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ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)

Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications

259

Fixed Point Result in Probabilistic Metric Space

Ruchi Singh, Smriti Mehta

1

and A D Singh

2

1

Department of Mathematics, Truba Instt. Of Engg. & I.T. Bhopal

2

Govt. M.V.M. College Bhopal

Email : smriti.mehta@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

In this paper we prove common fixed point theorem for four mapping with weak compatibility in probabilistic

metric space.

Keywords: Menger space, Weak compatible mapping, Semi-compatible mapping, Weakly commuting mapping,

common fixed point.

AMS Subject Classification: 47H10, 54H25.

1. INTRODUCTION:

Fixed point theory in probabilistic metric spaces can be considered as a part of Probabilistic Analysis,

which is a very dynamic area of mathematical research. The notion of probabilistic metric space is introduced by

Menger in 1942 [9] and the first result about the existence of a fixed point of a mapping which is defined on a

Menger space is obtained by Sehgel and Barucha-Reid.

Recently, a number of fixed point theorems for single valued and multivalued mappings in menger

probabilistic metric space have been considered by many authors [1],[2],[3],[4],[5],[6]. In 1998, Jungck [7]

introduced the concept weakly compatible maps and proved many theorems in metric space. In this paper we

prove common fixed point theorem for four mapping with weak compatibility and rational contraction without

appeal to continuity in probabilistic metric space. Also we illustrate example in support of our theorem.

2. PRELIMINARIES:

Now we begin with some definition

Definition 2.1: Let R denote the set of reals and R

+

the non-negative reals. A mapping F: R → R

+

is called a

distribution function if it is non decreasing left continuous with

inf ( ) 0 sup ( ) 1

t R

t R

F t and F t

∈

∈

= =

Definition 2.2: A probabilistic metric space is an ordered pair (X, F) where X is a nonempty set, L be set of all

distribution function and F: X × X → I . We shall denote the distribution function by F (p, q) or F

p,q

; p, q ∈ X

and F

p,q

(x) will represents the value of F (p, q) at x ∈ R . The function F(p, q) is assumed to satisfy the

following conditions:

1. F

p,q

(x) = 1 ¡or oll x > u i¡ onJ only i¡ p = q

2. F

p,q

(u) = u ¡or c:cry p, q ∈ X

S. F

p,q

= F

q,p

¡or c:cry p, q ∈ X

4. F

p,q

(x) = 1 onJ F

q,¡

(y) = 1 tℎcn F

p,¡

(x +y) = 1 ¡or c:cry p, q, r ∈ X.

In metric space (X, J) , the metric d induces a mapping F: X × X → I such that

F

p,q

(x) = F

p,q

= E (x – J(p, q)) for every p, q ∈ X and x ∈ R, where H is the distribution function defined as

E(x) = _

u, if x ≤ u

1, if x > u

**Definition 2.3: A mapping ∗: |u, 1] |u, 1] → |u, 1] is called t-norm if
**

1. (o ∗ 1) = o ∀ o ∈ |u,1]

2. (u ∗ u) = u, ∀ o, b ∈ |u,1]

3. (o ∗ b) = (b ∗ o),

4. (c ∗ J) ≥ (o ∗ b) ¡or c ≥ o, J ≥ b, and

5. ( (o ∗ b) ∗ c ) = ( o ∗ (b ∗ c ))

Example: (i) (o ∗ b) = ob, (ii) (o ∗ b) = min (o, b)

(iii) (o ∗ b) = mox (o + b − 1; u)

Definition 2.4: A Menger space is a triplet (X, F,∗) where (X, F)a PM-space and ∆ is is a t-norm with the

following condition

F

u,w

(x + y) ≥ F

u,¡

(x) ∗ F

¡,w

(y)

The above inequality is called Menger’s triangle inequality.

EXAMPLE: Let X = R, (o ∗ b) = min(o, b) o, b ∈ (u,1) and

Mathematical Theory and Modeling www.iiste.org

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Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications

260

F

u,¡

(x) = _

E(x) ¡or u ≠ :

1 ¡or u = :

where E(x) = _

u x ≤ u

x u ≤ x ≤ 1

1 x ≥ 1

**Then (X, F,∗ ) is a Menger space.
**

Definition 2.5: Let (X, F,∗) be a Menger space. If u ∈ X, e > u, z ∈ (u, 1), then an (e, z) neighbourhood of u,

denoted by u

u

(e, z) is defined as

u

u

(e, z) = |: ∈ X; F

u,¡

(e) > 1 − z|.

If (X, F,∗) be a Menger space with the continuous t-norm t, then the familyu

u

(e, z); u ∈ X; e > u, z ∈ (u,1) of

neighbourhood induces a hausdorff topology on X and if sup

a<1

(a ∗ a) = 1, it is metrizable.

Definition 2.6: A sequence {p

n

] in (X, F,∗) is said to be convergent to a point p ∈ X if for every e > u and

z > u, there exists an integer N = N(e, z) such that p

n

∈ u

p

(e, z) for all n ≥ N or equivalently F

x

n

,x

(e) >

1 −z for all n ≥ N.

Definition 2.7: A sequence {p

n

] in (X, F,∗) is said to be Cauchy sequence if for every e > u and z > u, there

exists an integer N = N(e, z) such that F

p

n

,p

m

(e) > 1 − z for all n, m ≥ N.

Definition 2.8: A Menger space (X, F,∗) with the continuous t-norm ∆ is said to be complete if every Cauchy

sequence in X converges to a point in X.

Definition 2.9: A coincidence point (or simply coincidence) of two mappings is a point in their domain having

the same image point under both mappings.

Formally, given two mappings ¡, g ∶ X → ¥ we say that a point x in X is a coincidence point of f and g if

¡(x) = g(x).

Definition 2.10: Let (X, F,∗) be a Menger space. Two mappings ¡, g ∶ X → X are said to be weakly compatible

if they commute at the coincidence point, i.e., the pair {¡, g] is weakly compatible pair if and only if ¡x = gx

implies that ¡gx = g¡x.

Example: Define the pair A, S: |u, S] → |u, S] by

A(x) = _

x, x ∈ |u, 1)

S, x ∈ |1, S]

, S(x) = _

S − x, x ∈ |u, 1)

S, x ∈ |1, S].

**Then for any x ∈ |1, S], ASx = SAx, showing that A, S are weakly compatible maps on |u, S].
**

Definition 2.11: Let (X, F,∗) be a Menger space. Two mappings A, S ∶ X → X are said to be semi compatible if

F

ASx

n

,Sx

(t) → 1for all t > u whenever {x

n

] is a sequence in X such that Ax

n

, Sx

n

→ p for some p in X asn → ∞.

It follows that (A, S) is semi compatible and Ay = Sy imply ASy = SAy by taking {x

n

] = y onJ x = Ay = Sy.

Lemma 2.12[15]: Let {p

n

] be a sequence in Menger space (X, F,∗) where ∗ is continuous and (x ∗ x) ≥ x for

all x ∈ |u, 1]. If there exists a constant k ∈ (u, 1) such that x > u and n ∈ N F

p

n

,p

n+1

(kx) ≥ F

p

n-1

,p

n

(x), then

{p

n

] is a Cauchy sequence.

Lemma 2.13[13]: If (X, J) is a metric space, then the metric d induces a mapping F: X × X → I, defined by

F (p, q) = E (x – J (p, q)) , p, q ∈ X onJ x ∈ R. Further more if ∗: |u,1] × |u,1] → |u,1] is defined by

(o ∗ b) = min(o, b), then (X, F,∗) is a Menger space. It is complete if (X, J) is complete. The space (X, F,∗)

so obtained is called the induced Menger space.

Lemma 2.14[10]: Let (X, F,∗) be a Menger space. If there exists a constant k ∈ (u, 1) such that F

x,¡

(kt) ≥

F

x,¡

(t), for all x, y ∈ X and t > u then x = y .

3. MAIN RESULT:

Theorem 3.1: Let (X, F,∗) be a complete Menger space where ∗ is continuous and (t ∗ t) ≥ t for all t ∈ |u,1].

Let A, B, T and S be mappings from X into itself such that

3.1.1. A(X) ⊂ S(X) onJ B(X) ⊂ I(X)

3.1.2. S or I are continuous

3.1.3. The pair (S, A) and (I, B) are Semi compatible

3.1.4. There exists a number k ∈ (u,1) such that

F

Ax,B¡

(kt) ≥ F

Sx,1¡

(t) ∗ F

Sx,Ax

(t) ∗ F

Ax,1¡

(t) ∗ F

1¡,B¡

(t) ∗ F

Sx,B¡

((2 − o)t)

¡or oll x, y ∈ X, o ∈ (u,2) onJ t > u.

Then, A, B, S and I have a unique common fixed point in X.

Proof: Since A(X) ⊂ S(X) for any x

0

∈ X there exists a point x

1

∈ X such thatAx

0

= Sx

1

. Since B(X) ⊂

I(X) for this point x

1

we can choose a point x

2

∈ X such that Ix

1

= Bx

2

.

Inductively we can find a sequence {y

n

] as follows

y

2n

= Ax

2n

= Sx

2n+1

onJ y

2n+1

= Bx

2n+1

= Ix

2n+2

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Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications

261

For n = u, 1, 2, S ………. by (3.1.4.), for all t > u onJ o = 1 − q with q ∈ (u,1), we have

F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(kt) = F

Ax

2n

,Bx

2n+1

(kt)

≥ F

Sx

2n

,1x

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

Sx

2n+1

,Ax

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

Ax

2n

,1x

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

1x

2n+1

,Bx

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

Sx

2n

,Bx

2n+1

((1 + q)t)

= F

¡

2n-1

,¡

2n

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(t) ∗

F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n-1

,¡

2n+1

((1 + q)t)

≥ F

¡

2n-1

,¡

2n

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n-1

,¡

2n

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(qt)

= F

¡

2n-1

,¡

2n

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(qt)

Since t-norm is continuous, letting q → 1, we have

F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(kt) ≥ F

¡

2n-1

,¡

2n

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(t)

Similarly

F

¡

2n+1

,¡

2n+2

(kt) ≥ F

¡

2n

,¡

2n+1

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n+1

,¡

2n+2

(t)

Similarly

F

¡

2n+2

,¡

2n+3

(kt) ≥ F

¡

2n+1

,¡

2n+2

(t) ∗ F

¡

2n+2

,¡

2n+3

(t)

Therefore

F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(kt) ≥ F

¡

n-1

,¡

n

(t) ∗ F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(t) ¡or oll n ∈ N

Consequently

F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(t) ≥ F

¡

n-1

,¡

n

(k

-1

t) ∗, F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(k

-1

t) ¡or oll n ∈ N

Repeated application of this inequality will imply that

F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(t) ≥ F

¡

n-1

,¡

n

(k

-1

t) ∗ F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(k

-1

t) ≥ ⋯………. ≥ F

¡

n-1

,¡

n

(k

-1

t) ∗ F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(k

-ì

t), i ∈ N

Since F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(k

-ì

t) → 1 os i → ∞, it follows that

F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(t) ≥ F

¡

n-1

,¡

n

(k

-1

t) ¡or oll n ∈ N

Consequently

F

¡

n

,¡

n+1

(kt) ≥ F

¡

n-1

,¡

n

(t) for all n ∈ N

Therefore by Lemma [2.12], {y

n

] is a Cauchy sequence in X. Since X is complete,{y

n

]converges to a point z ∈

X. Since {Ax

2n

], {Bx

2n+1

], {Sx

2n+1

] onJ {Ix

2n+2

] are subsequences of {y

n

] , they also converge to the point

z,

i. c. as n → ∞, Ax

2n

, Bx

2n+1

, Sx

2n+1

Ix

2n+2

→ z.

Case I: Since S is continuous. In this case we have

SAx

n

→ Sz, SSx

n

→ Sz

Also (A, S)is semi-compatible, we have ASx

n

→ Sz

Step I: Let x = Sx

n

, y = x

n

witℎ o = 1 in (S.1.4) we get

F

ASx

n

,Bx

n

(kt) ≥ F

SSx

n

,1x

n

(t) ∗ F

SSx

n

,ASx

n

(t) ∗ F

ASx

n

,1x

n

(t) ∗ F

1x

n

,Bx

n

(t) ∗ F

SSx

n

,Bx

n

(t)

F

Sz,z

(kt) ≥ F

Sz,z

(t) ∗ F

Sz,Sz

(t) ∗ F

Sz,z

(t) ∗ F

z,z

(t) ∗ F

Sz,z

(t)

F

Sz,z

(kt) ≥ F

Sz,z

(t)

So we get Sz = z.

Step II: By putting x = z, y = x

n

witℎ o = 1 in (S.1.4) we get

F

Az,Bx

n

(kt) ≥ F

Sz,1x

n

(t) ∗ F

Sz,Az

(t) ∗ F

Az,1x

n

(t) ∗ F

1x

n

,Bx

n

(t) ∗ F

Sz,Bx

n

(t)

F

Az,z

(kt) ≥ F

z,z

(t) ∗ F

z,Az

(t) ∗ F

Az,z

(t) ∗ F

z,z

(t) ∗ F

z,z

(t)

F

Az,z

(kt) ≥ F

Az,z

(t)

So we get Az = z.

Case II: Since T is continuous. In this case we have

IBx

n

→ Iz, IIx

n

→ Iz

Also (B, I)is semi-compatible, we have BIx

n

→ Iz

Step I: Let x = x

n

, y = Ix

n

witℎ o = 1 in (S.1.4) we get

F

Ax

n

,B1x

n

(kt) ≥ F

Sx

n

,11x

n

(t) ∗ F

Sx

n

,Ax

n

(t) ∗ F

Ax

n

,11x

n

(t) ∗ F

11x

n

,B1x

n

(t) ∗ F

Sx

n

,B1x

n

(t)

F

z,1z

(kt) ≥ F

z,1z

(t) ∗ F

z,z

(t) ∗ F

z,1z

(t) ∗ F

1z,1z

(t) ∗ F

z,1z

(t)

F

z,1z

(kt) ≥ F

z,1z

(t)

So we get Iz = z.

Step II: By putting x = x

n

, y = z witℎ o = 1 in (S.1.4) we get

F

Ax

n

,Bz

(kt) ≥ F

Sx

n

,1z

(t) ∗ F

Sx

n

,Ax

n

(t) ∗ F

Ax

n

,1z

(t) ∗ F

1z,Bz

(t) ∗ F

Sx

n

,Bz

(t)

F

z,Bz

(kt) ≥ F

z,z

(t) ∗ F

z,z

(t) ∗ F

z,z

(t) ∗ F

z,Bz

(t) ∗ F

z,Bz

(t)

F

Bz,z

(kt) ≥ F

Bz,z

(t)

So we get Bz = z.

Thus, we have Az = Sz = Iz = Bz = z.

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Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications

262

That is z is a common fixed point of S, I, A and B.

For uniqueness, let w (w ≠ z) be another common fixed point of S, I, A and B .Then Aw = Sw == Bw =

Iw = w .

Put x = z, y = w and [ = 1, in (3.1.4.), we get

F

Az,Bw

(kt) ≥ F

Sz,1w

(t) ∗ F

Sz,Aw

(t) ∗ F

Az,1w

(t) ∗ F

1w,Bw

(t) ∗ F

Sz,Bw

(t)

F

z,w

(kt) ≥ F

z,w

(t) ∗ F

z,w

(t) ∗ F

z,w

(t) ∗ F

w,w

(t) ∗ F

z,w

(t)

F

z,w

(kt) ≥ F

z,w

(t) ∗ F

z,w

(t) ∗ F

z,w

(t) ∗ 1 ∗ F

z,w

(t)

F

z,w

(kt) ≥ F

z,w

(t)

Thus we havez = w. Therefore z is a unique fixed point of A,S, B and T.

This completes the proof of the theorem.

COROLLARY 3.2: Let (X, F,∗) be a complete Menger space where ∗ is continuous and (t ∗ t) ≥ t for

all t ∈ |u,1]. Let A, and S be mappings from X into itself such that

3.2.1. A(X) ⊂ S(X)

3.2.2. S is continuous

3.2.3. The pair (S, A) is semi compatible

3.2.4. There exists a number k ∈ (u,1) such that

F

Ax,S¡

(kt) ≥ F

Sx,S¡

(t) ∗ F

Sx,Ax

(t) ∗ F

Ax,S¡

(t) ∗ F

S¡,A¡

(t) ∗ F

Sx,A¡

((2 − o)t)

¡or oll x, y ∈ X, o ∈ (u,2) onJ t > u.

Then, A, and S have a unique common fixed point in X.

4. BIBLIOGRAPHY:

[1] A.T.Bharucha Ried, Fixed point theorems in Probabilistic analysis, Bull. Amer.Math. Soc, 82 (1976),

611-617

[2] Gh.Boscan, On some fixed pont theorems in Probabilistic metric spaces, Math.balkanica, 4 (1974), 67-

70

[3] S. Chang, Fixed points theorems of mappings on Probabilistic metric spaces with applications, Scientia

Sinica SeriesA, 25 (1983), 114-115

[4] R. Dedeic and N. Sarapa, Fixed point theorems for sequence of mappings on Menger spaces, Math.

Japonica, 34 (4) (1988), 535-539

[5] O.Hadzic, On the (ε, λ)-topology of LPC-Spaces, Glasnik Mat; 13(33) (1978), 293-297.

[6] O.Hadzic, Some theorems on the fixed points in probabilistic metric and random normed spaces, Boll.

Un. Mat. Ital; 13(5) 18 (1981), 1-11

[7] G.Jungck and B.E. Rhodes, Fixed point for set valued functions without continuity, Indian J. Pure.

Appl. Math., 29(3) (1998), 977-983

[8] G.Jungck, Compatible mappings and common fixed points, Internat J. Math. and Math. Sci. 9 (1986),

771-779

[9] K. Menger, Statistical Matrices, Procedings of the National academy of sciences of the United states of

America 28 (1942), 535-537

[10] S. N. Mishra, Common fixed points of compatible mappings in PM-Spaces, Math. Japonica, 36(2)

(1991), 283-289

[11] B.Schweizer and A.Sklar, Probabilistic Metric spaces, Elsevier, North-Holland, New York, 1983.

[12] B.Schweizer and A.Sklar, Statistical metrices spaces, pacific Journal of Mathematics 10(1960), 313-

334

[13] V.M. Sehgal, A.T. Bharucha-Reid, Fixed points of contraction mappings in PM spaces, Math. System

Theory 6 (1972) 97-102.

[14] S. Sessa, On weak commutativity conditions of mapping in fixed point consideration, Publ. Inst. Math.

Beograd, 32(46) (1982), 149-153

[15] S.L.Singh and B.D. Pant, Common fixed point theorems in Probabilistic metric spaces and extention to

uniform spaces, Honam Math. J., 6 (1984), 1-12

[16] D.Xieping, A common fixed point theorem of commuting mappings in probabilistic metric spaces,

Kexeue Tongbao, 29 (1984), 147-150

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