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turbulence
combustion
finite volume
solution
moving
post-
model
model
discretisation
controls*
mesh*
processing*
conservation
mathematical
CFD cpde
finite volume
computer
RESULTS
equations
model
STAR-CD
model
(differential)
wall film
solution
initial/boundary
operating
optimisation
spray model
model
algorithm
conditions*
conditions*
geometry*

Discipline

CFD

SOFTWARE

COMPONENT

FUNCTION

4 h
1 h
1 h
Surface Meshing
Surface Clean-up
2 h
Volume Meshing
Post-processing
••
8 h
CFD Solution

[

T

• V S

S

V

»

»

»

»

∇∇φ ∇∇
∫∫
Γ ∇∇φ
∇∇
dA

No slip Wall
No
No slip
No slip Wall
slip Wall
Wall

w
u

y

x

y

x

Flow direction
L
≈≈≈≈3L-8L
≈≈≈≈10L
CFD Basics - 28

CFD Basics – Boundary Conditions - Symmetry

Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry
Symmetry plane
plane
plane
plane indicates
indicates
indicates
indicates aaaa surface
surface
surface
surface where
where
where
where normal
normal
normal
normal vel
vel
vel
velocity
ocity
ocity
ocity and
and
and
and normal
nor
nor
normal
mal
mal
velocity
velocity
velocity
are
are
are all
all
all
all zero.
zero.
zero.
zero. (n(n(n(n indicates
indicates
indicates
indicates the
the
the
the uuuunit
nit
nit
nit normal)
normal)
normal)
normal)
n

u

CFD Basics - Turbulence

u(t)
U
u'(t)
High Reynolds Number
t

2

2

»

»

3/4

3/2

...
of
the Surface
Meshing: ...
MESHER
...
of
the Volume
(calculation)
Fluid

triangle

Hexahedral
Tetrahedral

39,587
39,587
39,587
39,587
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
21,872
21,872
21,872
21,872
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
593,888
593,888
593,888
593,888
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS

2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
2,322,106
TETS
TETS
TETS
TETS
593,888
593,888
593,888
593,888
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS
POLYS

MESH
MESH
MESH
MESH DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
DEPENDENCY
7
TET
TET
TET
TET
POLY
POLY
POLY
POLY
6
5
6.3
6.3
6.3
6.3
hours
hours
hours
hours
4
> 5% error
> 5% error
> 5% error
> 5% error
43.25
43.25
43.25 hours
43.25
hours
hours
hours
1.6
1.6
1.6
1.6 hours
hours
hours
hours
10101010 hours
hours
hours
hours
< 3% error
< 3% error
< 3% error
< 3% error
3
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
Delta P (kPa)

Number of Cells

Low Quality
High Quality
CFD Basics - 80
Convection
Diffusion

CFD Basics – Grid Generation Guidelines

Insufficient
Insufficient mesh
Insufficient mesh
Insufficient mesh
mesh
resolution resolution
resolution
resolution totototo resolve
resolve resolve
resolve
flow.
flow.
flow.
flow.
Refinement
Refinement enables better
Refinement enables
Refinement enables better
enables better
better
resolution of the flow.
resolution
resolution of
resolution of the flow.
of the
the flow.
flow.
CFD Basics - 83

Client
Client
Client
Client
Server
Server
Server
Server