M) 1000 2000 0 Presenter’s Notes: The sand distribution model in abandoned lobe. .
. lower delta plain – delta front area.DELTA FRONT (N3) S-2 S-3 Southern Lobe Note : M : Maryam River N-1 : Miang Island N-2 : Burung Island N-3 : Lantang Island S-1 : Muara Bayur S-2 : Datu Island S-3 : Muara Bujit Presenter’s Notes: Northern lobe.N-3 RESULTS MariamIsland River Lantang M er h t r N-1 o N S-1 N-2 e ob L n NORTHERN LOBE LOWER DELTA PLAIN .
cross-beds. subrounded. organic material.4º F ± 19. coarsening upward. .000 ppm NaCl eq.to medium-grained sands with abundant clay drapes both within the sand body and especially in the interbedded mud-siltstone. Nipah vegetation Nipah vegetation A B 6. clay nodule.00-15. clay drapes on foreset.00 PM : Cloudy Lantang Island A Lantang Island B NW SE fine – medium grained sand. The salinity in this area is quite high.MariamIsland River Lantang GRAB SAMPLE. RIVER PROFILE. 2009 : 14. quartz mineral. AND CORE SAMPLE Location Date Time Weather : Lantang Island : March 26. well sorted.8 m Organic Mud Presenter’s Notes: In this lower delta plain area.8 meters and contains organic mud . light brown. 19000ppm NaCl equivalent. carbonaceous mudstones intercalations Conductivity test : 980 micro-siemens at 83. The profile of coarsening upward sequence of fine. clay inclined. the deepest thalweg is 6. The majority of the coring that we have managed to get in the submerged longitudinal bar of Lantang Island.
very fine – fine grain sand. . coarsening up. Presenter’s Notes: At the edge of the side bar. carbonaceous. gray – dark gray. Ripples and burrows were also observed as common features in this area. coarsening up. coarsening up. interlamination with dark gray clay. very fine – fine grain sand. organic material.CORE SAMPLE DESCRIPTION MariamIsland River Lantang CM cg mg fg vfg slt sh Lantang Island Location : Lantang Island Date : June 2008 0 15 30 45 60 75 90 105 120 135 150 165 very fine – fine grain sand. gray – light brown. loose. These indicate periodical processes of tidal action. dark gray. interlamination with dark gray clay. carbonaceous. the core shows interbedded – interlaminated sand and silt and mudstone with abundant carbonaceous material in it. Striping sand-silt formed because of tidal influencel Conductivity test : 4. dark gray. interlamination with dark gray clay. organic material. very fine – medium grain sand. coarsening up.4º F ± 12000 ppm NaCl eq. quartz mineral. interlamination with dark gray – black clay. dark gray. organic material. coarsening up. coarsening up. carbonaceous. organic material abundant. very fine – fine grain sand. 180 195 210 very fine – fine grain sand. organic material abundant. loose. dark gray. interlamination with black clay and dark gray silt. interlamination with black clay and dark gray silt. organic material. carbonaceous. carbonaceous. carbonaceous.2 millisiemens at 85.
MariamIsland River Lantang Lantang Island Profile of intertidal flat – tidal bar upper estuary deposit in Lantang Ichnofauna is not significantly developed. but the varieties occur at surface Date : 2005 See notes following .
These bedforms were responsible of the development of cross-bedding in the upper sand in the core. we cored a very pronounced cross-bedded fine. The megaripples developed at the surface of this bar clearly demonstrate the work of tidal action. as shown on the photograph in the lower right. with burrowing by organisms. indicating tidal action. at the base of the core is organic mud with sand-silt interbed. . with pronounced interference rounded top ripples. .Presenter’s Notes: At the crest of the submerged longitudinal bar sand .to medium-grained sandstone at the top.
SHALLOW CORES. tidal sand bar . AND BATHYMETRIC CORRELATION Presenter’s Notes: The model that we developed for the abandoned lower delta plain distributary channel of the northern lobe shows the predominance of clays interfingering with sands in this area as a result of tidal action reworking the sands from a previous phase of an active distributary channel.distributary mouth bar mud flat describe the morphology of this area.MAHAKAM DELTA INACTIVE LOBE LOWER DELTA PLAIN – UPPER DELTA FRONT SAND DISTRIBUTION MODEL BASED ON BOTTOM GRABBED SAMPLES. .mud flat. Sand flat .
the study in Muara Bayur. . Datu Island.RESULTS N-2 N-3 M N-1 SOUTHERN LOBE UPPER DELTA PLAIN (S1 – MUARA BAYUR) S-1 So ut he r n Lo be S-2 S-3 Note : M : Maryam River N-1 : Miang Island N-2 : Burung Island N-3 : Lantang Island S-1 : Muara Bayur S-2 : Datu Island S-3 : Muara Bujit Presenter’s Notes: The southern lobe -. and Muara Bujit.
MariamIsland River Lantang Up Lo per we De r D lt a elt Pla a P in lain GRAB SAMPLE AND RIVER PROFILE Location : Muara Bayur Date : 2007 Muara Bayur Weak Channel Strong Current Island Bar N S Nipah vegetation A 5m Nipah vegetation 6m B Organic Mud Very Fine Sand (dark). sideritic process is occurring. . semiconsolidated. Feldspar (5%). highly organic mud Sandy Mud to Very Fine sand Mud. Biotite (5%). subrounded-rounded. Presenter’s Notes: Grab sample and river profile in 2007. carbonaceous material. Quartz (90%). from north to south: organic mud to sandy mud (at 5m) to very fine sand (at 6 m). very well sorted. grey-brown (dark).
show the grab sample is clay.00 AM– 12. current is weak and strong.300 ppm NaCl eq.3º F ± 1. and fine. carbon.lower mediumgrained sand.500 ppm NaCl eq.8º F ± 4. The width of channel is 600 m. Salinity is 1300 ppm.8º F ± 1. 600 m Strong Current SW Nipah vegetation 5m 4m 4m Nipah vegetation B A Fine.200 ppm NaCl eq Presenter’s Notes: Grab sample and river profile in March 25.to lower mediumgrained sand. . etc Conductivity test : 50 micro-siemens at 83. wood.30 PM : Bright Muara Bayur Weak Channel Strong Current Island Bar NE Weak Current Approx. Clay.grained sand.MariamIsland River Lantang Up Lo per we De r D lt a elt Pla a P in lain GRAB SAMPLE AND RIVER PROFILE Location Date Time Weather : Muara Bayur : March 25. 2009 : 11. very fine. organic materials Conductivity test : 40 micro-siemens at 81. 2009. Very fine.to mediumgrained sand Conductivity test : 100 micro-siemens at 83.to medium.
indicating normal processes of lateral accretion. . the clays are deposited in the shallower depth of point bar.MAHAKAM DELTA ACTIVE LOBE UPPER DELTA PLAIN DISTRIBUTARY CHANNEL SAND DISTRIBUTION MODEL (MUARA BAYUR) BASED ON GRABBED BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND DEPTH CORRELATIONS 5 FINE TO LOWER MEDIUM SAND 2 VERY FINE TO MEDIUM GRAINED SAND CLAY ORGANIC MATERIAL KELAMBU ISLAND DEPTH INTERVAL (M) METERS 1000 0 1000 Presenter’s Notes: In the upper delta plain distributary channel of active lobe.
.RESULTS N-2 N-3 M N-1 SOUTHERN LOBE LOWER DELTA PLAIN (S2 – DATU ISLAND) S-1 So ut he r n Lo be S-2 S-3 Note : M : Maryam River N-1 : Miang Island N-2 : Burung Island N-3 : Lantang Island S-1 : Muara Bayur S-2 : Datu Island S-3 : Muara Bujit Presenter’s Notes: The southern lobe--lower delta plain Datu Island.
mafic mineral. mica. clay. Salinity: ± 3520 ppm NaCl eq Fine grainedshale. clay. Salinity: ± 3520 ppm NaCl eq Fine grained. raw material. well sorted. others. The salinity in this area only reaches as much as 3500 ppm NaCl equivalent. feldspar. others. subangularsubrounded. organic material. Salinity: ± 3520 ppm NaCl eq Fine grainedshale. well sorted. organic material. Salinity: ± 3520 ppm NaCl eq Shale. raw material. quartz. dark brown. . brown.5 m 4m 6m PD5 PD4 PD3 PD2 5 1m 4m PD1 Nipah vegetation PD7 PD6 PD8 Shale. Salinity: ± 3520 ppm NaCl eq Shale. quartz. clay. subangularsubrounded. clay. well sorted. quartz. clay. dark brown. subangularsubrounded. brown. Salinity: ± 3520 ppm NaCl eq Shale. mafic mineral. dark brown. carbon material. clay. Salinity: ±3520 ppm NaCl eq Shale. clay. 600 m SW Nipah vegetation 1m 4m 1m 2. others. brown. oxide mineral. organic material. Salinity: ± 3520 ppm NaCl eq Presenter’s Notes: Some clays are present in the deep thalweg of this lower delta plain distributary channel complex. mafic mineral.09 Am : Cloudy Datu Island NE 1 km Approx. organic material. raw material. dark gray. organic material.MariamIsland River Lantang N GRAB SAMPLE AND RIVER PROFILE Location Date Time Weather : Datu Island : 07th Aug 2010 : 02. dark gray.
ID M R BA DE SI R BA straight SE interference ripples main : Linguoid SE interference : Straight SW . These are responsible for the cross bedding structure we seen in the cores.DATU ISLAND A km B 6m Date : May 13. and many interference ripples.15 – 12. 2010 Time : 11. Burrowing.00 AM Weather : Cloudy B A Pu Da lau tu/ tid al b N 1 ar pond with linguoid ripples N S surface features like wavy structure sandwave Surface Feature : 2. clay drapes * Lunate – linguoid * Interference ripple pond with linguoid ripples multi direction main current during low tide linguoid ripples and burrows Presenter’s Notes: The surface features observed in the lower delta plain distributary channel sands are mega-ripples. Sand wave 1. sandwaves with small scale ripples on top of them. Ripple bedding * Straight crested 3.
. cross-bedded sandstone with numerous burrows and clay drapes .Date : 2005 PROFILE PROFILE OF MID BAR IN DATU ISLAND Presenter’s Notes: In the mid-bar core we found fining upward.
loose. clay drapes on foreset. well sorted. cross-beds. very fine – fine grain sand. cross-beds.to finegrained sand-microfauna. dark gray. cross-beds. Presenter’s Notes: Core sample description in June 4. clay nodule. coarsening upward. very fine. loose. carbonaceous. very fine – fine grain sand. very fine. coarsening upward. microfauna abundant. 2008: coarsening upward. from bottom very fine.to medium-grained sand--clay drape. cross-beds. coarsening upward. dark gray. clay inclined.CM 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 cg mg fg vfg slt sh Side Bar of Datu Island CORE SAMPLE DESCRIPTION Location : Datu Island Date : 4 June 2008 fine – medium grain sand. organic material. quartz mineral. clay nodule. carbonaceous. very fine – fine grain sand. cross-beds. burrowing. light brown. organic material.to fine-grained sand-microfauna abundant. carbonaceous. loose. organic material. coarsening upward. interlamination with dark gray clay. subrounded. very fine. dark gray. interlamination with dark gray clay. dark gray. ripples. loose. coarsening upward. interlamination with dark gray clay. organic material.fine-grained sand. organic material abundant. clay nodule. . microfauna. carbonaceous. loose. very fine – fine grain sand.fine-grained sand. fine. interlamination with dark gray clay. microfauna.
.MAHAKAM DELTA ACTIVE LOBE LOWER DELTA PLAIN DISTRIBUTARY CHANNEL SAND DISTRIBUTION MODEL (DATU ISLAND) BASED ON GRABBED BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND DEPTH CORRELATIONS 1 5 FINE TO MEDIUM GRAINED SAND CLAY DRAPES VERY FINE GRAINED SAND TO CLAY DATU ISLAND DEPTH INTERVAL (M) METERS 1000 0 1000 2000 Presenter’s Notes: Bypass zone in thalweg area. 1KM width of channel.
RESULTS N-2 N-3 M N-1 SOUTHERN LOBE DELTA FRONT (S3 – MUARA BUJIT) S-1 So ut he r n Lo be S-2 S-3 Note : M : Maryam River N-1 : Miang Island N-2 : Burung Island N-3 : Lantang Island S-1 : Muara Bayur S-2 : Datu Island S-3 : Muara Bujit Presenter’s Notes: Muara Bujit (southern lobe – delta front). .
to medium-grained sands. .MUARA BUJIT Date : May 13. sand waves with fine.00 PM Weather : Cloudy MariamIsland River Lantang Muara Bujit Tidal influence at Muara Bujit area Presenter’s Notes: Surface feature of distributary mouth bar. 2010 Time : 14. megaripples .00 – 15.
brown (light). well sorted. content of shell fragment. burrow structure. brown (light). Muara Bujit Medium-fine sand. subrounded-subangular. brown (light). well sorted. shell fragment is present. subrounded-rounded. brown (light). quartz (80%) feldspard (20%). very rounded. fine sand. with quartz (90%) feldspard (10%). medium-fine sand. well sorted. very rounded. very rounded Medium-Fine sand. with quartz (90%) feldspard (10%). Presenter’s Notes: Core sample description in 2007: from bottom fine sand. through cross bedding. fine sand. burrow structure. well sorted. Fine sand. fine sand. .well sorted.CORE SAMPLE DESCRIPTION MariamIsland River Lantang Date : 2007 Medium sand. brown (light). medium sand. sub-rounded fine sand. with quartz (85%) feldspard (15%). content of shell fragment. brown (dark). quartz (85%) feldspard (15%) well sorted. medium-fine sand. with quartz (90%) feldspard (10%).
2009 Time : 15.CORE SAMPLE DESCRIPTION MariamIsland River Lantang Location : Muara Bujit Date : March 25. well sorted. clay nodule. clay inclined. organic material. Muara Bujit Very fine – fine grained sand. light brown. in this case we have lignite – carbonaceous mud at the base of the core. burrowing. carbonaceous lignite Distributary mouth bar Presenter’s Notes: Another view of one of the cores that we obtained in this area. carbonaceous. cross-beds. clay drapes on foreset. cross-beds. dark colored. Mud. interlamination with dark gray clay. organic material. . dark gray. quartz mineral. clay nodule. ripples. coarsening upward. subrounded. coarsening upward.30-17.00 PM Weather : Cloudy Fine – medium grained sand.
minimum 3 KM long. .MAHAKAM DELTA ACTIVE LOBE UPPER DELTA PLAIN DISTRIBUTARY CHANNEL SAND DISTRIBUTION MODEL (MUARA BAYUR) BASED ON GRABBED BOTTOM SEDIMENTS AND DEPTH CORRELATIONS COARSE TO FINE GRAINED SAND 30 VERY FINE GRAINED SAND INTERBED WITH SHALES MUARA BUJIT 10 DEPTH INTERVAL (M) 20 5 2 METERS 1000 0 1000 Presenter’s Notes: 1 KM wide.
THE DYNAMICS OF MAHAKAM DELTA COMPONENTS .
8 m B Organic Mud Burung Island N S N-3 A Muara Bayur NE Approx.SEMI-CONSOLIDATED CLAYS IN THALWEG AREAS Mariam River N 1 Km 5m 15 m 11 m 5 Lantang Island S NW SE B 6m 8m 8m A 1. 600 m SW M N-1 N-2 5m 3m B 4.2 m SM7 Conglomeratepebbly SM6 Medium grained SM4 SM5 Medium Fine grained grained SM3 SM2 Fine Shale-fine grained grained A 6.5 m 1m 4m 6m 4m S-1 PD7PD6 PD5 Fine PD8 grained Fine grained -shale Shale -shale Fine grained Miang Island N S PD4 Shale PD1 PD2 Shale PD3 Shale Shale 6m 5m 8m 3m 5m 6m 8m : The sample usually semi-consolidated clay at the thalweg areas in channels system .5 m 7m mg sand vf-mg sand vf-fg sand clay 1m 4m 1m 2.
Datu Island CM cg mg fg vfg slt sh 0 10 20 30 40 50 N-3 Lantang Island CM cg mg fg vfg slt sh 0 S-2 S-3 15 30 45 60 60 75 70 90 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 105 120 135 150 165 180 195 TIDAL BAR SANDS IN NORTHERN ABANDONED LOBE AREA HAVE MANY MORE CLAY DRAPES THAN THE SAME SANDS IN THE SOUTHERN ACTIVE LOBE Muara Bujit 210 .
Location 2007 Nov 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Head of passes Muara Bayur Datu Island Muara Bujit Burung Island Lantang Kecil Island Lantang Besar Island 12000 >1000 2008 Jun 1200 4500 7000 10000 5500 19000 Mar 1400 4500 7000 2009 Aug 111 3000 8400 NORTHERN ABANDONED LOBE IS MORE SALINE. WITH DRASTIC INCREASE DOWNSTREAM. THAN SOUTHERN LOBE Salinity curve on southern lobe 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Salinity curve on northern lobe 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 .SALINITY DATA ------ PETROPHYSIC APPLICATION : Rw Salinity (ppm) No.
Salinity curve on northern lobe 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 MariamIsland River Lantang Lantang Island Salinity : 12000 ppm Burung Island Salinity : 5500 ppm 5500 ppm Mariam River Salinity : 1400 ppm e cr De n rai gg sin a c re De e siz c Ina t iv e ob L e LOBES DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTIC SUMMARY in as g ain gr e siz Muara Bayur Salinity : 4500 ppm e tiv Ac Salinity curve on southern lobe 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Datu Island Salinity : 7000 ppm Muara Bujit Salinity : 10000 ppm In cr ea si ng gr ai n be Lo si ze .
Updip shale-out trap of delta front mouth-bar sands may be worth pursuing. with respect to clay plugs and edge-of-channel. suggesting tidal process was operational in both areas of northern and southern lobes. with the northern lobe being more intruded by the seawater profiles. indicating tidal action in the northern lobe and sediment bypass in the southern lobe. as opposed to sand. as well as new model of fluvial. where there was a distinct anomaly of coarser grain size from lower delta plain to the delta front area (this is due to sediment bypassing).CONCLUSIONS Thalweg in channel system usually has semi-consolidated clay. but it was not apparent in the southern lobe. in contrast to delta plain sand geometry. with northern lobe becoming more intensively tidal influenced than the southern lobe The salinity data in the water and sediments both showed an increasing trend from upstream to downstream. The grain size decreases on the river bed from the head of passes to delta front in the northern lobe. . Shallow core data in the lower delta plain were generally characterized by clay drapes.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge to GDA and ETTI team for their support and contributions in this paper THANK YOU .
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