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Underground U d d System y Overview

The Underground System


HV Underground Systems
Lower Loss Designs are in demand Longer Lines and Longer Unit Lengths are in demand Higher Current Capacity is in demand Higher Reliability is Always in demand

Southwire G Graphic

Which leads to A Need for Better Insulation A Need for Better Protection of the Insulation A need for Optimized Arrester Selection

The Underground System


High Voltage Cable
Phase Conductor Primary Insulation Metallic Sheath
Southwire Gra aphic

Jacket
Southwire G Graphic

The Underground System


The High Voltage Riser Pole
Phase Arrester C bl Termination Cable T i ti

Sheath Voltage Limiter Tower Ground

The Underground System


Protection of HV Cables with single point bonded segmented sheaths requires two types of Arresters
A St Standard d d Station St ti Class Cl Arrester A t protects t t the primary insulation from failure. A Sheath Voltage Limiter (low MCOV distribution arrester without disconnector) is used to protect the jacket of the cable d i during surge events t on the th primary conductor.

The Underground System


Underground Cable Run

LinkBox

This System Thi S t has h Continuous C ti Cross Bonding of the Sheath p of the with no Transposition conductors in the Link Boxes

The Underground System


Underground Cable Run

LinkBox

Cross Bonding g and Tranpositioning p g are techniques used to reduce steady state loses due to currents induced onto the shield and circulated to ground. ground

The Underground System


Link Box

SVL, Crossover conductors d t and d interrupter i insulation l ti

Sheath Sh th Voltage V lt Limiter Characteristics

Sheath Voltage Limiter


Sheath Voltage Limiter
1.Typically 1 T i ll a Distribution Di t ib ti Class Cl Arrester A t but can be a Station Class
Courtesy of Tridelta

2. Low MCOV ratings 3-22kV typically applied 3. Metal Oxide Varistors (MOV) are the y type yp of arrester used in this only application. 4. Polymer housed arresters are only the style available.

Courtesy of f Tridelta

Typical SVL Characteristics

Courtesy of Tridelta

Courtesy of Tridelta

Typical TOV data for SVL


Tridelta HC SVL

Link box for 345kV system


Link Box Data
1.Typically water tight 2. Must have same BIL rating as cable interrupts 3.Must 3 Must be accessible for maintenance check 4.Offer option to cross bond the sheaths

Courtesy of General Cable

Sizing Si i the th Sh th Sheath Voltage g Limiter

SelectingtheOptimumSVL
1
ArresterLocation

SVLorDistributionArrester 2 SelectArresterACRating 3 Ch kM Check Margin i of fProtection P t ti 4 CheckEnergyHandling 5 CheckFailureMode 6 SelectandCheckMounting

ArresterTypes

SystemParam meters

SystemVoltagesand NeutralConfiguration

ArresterMCOV andTOVCapability

ArresterParamete ers

Todays BIL BSL, BIL, BSL CWW, CWW CFO Focus


LightningIntensity AndSwitchingSurge Energy SystemFaultCurrent AvailabilityandPostBIL InstallationParameters Clearances,Cantilever SeparationDistance,Lead Length

FOW,LPL,SPL TLD,HighCurrent ShortDuration Capability ArresterShortCircuit Capabilityand DisconnectorOperation

ArresterCreep,Strike, MarginofProtectionRe check

ArresterIsSelected

Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating


Step 1: Determine Sheath voltage during a fault
Example (Single Point Bonding with SVL at open end)
Sheath voltage on a flat configured 1000kcmil, 1000m cable with 25kA (17.5kA rms) system fault using ATP transient software
30 [kA] 15
Fault Current (red)

6000

Fault Current Sheath Voltage Maximum Sheath Voltage 40 [ms] during 17.5kA rms fault is 3800 V rms

[V] -1000

0 -15 -30 0 10

20
v:S-OPNA

30

50

-8000

(file SVL_Fault_Analysis.pl4; x-var t) c:FAULT -

Sheath diameter 90mm Conductor center to center distance 450mm

Sh heath Voltage (green)

Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating


Hand calculation of Induced Voltage on Sheath
1. 2. Determine p physical y dimensions of cable construction Calculate S/d
1. 2 2. S = Center to center cable spacing D = di diameter t of f sheath h th

d = 90mm S = 450mm
S/d=240/90=5

3.

Using Figure 1 of IEEE 575 determine the sheath voltage gradient for this configuration g g at 1000 amps.

Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating


Hand calculation of Induced Voltage on Sheath
Step 3 Sheath voltage gradient from Figure 1 is 200v/km/1000A Step 4 Determine the voltage for the length of cable and fault current level Max V = L x Vg x I Where
L = length of cable section in km Vg g = Sheath Voltage g Gradient I = Amplitude of fault current in kA

Max V = 1 x 200 x 17.5 Max V = 3400V rms

Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating


Alternative to Using the IEEE 575 Graph
The general equation for the log linear curves is:

Where
E k S d is the Sheath Voltage gradient in V/km/kA is constant is center to center distance between cables is diameter of sheath

For Trefoil and center conductor of flat layout E = 75 x (S/d).466 For outer conductors of flat layout E = 107 x (S/d).369

Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating


Hand calculation of Induced Voltage on Sheath
Step 4
Select the SVL that has MCOV one rating above the Max rms sheath voltage for maximum fault for the given section of line in question question.

ChoiceisHC6 witha4.8kV MCOV

Ifthecablelengthwas 2kmthenHC10wouldbe thecorrectchoice

Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating


Current in SVL on a 1 and 2km cable run
4 8kV MCOV on 1km line 4.8kV
[uA] 10 60

30uA SVL current on 1km line


10
-SVL1B

-40

20
c: -SVL1A c:

30
-SVL1C

40

[ms]

50

(file SVL_Fault_Analysis.pl4; x-var t) c:

600 [A] 300 0 -300 line 4.8kV MCOV on 2km -600 0 10 20


-SVL1B c:

550A SVL current on 2km line


30
-SVL1A c: -SVL1C

40

[ms]

50
400 300 200

(file svl_fault_analysis_with_wrong_svl.pl4; x-var t) c:

50 *10 3 30 10 -10

Immediate Failure of SVL 10kJ per half cycle and about 50 C per half cycle

100 0 10 20
c: -SVL1B c:

30
-SVL1A c: -SVL1C

40
t:JOULES

[ms]
t:TEMP

50

svl_fault_analysis_with_wrong_svl.pl4; x-var t) 4.8kV MCOV on(file 2km line

Checking Energy Handling Capability


If the SVL is chosen correctly, it will not adsorb any energy during a fault. fault
However it will during a switching surge And during a lightning surge

SVL Switching Surge Analysis


Large Switching Surge on Primary Conductor
- With a 1MJ 1 energy dissipation of f the primary arresters 5kJ/kV / MCOV CO
1.2 [MJ] 0.8 0.4 0.0 14.0

14.5

15.0
e:X0002C-

15.5

16.0

16.5

[ms]

17.0

(file svl_switching_analysis.pl4; x-var t) e:X0002A-

- Results in only 4kJ on the SVL which is .5kJ/kV-MCOV 5kJ/kV MCOV - This energy absorption level is only 25% of a heavy duty distribution arrester capability
5000 4000 3000 10 2000 1000 0 14.0 14.5 15.0
t:TEMP

20

15.5

16.0

16.5

[ms]

0 17.0

(file SVL_Switching_Analysis.pl4; x-var t) t:JOULES

SVL Lightning Surge Analysis


115kA Lightning Surge on Primary Conductor
Th Riser The Ri Pole P l Arrester A t takes t k 100kA and d th the SVL sees 17kA
120 [kA] 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 20 0.270 0.285 0.300 0.315
c:SVL1A -

Strike 115kA Riser Pole at 100kA SVL 15kA


0.330 0.345 [ms] 0.360

(file SVL_Lightning_Analysis.pl4; x-var t)

c:X0002A-

c:XX0025-X0003A

15kA through g a 4.8kV SVL is not an issue. It appears pp that as long as there is a riser pole arrester, the SVL current will not be significant.

SVL Lightning Surge Analysis


Margin of Protection Analysis
Voltage g on Sheath at Open p end without SVL
300 [kV] 150 0 -150 -300 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 [ms] 1.6

Max = 260kV

(file SVL_Lightning_Analysis.pl4; x-var t) v:S-OPNA

Voltage on Sheath at Open end with 4.8kV SVL


20 [kV] 13 6 -1 -8 -15 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Max = 16.4kV

2.5

[ms]

3.0

(file SVL_Lightning_Analysis.pl4; x-var t) v:S-OPNA

SVL Lightning Surge Analysis


Margin of Protection Analysis
Voltage on Sheath at Open end with 8.0kV SVL
30 [kV] 15 0 -15 -30 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 [ms] 2.0

Max = 27kV @15kA

(file SVL_Lightning_Analysis.pl4; x-var t) v:S-OPNA

Voltage on Sheath at Open end with 9.6kV SVL


40 [kV] 5

Max = 32kV @15kA


16 [kA] 10 4

-30 0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5
c:SVL1A -

2.0

2.5

[ms]

3.0

-2

(file SVL_Lightning_Analysis.pl4; x-var t) v:S-OPNA

SVL Lightning Surge Analysis


Margin of Protection Analysis
[ MP =( (BIL/V10kA)-1) *100 ]

345kV Sheath 230kV Sheath 230kV 10kA Arrester Interruptto Discharge Interruptto Marginof MCOV GndBIL GndBIL V l Voltage P Protection i PerIEEE575 PerIEEE575 Rating kV % kV kV 4.8 8 9.6 18 28 34 40 40 40 120% 42% 17.6% 60 60 60

345kV Marginof P Protection i % 233% 140% 76%

Based on this table, it would be unwise to use any arrester with an MCOV greater than 8kV mcov on a 230kV circuit. IEEE C62.22 recommends no more than 15% on most insulation.

In Summary

O8

Summary
Protection of HV Cables with single point bonded segmented sheaths requires two types of Arresters
A St Standard d d Station St ti Class Cl Arrester A t protects t t the primary insulation from failure. A Sheath Voltage Limiter (low MCOV distribution arrester without disconnector) is used to protect the jacket of the cable d i during surge events t on the th primary conductor.

Summary
When Selecting the MCOV Rating of these Arresters
HV Station Class Arrester The system line to ground voltage and TOV determine the MCOV rating. Sheath Voltage Limiter The voltage induced on the sheath from a fault in the phase conductor primarily determines the MCOV CO rating of f the SVL S

Summary
When Selecting the MCOV rating of these Arresters
HV Station Class Arrester In all cases, the station class arrester will provide adequate insulation protection. Sheath Voltage Limiter For longer segments of cable the AC rating may need to be closely checked and optimized farther f on 230kV 230 lines, but in most other cases, the Margin of Protection is not an issue once the AC rating is determined

Summary
When Selecting the Energy Rating of these Arresters
HV Station Class Arrester Use Station Class arrester for most applications. Sheath Voltage Limiter For most cases a standard distribution class arrester will work.