Underground U d d System y Overview

The Underground System
HV Underground Systems
• • • • Lower Loss Designs are in demand Longer Lines and Longer Unit Lengths are in demand Higher Current Capacity is in demand Higher Reliability is Always in demand

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Which leads to • A Need for Better Insulation • A Need for Better Protection of the Insulation • A need for Optimized Arrester Selection

The Underground System
High Voltage Cable
Phase Conductor Primary Insulation Metallic Sheath
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Jacket
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The Underground System The High Voltage Riser Pole Phase Arrester C bl Termination Cable T i ti Sheath Voltage Limiter Tower Ground .

A Sheath Voltage Limiter (low MCOV distribution arrester without disconnector) is used to protect the jacket of the cable d i during surge events t on the th primary conductor.The Underground System Protection of HV Cables with single point bonded segmented sheaths requires two types of Arresters A St Standard d d Station St ti Class Cl Arrester A t protects t t the primary insulation from failure. .

The Underground System Underground Cable Run Link Box This System Thi S t has h Continuous C ti Cross Bonding of the Sheath p of the with no Transposition conductors in the Link Boxes .

The Underground System Underground Cable Run Link Box Cross Bonding g and Tranpositioning p g are techniques used to reduce steady state loses due to currents induced onto the shield and circulated to ground. ground .

Crossover conductors d t and d interrupter i insulation l ti .The Underground System Link Box SVL.

Sheath Sh th Voltage V lt Limiter Characteristics .

Polymer housed arresters are only the style available. Metal Oxide Varistors (MOV) are the y type yp of arrester used in this only application. Courtesy of f Tridelta . Low MCOV ratings 3-22kV typically applied 3.Typically 1 T i ll a Distribution Di t ib ti Class Cl Arrester A t but can be a Station Class Courtesy of Tridelta 2. 4.Sheath Voltage Limiter Sheath Voltage Limiter 1.

Typical SVL Characteristics Courtesy of Tridelta Courtesy of Tridelta .

Typical TOV data for SVL Tridelta HC SVL .

Typically water tight 2.Must 3 Must be accessible for maintenance check 4.Offer option to cross bond the sheaths Courtesy of General Cable . Must have same BIL rating as cable interrupts 3.Link box for 345kV system Link Box Data 1.

Sizing Si i the th Sh th Sheath Voltage g Limiter .

 Strike. SPL TLD. LPL.Selecting the Optimum  SVL 1 Arrester Location SVL or Distribution Arrester 2 Select  Arrester AC Rating  3 Ch k M Check Margin i  of f Protection P t ti 4 Check Energy Handling 5 Check Failure Mode  6 Select and Check Mounting  Arrester Types System Param meters System Voltages and  Neutral Configuration Arrester MCOV  and TOV Capability Arrester Paramete ers Today’s  BIL  BSL. BIL.  Margin of Protection Re‐ check Arrester Is Selected . Cantilever  Separation Distance. High Current  Short Duration  Capability Arrester Short Circuit  Capability and Disconnector Operation Arrester Creep. BSL  CWW. CWW  CFO Focus Lightning Intensity And Switching Surge Energy  System Fault Current Availability and Post BIL Installation Parameters Clearances. Lead  Length FOW.

5kA rms fault is 3800 V rms [V] -1000 0 -15 -30 0 10 20 v:S-OPNA 30 50 -8000 (file SVL_Fault_Analysis.Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating Step 1: Determine Sheath voltage during a fault Example (Single Point Bonding with SVL at open end) Sheath voltage on a flat configured 1000kcmil.5kA rms) system fault using ATP transient software 30 [kA] 15 Fault Current (red) 6000 Fault Current  Sheath Voltage Maximum Sheath Voltage 40 [ms] during 17. 1000m cable with 25kA (17.pl4. x-var t) c:FAULT - •Sheath diameter 90mm •Conductor center to center distance 450mm Sh heath Voltage (green) .

Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating Hand calculation of Induced Voltage on Sheath 1. 2. 2 2. . S = Center to center cable spacing D = di diameter t of f sheath h th d d = 90mm S = 450mm S/d = 240/90 = 5 S 3. Determine p physical y dimensions of cable construction Calculate S/d 1. Using Figure 1 of IEEE 575 determine the sheath voltage gradient for this configuration g g at 1000 amps.

5 Max V = 3400V rms .Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating Hand calculation of Induced Voltage on Sheath Step 3 Sheath voltage gradient from Figure 1 is 200v/km/1000A Step 4 Determine the voltage for the length of cable and fault current level Max V = L x Vg x I Where L = length of cable section in km Vg g = Sheath Voltage g Gradient I = Amplitude of fault current in kA Max V = 1 x 200 x 17.

369 .466 For outer conductors of flat layout E = 107 x (S/d).Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating Alternative to Using the IEEE 575 Graph The general equation for the log linear curves is: Where E k S d is the Sheath Voltage gradient in V/km/kA is constant is center to center distance between cables is diameter of sheath For Trefoil and center conductor of flat layout E = 75 x (S/d).

Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating Hand calculation of Induced Voltage on Sheath Step 4 Select the SVL that has MCOV one rating above the Max rms sheath voltage for maximum fault for the given section of line in question question.8kV  MCOV If the cable length was  2km then HC 10 would be  the correct  choice . Choice is HC 6  with a 4.

8kV MCOV on(file 2km line .8kV [uA] 10 60 30uA SVL current on 1km line 10 -SVL1B -40 0 20 c: -SVL1A c: 30 -SVL1C 40 [ms] 50 (file SVL_Fault_Analysis.Selecting the SVL MCOV Rating Current in SVL on a 1 and 2km cable run 4 8kV MCOV on 1km line 4. x-var t) c: 600 [A] 300 0 -300 line 4.pl4.pl4. x-var t) 4.pl4.8kV MCOV on 2km -600 0 10 20 -SVL1B c: 550A SVL current on 2km line 30 -SVL1A c: -SVL1C 40 [ms] 50 400 300 200 (file svl_fault_analysis_with_wrong_svl. x-var t) c: 50 *10 3 30 10 -10 Immediate Failure of SVL 10kJ per half cycle and about 50 °C per half cycle 100 0 10 20 c: -SVL1B c: 30 -SVL1A c: -SVL1C 40 t:JOULES [ms] t:TEMP 50 0 svl_fault_analysis_with_wrong_svl.

it will not adsorb any energy during a fault. fault However it will during a switching surge And during a lightning surge .Checking Energy Handling Capability If the SVL is chosen correctly.

0 (file svl_switching_analysis.5 [ms] 0 17.8 0. x-var t) t:JOULES .0 14.5 16. x-var t) e:X0002A- .0 16.0 (file SVL_Switching_Analysis.With a 1MJ 1 energy dissipation of f the primary arresters 5kJ/kV / MCOV CO 1.pl4.5 15.4 0.5 [ms] 17.5 15.2 [MJ] 0.Results in only 4kJ on the SVL which is .0 e:X0002C- 15.0 14.0 t:TEMP 20 15.5kJ/kV-MCOV 5kJ/kV MCOV .SVL Switching Surge Analysis Large Switching Surge on Primary Conductor .0 16.This energy absorption level is only 25% of a heavy duty distribution arrester capability 5000 4000 3000 10 2000 1000 0 14.pl4.0 14.5 16.

It appears pp that as long as there is a riser pole arrester.315 c:SVL1A - Strike 115kA Riser Pole at 100kA SVL 15kA 0.SVL Lightning Surge Analysis 115kA Lightning Surge on Primary Conductor Th Riser The Ri Pole P l Arrester A t takes t k 100kA and d th the SVL sees 17kA 120 [kA] 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 20 0.270 0.360 (file SVL_Lightning_Analysis. the SVL current will not be significant. . x-var t) c:X0002A- c:XX0025-X0003A 15kA through g a 4.300 0.345 [ms] 0.330 0.8kV SVL is not an issue.pl4.285 0.

x-var t) v:S-OPNA Voltage on Sheath at Open end with 4.2 0.8kV SVL 20 [kV] 13 6 -1 -8 -15 0.0 1.4 [ms] 1.5 [ms] 3.8 1.0 0.5 1.4 0.SVL Lightning Surge Analysis Margin of Protection Analysis Voltage g on Sheath at Open p end without SVL 300 [kV] 150 0 -150 -300 0.pl4.2 1.6 0.6 Max = 260kV (file SVL_Lightning_Analysis.0 1.4kV 2. x-var t) v:S-OPNA .0 0.pl4.5 2.0 Max = 16.0 (file SVL_Lightning_Analysis.

4 0.0 -2 (file SVL_Lightning_Analysis.0 0.0 Max = 27kV @15kA (file SVL_Lightning_Analysis. x-var t) v:S-OPNA Voltage on Sheath at Open end with 9.6kV SVL 40 [kV] 5 Max = 32kV @15kA 16 [kA] 10 4 -30 0.5 c:SVL1A - 2.2 1.5 [ms] 3.5 1.8 1.0 2.0 1.pl4.6 [ms] 2.0kV SVL 30 [kV] 15 0 -15 -30 0.SVL Lightning Surge Analysis Margin of Protection Analysis Voltage on Sheath at Open end with 8.pl4.0 0. x-var t) v:S-OPNA .

IEEE C62.22 recommends no more than 15% on most insulation. it would be unwise to use any arrester with an MCOV greater than 8kV mcov on a 230kV circuit.6 18 28 34 40 40 40 120% 42% 17.6% 60 60 60 345kV Margin of  P Protection i % 233% 140% 76% Based on this table.8 8 9.SVL Lightning Surge Analysis Margin of Protection Analysis [ MP =( (BIL/V10kA)-1) *100 ] 345kV Sheath  230kV Sheath  230kV 10kA  Arrester  Interrupt  to  Discharge Interrupt  to  Margin of  MCOV  Gnd BIL Gnd BIL  V l Voltage P Protection i Per IEEE 575 Per IEEE 575 Rating kV % kV kV 4. .

In Summary .

. A Sheath Voltage Limiter (low MCOV distribution arrester without disconnector) is used to protect the jacket of the cable d i during surge events t on the th primary conductor.O8 Summary Protection of HV Cables with single point bonded segmented sheaths requires two types of Arresters A St Standard d d Station St ti Class Cl Arrester A t protects t t the primary insulation from failure.

Sheath Voltage Limiter The voltage induced on the sheath from a fault in the phase conductor primarily determines the MCOV CO rating of f the SVL S .Summary When Selecting the MCOV Rating of these Arresters HV Station Class Arrester The system line to ground voltage and TOV determine the MCOV rating.

Sheath Voltage Limiter For longer segments of cable the AC rating may need to be closely checked and optimized farther f on 230kV 230 lines.Summary When Selecting the MCOV rating of these Arresters HV Station Class Arrester In all cases. the station class arrester will provide adequate insulation protection. but in most other cases. the Margin of Protection is not an issue once the AC rating is determined .

Summary When Selecting the Energy Rating of these Arresters HV Station Class Arrester Use Station Class arrester for most applications. Sheath Voltage Limiter For most cases a standard distribution class arrester will work. .

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