SPECIAL REPORT: Libya after Gadhafi Future of Libya with Derek Stoffel - September 8, 201111:44 Arab Spring Revisited24
:00 The latest: Libyan rebel fighters have captured the airport and other parts of Sabha, a southern city that is one of the last remaining strongholds of Col. Moammar Gadhafi's forces. The push to capture Gadhafi's hometown of Sirte and the mountain enclave of Bani Walid, however, has been stymied by well-armed loyalist forces, which have fought back with rockets and other heavy weaponry. Since rebels captured Tripoli a month ago, the ousted Gadhafi has been in hiding. He has not been found. Amnesty International reports that forces supporting Gadhafi killed and injured scores of unarmed protesters, made critics disappear, used illegal cluster bombs, launched artillery, mortar and rocket attacks against residential areas and, without any legal proceedings, executed captives. Amnesty says that anti-Gadhafi forces "also tortured and ill-treated captured soldiers, suspected 'mercenaries' and other alleged Gadhafi loyalists." In a recent speech in Tripoli, National Transitional Council chairman Mustafa Abdel Jalil told a crowd of 10,000 in Martyrs' Square that the NTC strives "for a state that will have Islamic shariah law as the basis of legislation." In the latest statement attributed to Gadhafi that was read on Syria's Al-Rai TV, he is quoted as saying, "There is nothing more to do except fight until victory." Canadian diplomats, including ambassador Sandra McCardell, are back on the ground in Libya, refurbishing and securing the mission so they can resume normal diplomatic relations. And Canada is moving to unfreeze $2.2 billion worth of Libyan assets, Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird said on Sept. 13. China has officially recognized the National Transitional Council of Libya as the ruling authority in Libya. Oil production has reached 160,000 barrels per day at the Sarir oil field in eastern Libya. The fight for Libya Background: Libya in crisis Who: Although Gadhafi, who has ruled the North African country since 1969, had vowed to fight to the death, his spokesman said on Aug. 28 that the embattled Libyan leader was willing to negotiate a transfer of power. Since pro-democracy demonstrations began on Feb. 18, the embattled leader has variously accused them of being the work of Western infiltrators, drug-addled youth and al-Qaeda. An International Criminal Court arrest warrant alleges Gadhafi and his inner circle plotted a "state policy … aimed at deterring and quelling by any means — including by the use of lethal force — the demonstrations by civilians against the regime." The people: To this day, most Libyans identify themselves based on tribal alliances. Where: Early battles in the Libyan civil war focused on areas in the rebel-dominated east, such as the cities of Brega and Ajdabiya. All along, NATO planes, including Canadian jets, targeted Libyan air defences, especially around Tripoli and the western city of Misrata. After consolidating their positions in the east, the anti-Gadhafi forces closed in on Tripoli. The resources: UN intervention: The UN Security Council voted on March 17 to approve a no-fly zone in Libya and air strikes against Gadhafi forces but stopped short of putting troops on the ground. On March 31, NATOassumed control over the military operation, taking over from the U.S., France and Britain, which had been leading the mission, and installing Canadian Lt.-Gen. Charles Bouchard as commander of the operation. -1-
The International Organization for Migration estimates more than 345,000 people have fled Libya since the conflict began, including many on boats to Italy. Canadian impact: Canadian troops are part of the NATO-led mission in Libya, and while visiting the United Nations on Sept. 20, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that he would ask Parliament for a three-month extension to the Canadian mission. "We will participate in the mission until armed threats emanating from Gadhafi forces are eliminated from the country," Harper told reporters in New York. "We will ask Parliament to extend the mission by three months but I'll be frank with you in saying, we're pretty optimistic that we'll achieve our objectives well before that timeline." The House of Commons voted overwhelmingly in favour of a previous three-and-a-half-month mission extension in June. Libya photo galleries CBCNews.ca has about 20 photo galleries on Libya, including one onCanada‘s Air Force in Libya. To help find them, use this Google search link. On Aug. 9, Foreign Affairs Minister John Baird announced that Canada had declared diplomats at the Libyan Embassy in Ottawa personae non gratae and ordered them to leave the country, freezing their bank accounts in the process. Canada has recognized the rebel-formed National Transitional Council as the legitimate government of Libya. On June 9, Defence Minister Peter MacKay said the Canadian mission in Libya has cost $26 million and could rise to $60 million by September. That includes the cost of fuel for fighter planes and patrol craft as well as the 300 laser-guided bombs dropped between March 19 to June 2. Canada has seven CF-18 fighter jets, two CP-140 Aurora patrol planes, two CC-130 Hercules tankers and a refueller in the region helping to enforce the no-fly zone and arms embargo against Libya, and the warship HMCS Charlottetown was there but is now home. The HMCS Vancouver has arrived in its place. At the height of the mission, there were about 650 Canadian personnel in the area. About 435 personnel are still there. PHOTOS: Gadhafi through the years ________________
2011 Libyan civil war From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For more details on this topic, see Timeline of the 2011 Libyan civil war. Cities under National Transitional Councilcontrol Cities under Muammar Gaddafi's control Ongoing fighting Date Location Status 15 February 2011 – ongoing (221 days) Libya Ongoing
Anti-Gaddafi forces capture and holdTripoli, Benghazi, Misrata, Bayd aand other Libyan cities
92 countries -2-
and UN diplomatically recognise NTC as sole governing authority for Libya Belligerents National Transitional Council
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Libyan Armed Forces
National Liberation Army
Libyan Army Libyan Air Force Libyan Navy Paramilitary forces Pro-Gaddafi
Free Libyan Air Force Anti-Gaddafi
Foreign military coordinators
UN member statesenforcing UNSC Resolution 1973:
NATO Jordan Qatar Sweden UAE
Tunisian Army(border clashes) Commanders and leaders Mustafa Abdul Jalil (Chairman of theNTC) Abdul Hafiz Ghoga (Vice-Chairman of theNTC) Mahmoud Jibril (Interim Libyan Prime Minister) Jalal al-Digheily Omar El-Hariri Suleiman Mahmoud
  
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Gaddafi's sons: Saif al-Islam Gaddafi Khamis al-Gaddafi Al-Mu'tasim-Billah alGaddafi Al-Saadi al-Gaddafi Military leaders: Abdullah Senussi (Head of Military Intelligence) Abu-Bakr Yunis Jabr -3-
Abdul Fatah Younis Haftar Mahdi al-Harati Abu Oweis Abdul Hassan Khalid Shahmah
(Minister of Defence) Massoud Abdelhafid (Head of the secret police) Baghdadi Mahmudi (POW) (Libyan Prime Minister) Mahdi al-Arabi (POW) (Deputy chief of staff of the army and commander of special forces)
Anders Fogh Rasmussen (Secretary General) James G. Stavridis (SACEUR) Charles Bouchard (Operational Commander) Ralph Jodice (Air Commander) Rinaldo Veri (Martime Commander) Carter Ham
Moussa Ibrahim (Libyan government spokesman) Mohamed Abu AlQuasim al-Zwai (POW) (Secretary-General of theGeneral People's Congress) Abuzed Omar Dorda (POW) (Head of National Intelligence) Khouildi Hamidi (POW) (Deputy head of the secret police) Salih Rajab al-Mismari (Minister of Public Security) Rafi al-Sharif (Head of the Navy) Ali Sharif al-Rifi (General and Head of the Air Force) Ali Kana (General and commander of southern forces) Awad Hamza (Infantry leader) Bashir Hawadi (General and field commander) Mustafa al-Kharoubi (General and military strategist) Nasr al-Mabrouk (General and primary police commander) -4-
Stephen Harper (Prime Minister of Canada) Marc Lessard (Commander of CEFCOM) Lars Løkke Rasmussen (Prime Minister of Denmark) Knud Bartels Nicolas Sarkozy Édouard Guillaud Silvio Berlusconi Rinaldo Veri Jens Stoltenberg Harald Sunde David Cameron (Prime Minister of the UK) Sir Stuart Peach (Chief of Joint
000 missing The 2011 Libyan civil war. 4.000 defecting soldiers and volunteers 20. is an ongoing armed conflict in the North African state ofLibya being fought between forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi and his regime and those seeking to depose him.000–40.132–6.522 opposition fighters and supporters killed.775–1.321 soldiers killed (see here).070–2. The situation began on 15 February 2011 as a series of peaceful protests which were met with military force by the Gaddafi regime. 792+ captured
1 airman killed in traffic accident in Italy 3 Dutch Marinescaptured (later released)
2 soldiers killed Estimated total casualties on both sides.894 missing (see here) 2.000 killed.Operations) Barack Obama (President of the United States) Carter Ham Sam Locklear Abdullah II Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani Sverker Göranson Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan
Mansour Dao (Head of Gaddafi's personal guards)
Strength 35. including civilians: 30.000soldiers and militia
International Forces: Numerous air and maritime forces (see here) Casualties and losses 5. also known as the Libyan Revolution. 1.000–40. The protests escalated into -5-
stability and economic developments. Libya was officially run by a system of people's committees which served as local governments for the country's subdivisions. In August. rebel forces engaged in a coastal offensive and took most of their lost territory. In practice. as he repeatedly changed affections to avoid the rise of a clear successor and rival. The resolution also referred the actions of the government to the International Criminal Court for investigation. he skillfully marginalized supporters and rivals. Libya under Gaddafi was officially known as the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya by the United Nations. democratic state run according to the philosophy of Gaddafi's Green Book. but failed to uphold it. the African Union officially recognised the National Transitional Council as the legitimate representative of Libya. as the executive branch. The Gaddafi government then announced a ceasefire. composed of members of Gaddafi's tribe or members of other tribes loyal to him. thus maintaining a delicate balance of powers. Under Gaddafi. Local militias and Revolutionary Committees across the country were also kept well-armed. On 20 September. Background Main article: History of Libya under Gaddafi
Leadership Muammar Gaddafi was the de-facto ruler of Libya since he led a military coup that overthrew King Idris I in 1969. WikiLeaks' disclosure of confidential US diplomatic cables revealed US diplomats there speaking of Gaddafi's "mastery of tactical maneuvering". regular military units were poorly armed and trained. Gaddafi. the Khamis Brigade. The United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution freezing the assets of Gaddafi and ten members of his inner circle. In early March. an indirectly-elected General People's Congress as the legislature. and restricting their travel. who continued to dominate all aspects of government. By contrast. and the General People's Committee. was led by his son Khamis. and adopted laws based on his own ideology. He abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951. This was followed by an arrest warrant issued by Interpol on 8 September. Gaddafi's forces rallied. Development and corruption -6-
. and the country's political system was widely seen as a rubber-stamp. pushed eastwards and re-took several coastal cities before attacking Benghazi. and captured the capital city of Tripoli. and were armed with largely outdated military equipment. however. While placing relatives and loyal members of his tribe in central military and government positions. these structures were manipulated to ensure the dominance of Gaddafi. Libya was theoretically a decentralized. led by a Secretary-General. and an arrest warrant for Gaddafi was issued on 27 June. Until 16 September 2011.000 personnel. with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing a government based in Benghazi named the National Transitional Council whose stated goal is to overthrow the Gaddafi-led government and hold democratic elections. with Gaddafi retaining a ceremonial position. Its most powerful units were four crack brigades of highly equipped and trained soldiers.N. A further U. while Gaddafi evaded capture and loyalists engaged in a rearguard campaign. The Libyan Army consisted of about 50. resolutionauthorized member states to establish and enforce a no-fly zone over Libya. This extended even to his own sons. deliberately kept Libya's military relatively weak.an uprising that spread across the country. The UN now recognises the National Transitional Council as the legal representative of the country. One. fearing a military coup against his government.
2. Libya's oil wealth being spread over a relatively small population has given a higher GDP per capita than in neighbouring states. Human rights and violations in Libya Further information: Human rights in Libya According to the 2009 Freedom of the Press Index. the only sewage facility in Banghazi is over 40 years old. two neighbouring states that had uprisings preceding Libya's. To calm down opposition. including luxurious homes. whose revolutions preceded the outbreak of protests in Libya. Some of the worst economic conditions are in the eastern parts of the state. and the government's practices (perceived corruption. Gaddafi created Revolutionary committees to keep tight control over internal dissent in 1973. One paper speculates that such situation creates a wider contrast between good education. Not much housing or infrastructure were developed for 40 years. which soared in the 1970s.74% of Libyan citizens were unemployed. high demand for democracy. or to specific government supporters. and in the education sector. which has already resulted in the ousting of longterm presidents of adjacent Tunisia and Egypt. Libya's press was rated as the most censored in the Middle East and North Africa. In 2011.3% had just one. and was spent on arms purchases and on sponsoring violence around the world. and about one-third lived below the national poverty line.  Libya's GDP per capita (PPP). An estimated 20. supply of democracy). and untreated sewage has resulted in environmental problems. once a breadbasket of the ancient world.  Social media played an important role in organizing the opposition. ranking 146th out of 178 countries. the poor medical system had become an infuriating symbol of the spotty distribution of resources in the country. Much of the state's income comes from its oil production. More than 16% of families had none of its members earning a stable income. The civil war is viewed as a part of the Arab Spring. The lack of decent medical care often forced Libyans to seek medical care in neighboring countries such as Tunisia and Egypt. Ten to 20 percent of Libyans worked as informants for these committees. Governments with resource curse revenue have a lower need for taxes from other industries and consequently feel less pressure to develop their middle class. Gaddafi amassed a vast personal fortune during his 42-year rule. A leaked diplomatic cable describes Libyan economy as "akleptocracy in which the government – either the al-Qadhafi family itself or its close political allies – has a direct stake in anything worth buying. there was a consistent labor shortage with over a million migrant workers present on the market. while 43. with the initial protests all using similar slogans. Hollywood film investments and private parties with American pop stars. These migrant workers formed the bulk of the refugees leaving Libya after the beginning of hostilities. selling or owning". Under Gaddafi rule. in factories. Up to the mid -7-
. Gaddafi only extracted oil there. and literacy rate were better than in Egypt and Tunisia. human development index. Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2. Petroleum revenues contributes up to 58% of Libya's GDP. The government often executed dissidents through public hangings and mutilations and rebroadcast them on state television channels. Surveillance took place in the government. they can use the income from natural resources to offer services to the population. which was worse than that of Egypt (rank 98th) and Tunisia (rank 59th). Despite one of the highest unemployment rates in the region. Gaddafi's relatives adopted lavish lifestyles.Most of the business enterprise has been controlled by Gaddafi and his family. For example. political system. Libya is the most-censored state in the Middle East and North Africa.
and authorities tried to disperse protesters with water cannons. "call[ed] on the Internet for demonstrations to be held in support of greater freedoms in Libya" inspired by the Tunisian and Egyptian revolutions. beginnings of National Transitional Council Beginnings of open protest Between 13 and 16 January. Gaddafi still provided bounties on his critics.Bani Walid and other cities broke into and occupied housing that the government was building. met with political activists. The protest was broken up violently by police. Jamal al-Hajji.  The plans to protest were -8-
. resulting in clashes in which 38 people were injured. the real reason for the present arrest appeared to be his call for demonstrations. As late as 2004. It. Hundreds gathered at Maydan al-Shajara in Benghazi. including $1 million for one Libyan journalist in the United Kingdom. Amnesty International claimed that because al-Hajji had previously been imprisoned for his non-violent political opinions.  The National Conference for the Libyan Oppositionasked that all groups opposed to the Gaddafi regime protest on 17 February. Dissent was illegal under Law 75 of 1973. In late January. In Bayda and Zintan. the protesters set up tents in the town centre. political commentator and accountant. among them ten security personnel. A "Day of Rage" in Libya and by Libyans in exile was planned for 17 February. journalists. Libyan security forces allegedly responded with lethal force. The novelist Idris AlMesmari was arrested hours after giving an interview with Al Jazeera about the police reaction to protests. Darnah and Bayda. a writer. or modified versions. Uprising and civil war Main article: Timeline of the 2011 Libyan civil war before intervention A girl in Benghazi with a placard saying that the Libyan tribes are united. in memory of demonstrations in Benghazi five years earlier. He was arrested on 1 February by plain-clothes police officers. In early February. By 27 January. between 500 and 600 demonstrators protested in front of Benghazi's police headquarters after the arrest of human rights lawyer Fathi Terbil. Gaddafi. and protesters also clashed with police in Baydaand attacked government offices. foreign languages such as English and French were banned from school syllabus and talking with foreigners about politics carried a three-year prison term. Libya's intelligence service conducted assassinations of Libyan dissidents around the world. On the evening of 15 February. Benghazi. Darnah.
The Libyan flag is flown from a communications tower in Bayda in July. upset at delays in the building of housing units and over political corruption. protesters in Bayda. and charged on 3 February with injuring someone with his car. has been used by many protesters as anopposition flag.
The flag of the former Kingdom of Libya.1980s. In Zintan. unrest and confrontations began in earnest on 15 February 2011. and Gaddafi regularly asserted that anyone guilty of founding a political party would be executed. The armed protests continued the following day in Benghazi. the government had responded to the housing unrest with a €20 billion investment fund to provide housing and development. on 23 February 2011 The protests. Until recently. Anti-Gaddafi movement. and media figures and warned them that they would be held responsible if they disturbed the peace or created chaos in Libya. hundreds of protesters in each town called for an end of the Gaddafi regime and set fire to police and security buildings. on behalf of the Jamahiriya.
"much Western media coverage has from the outset presented a very one-sided view of the logic of events. Military units who have joined the rebellion and many volunteers have formed an army to defend against Jamahiriya attacks and to work to bring Tripoli under the influence of Jalil. volunteers turned a former headquarters of the regime into a centre for helping protesters. police and army personnel later withdrew from Benghazi after being overwhelmed by protesters. Protesters torched a number of government buildings. such as a rock band from Benghazi called the "Guys Underground". Ibn Thabit claims that ―has been attacking Gaddafi with his music since 2008‖ when he posted his first song on the internet. In Bayda.‖ Rap. -9-
. Darnah. protesters managed to burn security buildings and the People's Hall. In Tripoli. You cannot escape Our revenge will catch you As a train roars through a wall We will drown you. An anonymous hip hop artist called Ibn Thabit has given a voice to "disenfranchised Libyans looking for a nonviolent way to express their political will". including Libya.The army withdrew from the city of Bayda. titled "Moammar – the coward". Protests
Benghazi. Organization Libyan Boy Scouts helping in the social services in Benghazi. Music has been controlled and dissenting cultural figures have been arrested or tortured in Arab Spring countries. On 19 February.  In Tobruk. On his website. used metaphors to cloak the censure of the authorities. According to Amnesty International. See also: National Transitional Council Many opposition participants have called for a return to the 1952 constitution and a transition to multiparty democracy. witnesses in Libya reported helicopters firing into crowds of antigovernment protesters. Ajdabiya. portraying the protest movement as entirely peaceful and repeatedly suggesting that the regime's security forces were unaccountably massacring unarmed demonstrators who presented no security challenge". they then seized the local radio station. Hip hop and traditional music. Libyan security forces fired live ammunition into the armed protests. weeks before the riots began in Libya are indicative of the rebel sentiment. andBayda. beside other genres. The group released a song just before the uprising entitled ―Like My Father Always Says‖ to ridicule an autocratic fictional male head of a family which was a veiled reference to Colonel Gaddafi. On 18 February. Cultural revolt ‘Al-Soo'al’ (The Question) ―Muammar: You have never served the people Muammar: You'd better give up Confess. including a police station. unconfirmed reports indicated that the local police force and riot-control units joined the protesters. Some groups. Lyrics of a song ‗Al-Soo'al‘ released by Ibn Thabit on YouTube on 27 January 2011.inspired
the Tunisian and Egyptian
revolution. have played a role in encouraging the dissidents to Gaddafi's regime. Az Zintan. The music has provided an important platform by means of communication amongst the demonstrators. The music has helped create moral support and encouraged a spirit of resistance and revolt against the regimes. Some army personnel also joined the protesters.
Teachers and engineers have set up a committee to collect weapons. A New York Times online article also comments that "it seems that plenty of the black Africans captured as mercenaries were never actually involved in the fight". But some also fought as pro-Gaddafi mercenaries. For example. stated that on visits to detention centres in Zawiya and Tripoli. as is theObaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade which has been held responsible for the assassination of top rebel commander Gen Abdel Fattah Younes. doing everything from managing hotels to sweeping floors. Targeting of black Libyans and sub-Saharan Africans In August 2011.000 pizzas a day to fighters. students. and to give a political "face" to the opposition to present to the world.  The Islamist group Libyan Islamic Fighting Group is considered part of the rebel movement. in Misrata people organized a pizza service which delivered up to 8. The council refers to the Libyan state as the Libyan Republic and it now has a website. and oil workers.  On 29 March.Volunteers reportedly guard the port. Foreign aid workers are also claiming to be prohibited from officially talking about the allegations. Libyans have said that they have found abandoned torture chambers and devices that have been used in the past. the political and international affairs committee of the Council presented its eight-point plan for Libya in The Guardian newspaper. Gaddafi's administration had repeatedly asserted that the rebels included al-Qaeda fighters.10 -
. but also added that there is not sufficient information to confirm there is any significant al-Qaeda or terrorist presence. and a contingent of professional soldiers that defected from the Libyan Army and joined the rebels. with additional reports of forced labour. An Amnesty International statement. The main objectives of the group did not include forming an interim government. Some of the rebels oppose tribalism and wear vests bearing slogans such as "No to tribalism. and many migrant workers [-] fled ahead of the rebels. Former Jamahiriya Justice Minister Mustafa Abdel Jalil said in February that the new government will prepare for elections and they could be held in three months. no to factionalism". local banks and oil terminals to keep the oil flowing.  The Benghazi-based opposition government has called for a no-fly zone and airstrikes against the Jamahiriya."  The Miami Herald reported that some African women have claimed rebels are raping them in refugee camps. but instead to coordinate resistance efforts between the different towns held in rebel control. Composition of rebel forces The rebels are composed primarily of civilians.
. as well as rebel-controlled radio stations. The National Transitional Council (Arabic: المجلس الوطني االنتقالي ) was established on 27 February in an effort to consolidate efforts for change in the rule of Libya. Stavridis stated that intelligence reports suggested "flickers" of al-Qaeda activity were present among the rebels. Other news sources including The Independent and CNN have reported on the targeting of black people in rebel held areas. Denials of al-Qaeda membership were issued by the rebels. such as teachers. An independent newspaper called Libya appeared in Benghazi. fearing they would be mistaken for mercenaries. Amnesty International was informed that between one third and half of those detained were from Sub-Saharan Africa. Likewise supply lines were run by volunteers. released on 30 August 2011. the UNHCR issued a strong call for the rights and lives of sub-Saharan Africans living in Libya to be protected due to reports that black Africans were being targeted by the rebel forces as cities fell. NATO's Supreme Allied Commander James G. stating they would hold free and fair elections and draft a national constitution. lawyers. "Hundreds of thousands of sub-Saharan Africans worked in Gaddafi's Libya.
stormed hospitals and removed the dead. IV drips. The orderly claimed that ambulances brought in three or four corpses at a time. which supported Gaddafi prior to its capture by anti-Gaddafi fighters in August. according to an 11 September report from The Sunday Telegraph. "Taworgha no longer exists." Gaddafi's response Further information: Muammar Gaddafi's response to the 2011 Libyan civil war Gaddafi has accused his opponents as those who have been influenced by hallucinogenic drugs put in drinks and pills. and commanders of the Misrata Brigade are refusing to allow the displaced townspeople to return. including assault rifles and machine guns. coffee and Nescafé. He has specifically referred to substances in milk. Responding to demands that he step down. as he held a purely symbolic position like Queen Elizabeth. to control oil and enslave the Libyan people. anti-aircraft weaponry. as well as knives against protesters. Injured demonstrators were sometimes denied access to hospitals and ambulance transport. He referred to the protesters as "cockroaches" and "rats". and that after the ice lockers were filled to
. and that the people were in power. Massacres The Libyan government employed snipers. intellectuals and other prominent opposition sympathizers disappeared during the early days of the conflict in Gaddafi-controlled cities. reported flights between Tripoli and a dedicated military base in Belarus which only handles stockpiled weaponry and military equipment. Injured protesters were either summarily executed or had their oxygen masks. Gaddafi later also claimed that the revolt against his rule is the result of a colonialist plot by foreign states. has been emptied of its mostly black inhabitants in what appeared to be a "major reprisal against supporters of the Gaddafi regime".11 -
. particularly blaming France. He has also blamed alcohol. Amnesty International reported that writers.  He called himself a "warrior". Gaddafi claimed that he had not yet ordered the use of force. and wires connected to the monitors removed. helicopter gunships. the US and the UK. One commander was quoted as saying. Gaddafi's forces were documented using ambulances in their attacks. he claimed that he could not step down. artillery. and warships against demonstrations and funeral processions. In multiple incidents. The government also banned giving blood transfusions to people who had taken part in the demonstrations. The dead and injured were piled into vehicles and taken away. Gaddafi has claimed that Bin Laden and Al-Qaeda are distributing these hallucinogenic drugs. and threatened that "everything will burn" when he did.The town of Taworgha. Security forces. including members of Gaddafi's Revolutionary Committees. Rebel fighter in hospital in Tripoli. and vowed to fight on and die a "martyr". and that they may have been subjected to torture or execution. The Swedish peace research institute SIPRI. Amnesty International also reported that security forces targeted paramedics helping injured protesters. possibly for cremation. Doctors were prevented from documenting the numbers of dead and wounded. but an orderly in a Tripoli hospital morgue estimated to the BBC that 600–700 protesters were killed in Green Square in Tripoli on 20 February. and urged his supporters to leave their homes and attack protesters "in their lairs". and vowed not to step down and to cleanse Libya house by house until the insurrection was crushed. Security forces and foreign mercenaries repeatedly used firearms. warplanes. Gaddafi declared that people who don't "love" him "do not deserve to live".
 International Criminal Court chief prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo estimated that 500–700 people were killed by security forces in February 2011. including the rape of children. "shooting at protesters was systematic"." Executions of own soldiers Gaddafi's protesters. money and weapons for hired followers to drive around Tripoli and attack people showing signs of dissent. According to aid workers. In late April.
Prison sites and torture Gaddafi imprisoned thousands or tens of thousands residents in Tripoli. United States Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice alleged that soldiers loyal to Gaddafi were given Viagra and encouraged to commit rapes in rebel-held or disputed areas. before being beaten. and shot people who tried to take the dead off the streets or gather in groups. One of the most notorious is a prison which was setup in a tobacco factory in Tripoli where inmates are reported to have been fed just half a loaf of bread and a bottle of water a day. rockets and cluster bombs in civilian areas and sniper fire against residents. in fact. During the siege of Misrata. According to Moreno-Ocampo. The organization stated that "It is reasonable to fear that he has. which has not found evidence to . In Misrata. Libyan citizens who stood up against his regime and furthermore. Amnesty International reported "horrifying" tactics such as "indiscriminate attacks that have led to massive civilian casualties.  The validity of the rape allegations is questioned by Amnesty International. four young girls were abducted and held for four days.  In Tripoli. who claimed to have found Viagra in the pockets of government soldiers. The allegations surfaced in an Al Jazeera report the previous month from Libya-based doctors. In a questionnaire 259 refugee women reported that they had been raped by Gaddafi's soldiers.capacity. and were possibly sexually assaulted. Gaddafi suppressed protests in Tripoli by distributing automobiles. Some of the children allegedly raped were as young as eight. bodies were placed on stretchers or the floor. decided to largely eliminate. as defined in Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. to systematically and indiscriminately repress civilians. before the rebels took up arms. including use of heavy artillery. however the accounts of these women could not be independently verified as the psychologist who conducted the questionnaire claimed that "she had lost contact with them".12 -
. "death squads" of mercenaries and Revolutionary Committees members patrolled the streets."  Gaddafi continued these tactics when the protests escalated into an armed conflict. Red Cross was denied access to these hidden prisons. The International Federation for Human Rights concluded that Gaddafi is implementing a strategy of scorched earth. and that "it was in the same at the other hospitals". a rebel spokesman claimed that government soldiers had committed a string of sexual assaults in Benghazi Street before being pushed out by rebels. Aid workers reported that some children were being forced to watch their mothers raped and their fathers killed. wherever he still can. A doctor claimed that two young sisters were raped by five Black African mercenaries after their brothers joined the rebels.
were executed. military
The International Federation for Human Rights reported a case where 130 soldiers Some of the soldiers executed by their commanders were burned alive. These acts can be characterized as crimes against humanity. Human rights groups and aid workers had previously documented rapes by loyalist fighters during the war.
sending them to fight in places like Chad. who does research on security issues for the EU institutions. "In Libyan society.  A recruitment center for Malian soldiers leaving to Libya was found in a Bamako hotel. Malian.000) per month.13 -
. On 7 April. Gaddafi's ambassador to India Ali al-Essawi confirmed that the defections of military units had indeed led to such a decision. A . but in the end he had been airlifted to shoot opposition members in Eastern Libya. Chadian and Kenyan mercenaries are among foreign soldiers helping fight the uprising on behalf of Gaddafi. In Mali.450 ($3. According to the newspaper report. there is a taboo against killing people from your own tribal group. and Gaddafi had hired foreign mercenaries to do the job. The Daily Telegraph studied the case of a sixteen-year-old captured Chadian child soldier in Bayda. at high wages. Advertisements seeking mercenaries were seen in Nigeria with at least one female Nigerian pro-Gaddafi sniper being caught in late August outside of Tripoli." The Serbian newspaper Alo! stated that Serbs were hired to help Gaddafi in the early days of the conflict.Gaddafi's former Chief of Protocol Nouri Al Misrahi stated in an interview with the Al Jazeera that Nigerien. Time magazine interviewed mercenaries from ex-Yugoslavia who fled Gaddafi's forces in August. but some preferred to stay. the Belarusian advisers were paid about €2. Sudan and Lebanon and recently they have fought against Niger government. and earned a reputation as among the most brutal forces employed by the regime. Some of these "mercenaries" were compelled to fight against their wishes. about 5. the UN and the French government. Defecting Libyan Deputy Ambassador Ibrahim Dabbashi called on African nations to stop sending mercenaries to defend the Gaddafi regime. but crafted strategies to help Gaddafi's brigades.000) per day. Reuters reported that soldiers loyal to Gaddafi were sent into refugee camps to intimidate and bribe black African migrant workers into fighting for the regime during the war. including some from EU countries. According to numerous eyewitness accounts. Reports from Ghana state that the men who went to Libya were offered as much as €1950 ($2. Locals in Mali said they were promised €7. Rumors of Serbian pilots participating on the side of Gaddafi appeared early in the conflict. One group of mercenaries from Niger. Mercenaries Soon after Gaddafi's government started to use force against demonstrators. a war which Gaddafi has reportedly sponsored. The boy. Video footage of this started to leak out of the country. included a soldier of just 13 years of age.back up the claims and notes that there are indications that on several occasions the rebels in Benghazi appeared to have knowingly made false claims or manufactured evidence. This is one reason why Gaddafi needs foreign fighters. A Belarusian told the Russian newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda that he and several hundred others from Belarus had been recruited to advise Gaddafi's forces before the civil war and most of them left since then. according to a source inside one of the refugee camps.000.500 ($10. who had previously been a shepherd in Chad. told that a Libyan man had offered him a job and a free flight to Tripoli. it became apparent that some Libyan military units refused to shoot protesters. members of the Tuareg tribe confirmed that a large number of men. Malian government officials told BBC that it's hard to stop the flow of fighters from Mali to Libya. According to Michel Koutouzis. mercenaries were more willing to kill demonstrators than Libyan forces were.000) upfront payment and compensation up to €750 ($1. Gaddafi has used Malian Tuaregs in his political projects before. from the tribe went to Libya in late February. did not participate in combat. published in early April. who had been allegedly recruited from the streets with promises of money.500) per day. Reports by EU experts stated that Gaddafi's government hired between 300 and 500 European soldiers.
An injured seven-year-old in a hospital was the victim of a car crash." The Guardian described journalism in Gaddafi's Libya as "North Korea with palm trees". Gaddafi's men organized tours for foreign journalists in Tripoli. A BBC News crew was beaten and then lined up against a wall by Gaddafi's soldiers. fast. Bombing sites are recycled. and was apparently deliberately targeted. They were threatened with losing their government-funded scholarships if they refused. Colors of the revolution were banned. They're killing people in cold blood". Anthony Shadid. Coffins at funerals have sometimes turned out to be empty. A journalist working for The Guardian and another Brazilian journalist have been detained. The New York Times reported that Gaddafi had tried to impose a blackout on information from Libya.doctor in Benghazi said of the mercenaries that "they know one thing: to kill whose in front of them. Journalist were not allowed to go anywhere. and even landline phone service was sporadic. according to a note passed on surreptitiously by a nurse. Journalists and human rights researchers make daily phone calls to hundreds of civilians in government held territory. However. On 21 February. developped a software called Eagle that enabled to monitor internet traffic and which was implemented in Libya in 2008 and with better performance in 2010. Nothing else. Journalists who point out such blatant massaging of facts are harangued in the hotel corridors. A campaign in Serbia has organized people to spread pro-Gaddafi's views in Internet. and arrested Libyans who had given phone interviews to the media. who then shot next to a journalist's ear and laughed at them. every day new footage made with cell phone cameras finds its way to YouTube and the international media. Gaddafi's ambassador denied the reports. which is a war crime under international law. but Gaddafi's men shot them. without authorization from Gaddafi's officials who always followed them.14 -
.  Several residents reported that cellphone service was down. International propaganda After the uprising began. Journalists who didn't report events the way Gaddafi's officials instructed faced problems and sudden deportations. Stephen Farrell and Tyler Hicks – in captivity for a week. Libyan students studying in the United States received phone calls from the Libyan embassy. Gaddafi's soldiers held four New York Times journalists – Lynsey Addario. Course of the war . Libyan citizen journalist Mohammed Nabbous was shot in the head by Gaddafi's soldiers soon after exposing the Gaddafi regime's false reports related to the cease-fire declaration. International journalists were banned by the Libyan authorities from reporting from Libya except by invitation of the Gaddafi government. International journalists who have attempted to cover the events have been attacked by Gaddafi's forces. Amnesty International has reported that Gaddafi places his tanks next to civilian facilities to use them as shields. or talk to anyone. Gaddafi shut down all Internet communications in Libya. Censorship of events A subsidiary of Bull. instructing them to participate in pro-Gaddafi rallies. Some Tripoli residents painted their cats with the colors of the revolution. Use of human shields Gaddafi forces have surrounded themselves with civilians to protect themselves and key military sites like the Bab al-Azizia compound in Tripoli from air strikes. An Al-Jazeera journalist Ali Hassan al-Jaber was murdered. The Economist correspondent in Tripoli noted "The picture presented by the regime often falls apart.
NATO took control of the arms embargo on 23 March.
$26 million USD
$228. first failed over objections by the French. the French
undertaking sorties across Libya and a naval blockade by the Royal Navy. NATO agreed to take control of the no-fly zone.
The official names
for the interventions by the coalition members are Opération Harmattan by France. Canada. The effort was initially largely led by France and the United Kingdom. That same day. Norway.
On 24 March.Main article: Timeline of the 2011 Libyan civil war Foreign military intervention Part of a group of six Palmaria heavy howitzers of the Gaddafi forces. Spain. An attempt to unify the military command of the air campaign (whilst keeping political and strategic control with a small group). Since the beginning of the intervention. which was taken in response to events during the 2011 Libyan civil war. Funds spent by Foreign Powers on War in Libya. rebel fighters had gained entrance into Tripoli and occupied Green . The handover occurred on 31 March 2011 at 0600 GMT. named Operation Unified Protector. Operation Ellamy by the United Kingdom. Qatar. By 22 August. Operation Mobile for the Canadian participation and Operation Odyssey Dawn for the United States. Denmark. suggesting that the war had reached its endgame with an imminent rebel victory.15 -
. On 19 March 2011 a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973. military operations began.
against Libyan Army tanks and vehicles by French jets were since confirmed. while command of
targeting ground units remains with coalition forces. German. Italy. with command shared with the United States. destroyed by French military airplanes at the west-southern outskirts of Benghazi in Opération Harmattan on 19 March 2011. with US and British forces firing over 110 Tomahawk Force
missiles. France. and Turkish governments. UK and US has expanded to seventeen states. the initial coalition of Belgium. with newer states mostly enforcing the no-fly zone and naval blockade or providing military logistical assistance.9 million USD July 2011
United Kingdom $400 million USD
United States $664 million USD
Main article: 2011 military intervention in Libya 20 August 2011 rebel offensive Further information: Battle of Tripoli (2011) Heads of the rebellion reported on 21 August 2011 that Gadaffi's son Saif was under arrest and that they had encircled the leader's compound.
 Another humanitarian issue was refugees fleeing the crisis. which was promptly renamed 'Martyrs' Square' in memory of those who had died fighting in the civil war. such as in the southern towns of Sebha and Gatroum. Humanitarian situation Main article: Humanitarian situation during the 2011 Libyan civil war By the end of February 2011. medical supplies. However. 24 August. In March. the report noted the rebels lacked a unified command and that Gadaffi loyalists and snipers remained at large in many areas of Tripoli.4 million to meet the emergency needs of people affected by the violent unrest in Libya. and to have found a large cache ofchemical weapons. Tunisians and Turks. the Swedish government donated medical supplies and other humanitarian aid and the UN World Food Programme provided food. as many as 4. Rebels took the city of Ghadames near the borders of Tunisia and Algeria on 29 August. rebels blasted open the Bab al-Azizia compound in Tripoli through its north gates and stormed inside. Fleeing the violence of Tripoli by road. Gadaffi's son Saif appeared at the Gaddafi-controlled Rixos Hotel in central Tripoli and boasted his father was still in control. were al-Hadhba and Abu Salim. A humanitarian ship docked in harbour of Misrata in April to begin the evacuation of stranded migrants.000 injured in the battle thus far. Despite previous reports suggesting that Muammar Gaddafi may be inside. On 21 September. even in areas considered under rebel control. By 10 July. over 150.  In early March. Members of the Gaddafi family have taken flight to Algeria. Turkey sent a hospital ship to Misrata and a Turkish cargo ship brought 141 tons of humanitarian aid . Among those escaping the violence were native Libyans as well as foreign nationals including Egyptians. Early the following day. Local hospitals and clinics.By late afternoon the journalists trapped at the Rixos Hotel had been released while heavy fighting continued in the Abu Salim region close to Bab al-Azizia and elsewhere. no members of Gaddafi's family or army forces were found. Migrants were also stranded elsewhere in Libya. were reporting hundreds of cases of gunshot wounds and the death toll was impossible to estimate. the fighting across Libya meant that more than a million people fleeing or inside the country needed humanitarian aid. the International Committee of the Red Cross launched an emergency appeal forUS$6. Potential military–humanitarian coordination
.000 migrants were evacutated. A rebel checkpoint in Tripoli on 26 August 2011.  On 25 February.16 -
. the Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid was besieged by rebels.000 refugees were crossing the Libya–Tunisia border daily during the first days of the uprising. Later the same day. the NTC claimed to have captured the southern city of Sabha. the latter including the Rixos Hotel where a group of foreign journalists had been trapped for days. The New York Times reported rebel leaders as saying they believed the only areas still under Gadaffi's control. The rebels were reported as estimating 400 people had been killed and a further 2.Early on 23 August. Gadaffi broadcast an address from a Tripoli local radio station in which he said the withdrawal from Bab al-Azizia had been a "tactical" move.Square. The Islamic Relief and the WFP also coordinated a shipment of humanitarian supplies to Misrata. who reported that Gaddafi's son Saif alIslam was hiding in the city. other than the immediate neighborhood of Bab al-Azizia.  In September. After Tripoli Efforts to mop up pro-Gaddafi forces in northwestern Libya and toward Sirte began even before the rebels fully consolidated control of Tripoli. fuel and food were dangerously low in Libya.
 The staff of a number of diplomatic missions of Libya have either resigned or condemned the action of the Gaddafi regime. there remains the concern that aid agencies' neutrality will be brought into question by accepting military support. However. the opposition claimed that 6.
Sweden. Malaysia. of which about 20.
Belgium. putting aid staff at risk of being attacked and causing some parties to prevent the agencies accessing all the areas they need to.
and the US
also renounced the Gaddafi regime or formally resigned.000 dead were believed to have been pro-Gadhafi fighters. Independent numbers of dead and injured in the conflict have still not been made available. France. with the latter defecting to the UK. a number of senior Libyan public officials either renounced the Gaddafi regime or resigned from their positions. the World Health Organization estimated approximately 2. Ireland. Oil Minister Shukri Ghanem and Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa fled Libya. The ambassadors to the Arab League. On 8 September.While the UN sanctioned military intervention has been implemented on humanitarian grounds. The conditions under which such support may be accepted are outlined in the Guidelines on the Use of Military and Civil Defence Assets to Support United Nations Humanitarian Activities in Complex Emergencies (MCDA). stated that about half of an estimated 30.500 people had died.000 had been killed. On 2 March.000 killed. At the same time. there was no independent verification of the Health Minister's claim. Later. Domestic responses Main article: Domestic responses to the 2011 Libyan civil war Resignation of government officials In response to the use of force against protesters. Estimates have been widely varied. Yet.  Furthermore. On 24 February 2011. . European Union and United Nations have either resigned or stated that they no longer support the government. UN agencies seeking to ease the humanitarian crisis repeatedly rejected offers of support from the military to carry out the agencies' humanitarian operations. Libyan Prosecutor General Abdul-Rahman al-Abbar resigned his position and joined the opposition. protesting against Muammar Gaddafi's use of violence against Libyans (19 March 2011). Justice Minister Mustafa Mohamed Abud Al Jeleil and Interior Minister Major General Abdul Fatah Younis both defected to the opposition. the military may not always have the technical skills required to assess the need for aid and to ensure its effective distribution. The numbers of injured were estimated to be around 4. the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting reported that the International Criminal Court estimated 10.000. whereby military support can be used but only temporarily and as a last resort. Portugal. Naji Barakat.000 by 22 February.000. Casualties
Main article: Casualties of the 2011 Libyan civil war People in Dublin. Despite this. India. offers continue for the creation of an aid corridor and aid agencies have accepted military logistical
past.  The ambassadors to Australia.
floods response. Indonesia.17 -
. Bangladesh.000 were serious injuries. War wounded were estimated as at least 50. but this estimate was expected to rise. the Health Minister of the National Transitional Council.
Nigeria. rebel spokesman Abdul Hafiz Ghoga reported that the death toll reached 8.
 Libyan royal family A young Benghazian carrying (deposed) King Idris' photo. On 24 February. On 21 February. notably the Network of Free Ulema – Libya urged all Muslims to rebel against Gaddafi. Muhammad as-Senussi. Brigadier General Hassan Ibrahim Al Qarawi and Brigadier General Dawood Issa Al Qafsi. He also stated that he will support any form of government that Libya will choose after Gaddafi including a constitutional monarchy. A rival claimant to the throne. including General Abdul Fatah Younis. Support of the Senussi dynasty has traditionally been strong in Cyrenaica. had fled Libya with his family and was seeking asylum in Totebo. Brigadier General Musa'ed Ghaidan Al Mansouri. sent his condolences "for the heroes who have laid down their lives. based in eastern Libya. Many states and supranational bodies condemned Gaddafi's regime over its attacks on civilian targets within the country. announced plans to use oil funds to support anti-Gaddafi forces. after being ordered to carry out airstrikes against anti-government protesters in Benghazi. as-Senussi gave an interview to Al Jazeera where he called upon the international community to help remove Gaddafi from power and stop the ongoing "massacre". Two Libyan Air Force colonels each flew their Mirage F1 fighter jets to Malta and requested asylum. The Arabian Gulf Oil Company. Major General Suleiman Mahmoud. killed by the brutal forces of Gaddafi" and called on the international community "to halt all support for the dictator with immediate effect.18 -
. International reactions Main article: International reactions to the 2011 Libyan civil war A total of 19 charter flights evacuated Chinese citizens from Libya via Malta. The Zuwayya tribe."as-Senussi said that the protesters would be "victorious in the end" and calls for international support to end the violence. announced in an interview with Adnkronos that he was ready to return to Libya and "assume leadership" once change had been initiated. He dismissed talk of a civil war saying "The Libyan people and the tribes have proven they are united". Islamic leaders and clerics in Libya. On 20 April. Economic. Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi. the secondlargest state-owned oil company in Libya. he made an appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight to discuss the uprising. Mohammed spoke in front of the European Parliament calling for more support for Libya. Virtually all Western countries cut off diplomatic relations with Gaddafi's government . In March. It was also reported attempts at contact had been initiated by French and Saudi officials. threatened to cut off oil exports from fields in its part of Libya if Libyan security forces continued attacking demonstrators. Colonel Nuretin Hurala. On 3 March. Sweden.Military defections A number of senior military officials defected to the opposition. it was reported that another member of the family. Here a charteredChina Eastern Airlines Airbus A340 is seen at Malta International Airport on 26 February 2011. Prince Zouber al-Senussi. He asked for a no-fly zone over Libya but does not support foreign ground troops. the commander of the Benghazi Naval Base also defected along with senior naval officials. it was reported Idris bin Abdullah had held meetings at the State Department and Congress in Washington with US government officials. He later stated that international community needs "less talk and more action" to stop the violence. Tuareg and Magarha tribes announced their support of the protesters. General al-Barani Ashkal. son of the former Crown Prince and grand-nephew of the late King Idris. religious and tribal The Libyan economy is mainly based on its oil production. The Warfalla.
may have a more immediate impact on the American pocketbook. It exports 85 percent of its oil to Europeand only 5 percent to the U. and a number of other countries led by Peru andBotswana did likewise. Related Stories Oil Tops $100 a Barrel Over Libya Unrest. but it is some of the world's most sought-after highest quality crude.S. with many of those countries explicitly describing it as the legal interim government of the country due to the perceived loss of legitimacy on the part of Gaddafi's regime. Moammar Gadhafi also threatened to blow up energy pipelines. Some evacuations were successful in either going to Malta or via land borders to Egypt or Tunisia. Almost 60 countries have recognized the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council as Libya's legitimate representative.
International Energy Agency chief economist Fatih Birol said Tuesday that oil prices were in the danger zone and could rise further if the turbulence continues in the Middle East. Unlike the toppling of dictators in Tunisia and Egypt and the unrest roiling Bahrain and Iran. Time magazine reported Wednesday. however. say global oil and gas supplies are far from being at risk -. Many states have also either issued travel advisories or attempted evacuations.19 -
That became clear early Wednesday when the Financial Times reportedthat half of Libya's oil industry had shut down. effectively acting in de facto support of anti-Gaddafi forces on the ground. There were also several solidarity protests in other countries that were mostly composed of Libyan expatriates. The regime's use of the Libyan Air Force to strike civilians led to the adoption of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 to create a Libyan no-fly zone on 17 March. Are Higher Gas Prices Coming? Could Gadhafi Sabotage Libya's Oil Fields? Libyan Army Attacks Protesters in Mosque Near Tripoli Obama to Libya's Moammar Gadhafi: 'The Violence Must Stop' How Long Can Moammar Gadhafi Hang On? Libya produces just 2 percent of the world's oil supply. though several countries involved in the resolution's enforcement have also carried out regular strike missions to degrade the offensive capacity of the Libyan Army and destroy the regime's command and control capabilities.
Experts.S.over an aerial bombing campaign in February and March. Financial markets around the world had adverse reactions to the instability with oil prices rising to a two-and-a-half year high. 2011 – 6:34 AM Dana KennedyContributor Libya is different. the violence gripping Libya. the 18th largest oil producer in the world. Q&A: How Will the Libyan Crisis (and Its Oil) Affect the US? Feb 24.for now. . causing oil prices to surge to $100 a barrel on fears that the turmoil could spread to other major oil producers like Saudi Arabia and Algeria. Some experts say the turmoil in the Mideast could push gas prices up to $4 a gallon in the U. other attempts were hindered by tarmac damage at Benghazi's airport or refusals of permission to land in Tripoli.
A defiant Col.
an iconoclastic author and outspoken social critic whose 2005 book "The Long Emergency" describes a near-apocalyptic future in a world with dwindling oil supplies.S.20 -
. dependence on foreign oil and the limits of the oil reserves themselves.But the almost science fiction-like specter of Gadhafi threatening to "die a martyr" and possibly sabotage his own oil fields sheds a harsh glare on the reality of U.
AOL News spoke about the Libyan crisis with James Howard Kunstler.hafi delivers a speech in Roms looks at Gadhafi's rule