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Bend, Bandwidth or Both: Making the right choice for enterprise networks Ravi Yekula Corning Optical Fiber
Bend, Bandwidth or Both:
Making the right choice for
enterprise networks
Ravi Yekula
Corning Optical Fiber
Agenda • Multimode fiber remains the most cost-effective choice for enterprise networks – Multimode primer (classification
Agenda
• Multimode fiber remains the most cost-effective
choice for enterprise networks
– Multimode primer (classification and bandwidth)
– Benefits of multimode fiber (versus single-mode fiber
and copper)
• Next generation multimode fibers and standards
– Bend-insensitive multimode fiber
– High Bandwidth OM4 fibers
– Next generation speeds (16 Gb/s, 40 Gb/s and 100
Gb/s)
Multimode fiber types classified based on bandwidth values “OM” Core Diameter (µm) EMB OFL 850/1300 (MHz.km)
Multimode fiber types classified
based on bandwidth values
“OM”
Core Diameter
(µm)
EMB
OFL 850/1300
(MHz.km)
10G Link
Designation
(MHz.km)
Length
OM1
62.5
-
200/500
33 m
OM2
50
- 500/500
82 m
OM3
50
2000
1500/500
300 m
OM4
50
4700
3500/500
550 m
Optical Multimode (OM) designations are per ISO/IEC
11801
EMB = Effective Modal Bandwidth (Laser BW)
OFL = Overfilled Bandwidth (Legacy/LED BW)
Multimode fiber dominates in risers & data centers Horizontal In-Building Backbone • Predominately Copper • 10/100/1000
Multimode fiber dominates in risers
& data centers
Horizontal
In-Building Backbone
• Predominately Copper
• 10/100/1000 Mb/s
• Zone fiber growing
• 80% fiber and increasing
• 35% 1 Gb/s - 65% 100
Mb/s
• Multimode fiber
dominates, OM3 preferred
(some OM4)
Campus Backbone
Data Centers
Source: Corning Analysis
• 60% fiber and increasing
• 1
,
2
,
4
,
8 and 10 Gb/s
• Multimode fiber dominates,
OM3/OM4 strongly preferred
• 95% fiber and increasing
• 10 Gb/s initial deployments
• 70% 1Gb/s - 25% 100Mb/s
• Fiber preferred, single-
mode fiber continues to
gain
Historically, there have been many benefits of fiber vs. copper • Performance OM4 – Higher data
Historically, there have been many
benefits of fiber vs. copper
Performance
OM4
– Higher data rates/
OM3
longer link lengths
– Low latency
OM2
N
e wor
t
k
secur y
it
10 Gb/s Link Lengths at 850 nm
OM1
– Immune to EMI,
RFI and cross-talk
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Distance (m)
– Longer cable life
Pathways and
space
Cat7
Cat6a
Smaller li hter
,
g
cables
Cat6
Less cable fuel
load
10GBASE-T Link Lengths
Cat5
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
– Easier installation
Distance (m)
Cop per
Fiber
With 10G the list of benefits of fiber vs. copper is growing • Electronics port density,
With 10G the list of benefits of fiber
vs. copper is growing
• Electronics port
density, power and
cooling efficiencies
= GREEN
10 Gb/s Operating Cost
Fiber vs. Copper
Fiber
Copper
~0.5 W
Power Consumption
~3-5 W
Cooling Requirements
• Cost position
changing with 10G
Transceiver Size
– TIA Fiber Optic LAN
Cost Model (fols.org)
Data Center Area
$
$$$$
– Complexities of 10G
copper testing
Multimode fiber can save you money Fiber Optic Cable • Fixed costs ~ the same regardless
Multimode fiber can save you money
Fiber Optic Cable
Fixed costs ~ the
same regardless of
fiber choice
Transceivers
24%
1%
Jumpers,
Connectors
< 1%
Transceiver costs ~
¼ of total system
costs
Patch Panel, Rack
< 1%
Key area for savings
Fixed Cost
Switch Electronics
with multimode fiber
74%
– Greatly outweighs
difference in single-
mode versus
multimode cable cost
Typical 300 meter backbone
Source: www.foundry.com, www.peppm.org, Corning analysis
Multimode fiber solution saves ~50% over single-mode fiber solution • Assumptions – – – 300 m,
Multimode fiber solution saves ~50%
over single-mode fiber solution
Assumptions
300 m, 24 fiber count cable
24 fiber Passive
Interconnect (x2)
18 x 1 Gb/s Transceivers
Relative System Costs: 1 Gigabit over 300m
2.5
Fiber Cable
Hardware
Tx/Rx
2
Key findings:
Small Δ for
10G capability
1.5
Cable very small portion of
link costs
1
MMF 850 nm (SX)
solutions always lower cost
0.5
OM3 fiber
Supports 10 Gb/s over
0
300m
OM2
OM3
OM4
OM-2 (LX) OS-2 (LX)
Lowest cost upgrade path
to 10G
LX = Long Wavelength = 1300 nm
850 nm continues to provide cost benefit at 10G and beyond
850 nm
850 n m
850 n m
130 0 nm
130 0 nm
Single -mode
850 nm continues to provide cost benefit at 10G and beyond • 850 nm VCSELs ~90%
850 nm continues to provide cost
benefit at 10G and beyond
850 nm VCSELs ~90% of
optical 1G enterprise market
10 Gb/s Transceivers
850 nm 10G VCSELs just
3.5
entering high-volume
850nm
3.0
manu ac ur ng
f
t
i
1300
nm
2.5
850 nm continues to be low-cost
solution for 10 Gb/s
2.0
Low cost solutions for 100 Gb/s
have been identified
1.5
1.0
SFP+ 850nm transceivers
continue to drive price down
0.5
0.0
LR (1300 nm) solutions may
2003
2005
2007
2009
2011
capture some market share in
Time
enterprise networks
Source: Corning estimates
Small
p
ercent of new installs
R e lative Cost
North American market now majority 50 µm Multimode Fiber Market Demand 75% 70% 65% 60% 55%
North American market now majority
50 µm
Multimode Fiber Market Demand
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%
45%
40%
35%
50 µm
62.5 µm
30%
Q1 2005
Q1 2006
Q1 2007
Q1 2008
Q1 2009
Q1 2010
Source: Burroughs Report
More 50 µm sales than 62.5 µm sales since 2008
Laser-Optimized 50 µm continues to grow 50 micron Market Demand 75% 70% 65% 60% 55% 50%
Laser-Optimized 50 µm continues to
grow
50 micron Market Demand
75%
70%
65%
60%
55%
50%
45%
40%
35%
OM2
30%
OM3/OM4
25%
Q1 2005
Q1 2006
Q1 2007
Q1 2008
Q1 2009
Q1 2010
Source: Burroughs Report
OM3/OM4 has been majority of 50 µm since 2007
Lasers require new bandwidth measurement systems Light Sources OFL ( O ver fill e d L
Lasers require new bandwidth
measurement systems
Light Sources
OFL
(
O
ver
fill
e
d L
aunc
h
)
• Designed to predict performance of low-
speed LEDs, not lasers
• Power distributed over 100% of the fiber
core, like LEDs
(Typically 10 and 100 Mb/s)
• Perturbations in index profile undetected
EMB (Effective Modal Bandwidth)
• DMD (Differential Mode Delay) based
measurement
• minEMBc or DMD-mask
• Power distributed in a narrow region
(1, 2, 4, 8, 10 Gb/s and higher)
• Simulates an actual laser launch
• More accurate indication of performance in
high-speed laser-based systems
Characterization Methods DMD (differential mode delay) Mask Fiber Core 1 of 2 DMD-based standards compliant measurements
Characterization Methods
DMD (differential mode delay) Mask
Fiber Core
1 of 2 DMD-based standards compliant measurements
Laser scanned across core
BW defined by most delayed pulse
DMD output is “Normalized”
6 Masks Applied for OM3 (3 masks for OM4)
Must only pass 1 mask to be OM3 (or OM4) compliant
Fiber Core
T Slow
T Fast
≈5μm
25%
Laser
1-2 μm
Laser
Laser
Laser
Laser
Pass = OM3 (2000 MHz.km EMB) or OM4 (4700 MHz.km EMB)
Fail = OM2 (< 2000 MHz.km EMB)
T delay
Characterization Methods minEMBc (min Effective Modal BW – calc) Fiber Core 1 of 2 DMD-based standards
Characterization Methods
minEMBc (min Effective Modal BW – calc)
Fiber Core
1 of 2 DMD-based standards compliant measurements
Laser scanned across core
Ten weighting functions that simulate full range of laser output
characteristics are used along with DMD test results to calculate EMBc
BW defined by most delayed pulse
Fiber Core
T Slow
T Fast
e.g. VCSEL #5
Bandwidth value
= 3128 MHz.km
≈5μm
Laser
Laser
Laser
Laser
Laser
Laser
e.g. VCSEL #3
Bandwidth value
= 2563 MHz.km
Laser
Laser
Laser
e.g. VCSEL #1
Bandwidth value
Laser
Laser
L
aser
== 2137
2137 MHz.km
MHz.km
Laser
Laser
Laser
minEMBc Value
T delay
“Hot inside” laser
“Mid-range” laser
Note: BW values provided for illustrations purposes only, drawing not scale
Different laser
characteristics simulated
“Hot outside” laser
Multimode fiber preferred for enterprise networks Single-mode Multimode Information carrying capacity X Distance supported X Fiber
Multimode fiber preferred for
enterprise networks
Single-mode
Multimode
Information carrying capacity
X
Distance supported
X
Fiber price
X
Connector price
X
Transceiver price
X
Ease of handling (core size)
X
Multimode = Lowest price system for shorter links (10G to 600m) with many
terminations
Single-mode = Best solution for high bandwidth longer links (10G > 600m)
TIA and IEC recommends the use of laser-optimized 50 µm multimode fiber for
backbone cabling because of its capability of supporting higher network speeds
over longer distances while being more cost-effective to implement than single-
mode fiber.
Part II • Next generation multimode fibers and standards – OM4 and next generati on speeds
Part II
• Next generation multimode fibers and
standards
– OM4 and next generati on speeds (16 Gb/ s, 40 Gb/ s
and 100 Gb/s)
– Bend-insensitive multimode fiber
OM4 Standard Approved by International Standards Organizations • OM4 is 50 μm fiber with higher effective
OM4 Standard Approved by International
Standards Organizations
OM4 is 50 μm fiber with higher effective modal bandwidth than OM3
Extra bandwidth can be used for higher bit rates, longer link lengths or
increased margin for more connectivity
Existing “OM” designations (per ISO/IEC 11801) are shown in the table
below
IEC proposal for OM4 will be harmonized with TIA
“OM”
Core
EMB
OFL 850/1300
10 G Link
100
G
Type
Diameter
(MHz.km)
(MHz.km)
Length
Link
(µm)
Length
OM1
62.5
-
200/500
33 m
-
OM2
50
- 500/500
82 m
-
OM3
50
2000
1500/500
300 m
100 m
OM4
50
4700
3500/500
550 m
150 m
Parallel optics are preferred for multimode fiber objectives 40 Gb/s • 4 fibers x 10 Gb/s
Parallel optics are preferred for
multimode fiber objectives
40 Gb/s
4 fibers x 10 Gb/s for transmit
4 fibers x 10 Gb/s for receive
100 Gb/s
10 fibers x 10 Gb/s for transmit
10 fibers x 10 Gb/s for receive
IEEE approves 40G/100G standard • The standard supports 40 Gb/s over: – At least 10km on
IEEE approves 40G/100G standard
The standard supports 40 Gb/s over:
At least 10km on single-mode fiber
At least 100m on OM3 MMF
At least 150m on OM4 MMF
At least 7m over a copper cable assembly
– At least 1m over a backplane
The standard supports 100 Gb/s over:
At least 40km on single-mode fiber
At least 10km on single-mode fiber
At least 100m on OM3 MMF
At least 150m on OM4 MMF
– At least 7m over a copper cable assembly
OM3 100 meter distance allows for 1.5 dB of connector loss
OM4 150 meter distance allows for 1.0 dB of connector loss
Value proposition for OM4 depends on application Applications System Operating Link Length vs. Laser Bandwidth 600
Value proposition for OM4 depends
on application
Applications
System Operating Link Length vs. Laser Bandwidth
600
10G Ethernet
500
400
40/100G Ethernet
16 G Fibre Channel
300
200
4G Fibre Channel
100
0
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
OM3
Laser Bandwidth EMB (MHz.km)
OM4
Significant value for OM4 at 10G Ethernet
Little value for OM4 at 4G regardless of EMB value
Dispersion limited because of broad spectral width
16G has tighter spectral width than 4G so value increases
Although 40G/100G is based on 10G arrays, looser specifications for 40G/100G
transceiver arrays significantly reduce the value
Link le ngth (m)
OM4 Bene fit
OM4 at 40G/100G extends cost effective MMF solution • Objective of at least 100 m 100%
OM4 at 40G/100G extends cost
effective MMF solution
Objective of at least 100 m
100%
on OM3 covers ~ 70% of
data center links
80%
Reducin
g
connector loss to
60%
same level as OM4 allows
OM3 to support 120 m
40%
Extending OM4 distance to
20%
150 m with existing
transceivers covers ~ 90%
0%
of data center links
0
50
100
150
200
250
Cable Length (m)
OM3 and OM4 fibers can
support even longer
Length Distribution
Cumulative Frequency
distances but transceiver
,
Source: Corning Cable Systems
spec change is required
Re lative Freq uency
Cum ulative Fr equency
Bend Insensitive Multimode Fiber
Bend Insensitive Multimode Fiber
Moves, adds and changes (MACs) can cause a structured cabling system to look more like a
Moves, adds and changes (MACs) can
cause a structured cabling system to
look more like a rats nest
However…
Initial installations that follow
bend radius guides and
structured cabling paths don’t
have to worry about signal loss
due to inappropriate bends
Over time, MACs lead to mis-
managed cabling resulting in:
• Congestion in sub-floor space
• Bend-induced attenuation
• Restricted air flow
• Negative impact on cooling efficiency
Data center “wish list” points to need for effective cable management • Increase density of factory-
Data center “wish list” points to
need for effective cable management
Increase density of factory-
terminated solutions
Improve slack management
Relieve congestion in pathways
and spaces
Improve airflow
Eliminate polarity concerns
Improve MACs
Cabling is Critical to Network Performance • Cabling is a relatively small fraction of the initial
Cabling is Critical to Network
Performance
Cabling is a relatively small
fraction of the initial network
spend
Cabling has the longest
expected lifetime of the major
network elements
The potential for network
failure due to
p
oor cablin
g
is
high
Percentage of
Expected
Element
Cabling often an “afterthought”
Overall Cost
Lifespan
but it shouldn’t be
SOFTWARE
40%
5 ears
y
– Key to ensure that the cabling
COMPUTERS
30%
3 years
won’t become the most
SERVERS
20%
3 years
expensive part of the network
NETWORK
10%
15 years
CABLING
Source: Datalan-Network-Infrastructures
Fundamentals of macrobending in multimode fiber • Multimode fiber has many modes of light traveling through
Fundamentals of macrobending
in multimode fiber
Multimode fiber has many modes of light traveling through the core
As each of these modes moves closer to the edge of the core it is
more likely to escape, espec ially if the fiber is bent
In a traditional multimode fiber, as the bend radius is decreased, the
amount of light that leaks out of the core increases
Core
Dissipation of
energy
Cladding
Bend-insensitive multimode fiber prevents light from escaping • A specially engineered optical trench can be used
Bend-insensitive multimode fiber
prevents light from escaping
A specially engineered optical trench can be used to trap the energy
in the many modes which propagate within the fiber core
Keeping the light in the core, even in the most challenging bending
scenarios, significantly reduces the bend-induced attenuation
Trench acts like barrier
Energy is confined inside the fiber
Standard OM3/OM4 fiber versus bend-insensitive OM3/OM4 fiber  Up to 10x better bend performance than standard
Standard OM3/OM4 fiber versus
bend-insensitive OM3/OM4 fiber
Up to 10x better bend performance than
standard 50 µm fiber
10
High bandwidth OM3 and OM4
capability
1
Improved optical performance
0.1
Fully standards compliant;
with installed base
Compatible
May be spliced/ connectorized with
commercially available equipment
0.01
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
Bend Radius (mm)
Multimode Std
IEC 60793-2-10
Multimode Std
ITU – G.651.1
New Level of Bend
Performance
Bend Radius
Number of Turns
37.5 mm
15 mm
7.5 mm
100 2
2
Max Induced Attn @ 850 nm
0.5 dB
1 dB
New level of bend performance @
850 nm
0.05 dB
0.1 dB
0.2 dB
Macr obend loss
, 850 nm , 2 turns (d B)
Typical Storage Area Network (SAN) link includes > 30 bends
Typical Storage Area Network (SAN)
link includes > 30 bends
Bend-insensitive OM3 fiber increases the spare margin 4 Max IL and Margin for 300 m 10G
Bend-insensitive OM3 fiber
increases the spare margin
4
Max IL and Margin for 300 m 10G link
3
2
Protected “Headroom” or Spare
Operating Margin
Increase Spare
1
System Margin
Protect Link Power
0
Budget
Conventional
Loss
Chromatic
Improved
Bend insensitive
OM3 fiber
due to
Dispersion
Attenuation
OM3 fiber
with bending
bending
with bend
Benefits of Bend-Insensitive OM3
Tot al Insertion Loss
(dB)
Reliability is Key Concern for System Designers Cause of Downtime • Cables and connectors accounted for
Reliability is Key Concern for
System Designers
Cause of Downtime
Cables and connectors
accounted for 6% of downtime
Structured cabling can effect
43% of network downtime
Cost of Downtime
Cost of downtime varies based
on organizational size
Network degradations are
more difficult to trace
Bend Insensitive multimode fiber is green Drawing To Scale A Substitute bend- insensitive multimode fiber for
Bend Insensitive multimode fiber
is green
Drawing To Scale
A
Substitute bend-
insensitive multimode
fiber for conventional
50 µm fiber
B
Size of “box” with
bend insensitive
50 µm fiber
Size of “box” with
conventional 50
µm fiber
Loss of A = Loss of B
Benefits
• Better cooling/airflow
• Reduced energy usage
If total energy costs are ~ $1M per year:
• Lower OPEX
2% reduction
$20,000/yr savings
• Smaller data center footprint
• Supports green data center
Make connector side-pulls a non-event Standard 50 µm fiber Bend-insensitive 50 µm fiber
Make connector side-pulls a
non-event
Standard 50 µm fiber
Bend-insensitive 50
µm fiber
Keep your network clear with bend-insensitive multimode fiber Standard 50 µm fiber Bend-insensitive 50 µm fiber
Keep your network clear with
bend-insensitive multimode fiber
Standard 50 µm fiber
Bend-insensitive 50
µm fiber
Bend insensitive multimode fiber is fully standards compliant and backwards compatible with installed base • A
Bend insensitive multimode fiber is fully standards
compliant and backwards compatible with installed base
A well designed bend insensitive multimode fiber is fully
standards compliant and backwards compatible
You can use bend insensitive multimode fiber with any
other standards-compliant 50 micron multimode fiber
You do not have to use special tools or methods to use
a bend insensitive multimode fiber
You do need the benefits of bend-insensitive multimode
fiber in the enterprise network
Summary • Multimode fiber remains the most cost-effective choice for enterprise networks • Bend-insensitive multimode fibers
Summary
Multimode fiber remains the most cost-effective choice
for enterprise networks
Bend-insensitive multimode fibers can help solve key
concerns of enterprise network operators
OM4 fibers are now standardized and provide a path for
extended distances for next generation speeds
Next generation standards will use OM3 and OM4 fibers
to provide low cost future-proof solutions for enterprise
networks