# TORSIONAL VIBRATION ANALYSIS - BASICS

Pranabesh De Choudhury, Ph.D., P.E.
Pran RDA Consulting Inc.
Greensburg, PA 15601

OUTLINE
• Basic Concepts
• Torsional Analysis Procedure and Purpose
• Simple Torsional Systems
 Single Inertia
 Two Inertias
 Three Inertias
• Holzer Method – Method for the analysis of multiinertia lumped-parameter systems. Applicable for
free and forced vibrations, systems with or without
damping.
• Geared Systems

OUTLINE (Continued)
• Torsional Modeling
 Commonly Used Formulae For Torsional
Modeling
 Shaft Inertia Distribution
 Shaft Penetration Effect
• Torsional Stress Calculations
• Sample Output – Torsional Critical Speed Analysis
• Typical Mode Shape Plots Using Excel
• Comparison of Calculated Torsional Natural
Frequencies with Test Data
• References

BASIC CONCEPTS
• Torsional vibration is a periodic motion of elastic shafts with circular
rotors (compressor impellers, turbine discs etc.) rigidly attached to the
shafts.
• Torsional vibrations are controlled by the polar moments of inertias of
attached rotors to the shafts and the torsional stiffness between the
attached rotors.
• Number of oscillations per unit of time is defined as the torsional
natural frequencies.
• Torsional vibrations are caused by various types of torsional
excitations, e.g., gear imperfections, motor air gap torque during start
up and short circuit, fluctuating torques in rotating machinery e.g.,
compressors and turbines.

TORSIONAL ANALYSIS PROCEDURE AND PURPOSE
• Holzer method is widely used for accurate torsional critical
speed analysis of turbo-machinery systems.
• The method is also used for steady state torsional response
analysis around a torsional natural frequency having
insufficient margin from any exciting frequency.
• Stress analysis is conducted from the results obtained from
torsional system.
• To perform a torsional analysis requires accurate modeling of
torsional system.
• Determination of torsional critical speeds is necessary to
assure adequate margins from exciting frequencies to avoid
potential torsional vibration problems. The required margins
are to be obtained to satisfy API 617 specifications.

SINGLE INERTIA SYSTEM

K

J

J IS THE INERTIA (LB-IN-SEC2)
K IS THE TORSIONAL STIFFNESS (LB-IN/RAD)
EQUATION OF MOTION
JŐ + Kθ =0 (NO DAMPING)
SET θ = θ0 COS ω t
SOLUTION
-ω2 J θ0 + K θ0 = 0
ω IS THE TORSIONAL NATURAL FREQUENCY

TWO INERTIA SYSTEM
K

J1

J2

EQUATIONS OF MOTION:
J1 Ő1 + K (θ1 - θ2) = 0
J2 Ő2 + K (θ2 - θ1) = 0
LET θ1 = θ01 ejωt AND θ2 = θ02 ejωt
CHARACTERISTICS (K-ω2 J1) θ01 – K θ02 = 0
EQUATIONS
- K θ01 + (K-ω2 J2) θ02 = 0
RESONANCE OCCURS WHEN THE SYSTEM DET = 0
-K
=0
DET = K - ω2 J1
2
-K
K - ω J2
SOULTION ω = √ K(J1 + J2)/(J1 +J2) RAD./SEC.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM (TURBINE – COMPRESSOR)
J1 = 138.4824 LB.IN.SEC2 J2 =26.50472 LB.IN.SEC2 K = 3.8*10E6 LB.IN./RAD
CALCULATED TORSIONAL CRITICAL SPEED = 3944 CPM

THREE INERTIA SYSTEM
K2

K1

J1

J3
J2

J1 Ő1 + K1 (θ1 - θ2) = 0
J2 Ő2 + K1 (θ2 - θ1) + K2 (θ2 - θ3) = 0
J3 Ő3 + K2 (θ3 - θ2) = 0
NOW WE HAVE A 3 x 3 SYSTEM DETERMINANT. THE SOLUTION IS OF THE FORM: aω4 + b ω 2 +
c=0
SOLUTION : ω 2 = [ -b +/- √ (b2 – 4 ac)] / 2a
WHERE a = 1, b = - K1/J1 - K2 /J2 - (K1 + K2)/J2
c =(K1K2)/(J1 J2 J3)*(J1+J2+J3 )
NOTICE THAT TWO VALUES OF ω EXIST. THE FIRST CRITICAL SPEED AND THE SECOND.
EXAMPLE PROBLEM (TURBINE – COUPLING - COMPRESSOR)
J1 = 138.2064 LB.IN.SEC2 J2 =2.551244 LB.IN.SEC2 J3=25.22953 LB.IN.SEC2
CALCULATED FIRST TORSIONAL CRITICAL SPEED = 3975 CPM
CALCULATED SECOND TORSIONAL CRITICAL SPEED = 23530 CPM.
One can thus estimate torsional natural frequencies using these equations quickly. However to
get accurate answers, different methods will be required.

‘N’ INERTIA SYSTEM (Holzer Method)
J2

J1

K1

J3

K2

J4

K3

J5

J6

K5

JN

KN

If the system considered, has N disks and ω Is a natural frequency then the
sum of inertia torques given below must go to zero
N
Σ Ji θi ω2 =0
i=1
If the system considered has N disks and N-1 shafts then the angular
displacements are given by
j-1
θj = θi-1 - ω2 / K(j-1) Σ Ji θi ω2
j= 2,3,….. N

i=1

ITERATIVE PROCEDURE IS FOLLOWED, ASSUMING DIFFERENT ω VALUES.

GEARED SYSTEM

MODELING PROCESS REQUIRES THE FOLLOWING

System Description
Shaft Material Properties
Shaft Diameters and Section Lengths
Lumped Wr2 Values
Associated Damping
Gear Ratio(s) – If used in the System
Coupling Data
Driver/Motor Data
Driven Machine Data
Gear Data

COMMONLY USED FORMULAE
FOR TORSIONAL MODELING

SHAFT INERTIA DISTRIBUTION

J1

J3

J2

J4

½ KSHAFT

J1+J2

KSHAFT

NO SHAFT INERTIA

J3+ J4

SHAFT PENETRATION EFFECT

1/3 L

2/3 L
L

EFFECT OF FILLET RADIUS ON TORSIONAL
STIFFNESS
Effect of Corner Fillet Radius on Torsional Stiffness
0.16

Equivalent Length of Junction/Dia. of Smaller Shaft

0.14

r

D1

D2

r/R1=0.0

0.12

r/R1=0.1

0.1

r/R1=0.2

0.08
r/R1=0.3
0.06

0.04

r/R1=0.4

0.02
r/R1=0.5
0
1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

2.2

2.4

D2/D1

D1 = 10.0”
R1 = 5.0”
D2 = 15.0”
r= 0.5”

r/R1 = 0.1
D2/D1 = 1.5
∆L / D1 = 0.067
∆L = 0.67

2.6

2.8

3

TORSIONAL STRESS CALCULATIONS
• Unidirectional Stress is:
σR = (63025 x Hpt / RPM) x (Do/2)
π (Do 4 – Di 4)/32
Where Hpt is the transmitted power
• Alternating Stress is:
σP = (63025 x Hpr x Ap x Pct/RPM) x (Do/2)
π (Do 4 – Di 4)/32
Hpr = Rated Power, Ap = Amplification factor
Pct = Per cent of Rated Torque
• Allowable Vibratory Stress is:
σA = f (σu , σR , σYP , Kts, C)
Where: σu = Ultimate minimum tensile strength of shaft material
Kts = Stress concentration factor
C= Number of stress cycles
σR = Unidirectional stress
σYP = Yield point of the shaft end material in tension
• Safety Factor = σA / σP

SAMPLE OUTPUT - TORSIONAL CRITICAL SPEED ANALYSIS

CRITICAL SPEED SAMPLE PROBLEM
PDC 4/30/12
NO. OF MAJOR INERTIAS =
12

ROTOR INPUT DATA:
GEAR
OUT DELTA
RATIO DIA.
L

INS.
DIA.

1.000 2.76 1.80
1.000 4.72 6.60
1.000 0.00 0.00
1.000 4.72 11.00
1.000 7.50 10.38
1.000 8.10 5.92
1.000 9.90 8.10
1.000 9.94 3.50
1.000 10.00 23.70
1.000 0.00 0.00
1.000 10.00 23.70
1.000 9.94 3.50
1.000 9.90 8.10
1.000 8.10 5.92
1.000 7.50 10.28
1.000 7.38 11.67
1.000 0.00 0.00
1.000 0.00 0.00
1.000 0.00 0.00
1.000 6.00 2.92
1.000 6.00 7.58
1.000 40.79 4.42
1.000 0.00 0.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

WR2VB

0.0
0.0
10224.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
1338480.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
29744.5
0.0
94104.5
0.0
0.0
0.0
683178.9

GAMMA

0.283
0.283
0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.000

G
*10E6

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
0.00000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
11.80000
11.80000
0.00000

STIFFNESS
*10E6

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
38.36070
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

SR

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.062
0.062
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.062
0.062
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

MAJ. CTRL.

0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
4
0
0
0
5

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290

6.94 1.37
7.71 5.26
4.00 7.36
2.76 3.82
6.12 1.00
2.76 1.67
2.76 0.83
0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00
2.50 0.50
2.38 0.12
3.75 0.93
3.87 3.10
4.00 7.54
4.02 1.82
4.12 0.62
4.00 0.12
4.13 0.40
4.44 0.44
4.38 2.06
6.00 1.90
7.50 0.67
6.80 1.90
8.10 0.67
6.94 0.25
8.10 0.25
8.10 0.31
7.50 1.87
0.00 0.00
7.50 1.87
8.10 4.83
7.50 12.82
0.00 0.00
8.10 4.83
7.50 1.30
8.10 2.35
7.50 7.53

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
6.00
6.00
7.50
0.00
7.75
7.75
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.50
0.00
7.50
0.00

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
765.0
0.0
765.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
9587.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
5805.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283

11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
11.80000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
11.35000
11.35000
11.35000
11.35000
11.35000
11.35000
11.35000
11.35000
11.35000
11.35000
0.00000
0.00000
11.35000
0.00000
0.00000
11.35000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
11.35000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
11.35000

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
14.20000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.320
0.120
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
7
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290
5.290

0.00 0.00
8.10 2.35
7.50 1.53
8.10 2.44
7.50 8.07
0.00 0.00
8.10 2.44
7.50 1.65
8.10 4.03
7.50 11.03
0.00 0.00
8.10 4.03
7.50 2.67
8.10 9.10
7.50 0.11
6.94 0.25
8.10 0.11
8.10 0.25
8.10 1.24
6.80 1.90
4.38 2.06
4.44 0.44
4.13 0.40
4.00 0.12
4.12 0.62
4.02 1.82
4.00 4.68
3.74 1.46
3.19 0.74
3.16 1.00
3.00 0.12
3.12 1.50
3.00 0.34

0.00
7.50
0.00
7.50
0.00
0.00
7.50
0.00
7.50
0.00
0.00
7.50
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.75
7.75
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00

7625.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7862.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
7071.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.000
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283
0.283

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
11.35000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
11.35000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000

0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000

10
0
0
0
0
11
0
0
0
0
12
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

STATION
NO.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

WR**2
LB. IN2

STIFFNESS

0.104226538E+05
0.136056027E+07
0.312949252E+05
0.943461467E+05
0.104178066E+07
0.226617983E+05
0.251648469E+05
0.314665269E+06
0.197028549E+06
0.240579570E+06
0.253301194E+06
0.263036660E+06

TORS. CRIT. SPEED (RPM)

0.369885975E+08
0.950963281E+08
0.383607000E+08
0.198015492E+09
0.256980342E+09
0.397374220E+09
0.491568569E+09
0.769598372E+10
0.131078134E+11
0.122258378E+11
0.894492396E+10

EXCITING FREQUENCIES (CPM)

1200.00

3600.00

6348.00

7200.00

SEPARATION MARGINS

0.9499993E+03

20.83

73.61

85.03

86.81

0.2712998E+04

126.08

24.64

57.26

62.32

0.9251993E+04

671.00

157.00

45.75

28.50

0.1121899E+05

834.92

211.64

76.73

55.82

0.1267799E+05

956.50

252.17

99.72

76.08

0.2136698E+05

1680.58

493.53

236.59

196.76

0.2508798E+05

1990.67

596.89

295.21

248.44

0.4063397E+05

3286.16

1028.72

540.11

464.36

0.4235397E+05

3429.50

1076.50

567.20

488.25

THE NORMALIZED CRITICAL SPEED MODE SHAPES ARE

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1

0.9499993E+03 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.10000E+01
0.99278E+00
0.62578E+00
-0.29709E+00
-0.47224E+00
-0.55812E+00
-0.61284E+00
-0.61284E+00
-0.61498E+00
-0.61599E+00
-0.61677E+00
-0.61738E+00

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

0.2712998E+04 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.11047E+00
0.10396E+00
-0.20959E+00
-0.95111E+00
-0.10000E+01
-0.18997E+00
0.33614E+00
0.33614E+00
0.36020E+00
0.37320E+00
0.38560E+00
0.40026E+00

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

2

3

0.9251993E+04 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.58545E-01
0.18427E-01
-0.63831E+00
-0.10000E+01
0.88617E-01
0.53805E-01
0.23830E-01
0.23830E-01
0.19724E-01
0.16591E-01
0.12439E-01

12

0.59077E-02

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0.1121899E+05 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.10000E+01
-0.75996E-02
-0.10720E-01
0.12817E-01
-0.44600E-02
0.46881E-01
0.70523E-01
0.70523E-01
0.60608E-01
0.51529E-01
0.38170E-01
0.16045E-01

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

4

5

0.1267799E+05 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.55728E-01
-0.15978E-01
0.10000E+01
-0.20666E+00
0.92054E-02
0.51321E-02
0.11615E-02
0.11615E-02
0.72227E-03

10
11
12

0.41482E-03
0.47910E-04
-0.45977E-03

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

0.2136698E+05 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.11494E-05
-0.30515E-05
0.56158E-03
-0.39810E-02
0.19741E-01
-0.10000E+01
-0.91977E+00
-0.91977E+00
-0.38884E+00
-0.13090E-02
0.41452E+00
0.83061E+00

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

6

7

0.2508798E+05 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.16995E-06
-0.68638E-06
0.17458E-03
-0.19377E-02
0.14162E-01
-0.10000E+01
-0.63610E+00

8
9
10
11
12

-0.63610E+00
-0.11505E+00
0.22179E+00
0.50489E+00
0.63618E+00

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

1
2
3
4
5

0.4063397E+05 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.59665E-09
-0.72897E-08
0.48820E-05
-0.16982E-03
0.35918E-02
-0.67653E+00
0.69344E+00
0.69344E+00
-0.67215E+00
-0.10000E+01
-0.42844E+00
0.92188E+00

CRITICAL SPEED NO.

STATION NO.

8

9

0.4235397E+05 RPM

NORMALIZED DEFLECTION

0.26282E-09
-0.35115E-08
0.25554E-05
-0.97344E-04
0.22470E-02

6
7
8
9
10
11
12

-0.46018E+00
0.57823E+00
0.57823E+00
-0.66939E+00
-0.88912E+00
-0.23304E+00
0.10000E+01

TYPICAL MODE SHAPE PLOTS USING MICROSOFT EXCEL
Critical Speed Mode Shape - Nc1= 950 CPM
1.20E+00
1.00E+00

Normalized Deflections

8.00E-01
6.00E-01
4.00E-01
2.00E-01
0.00E+00
0

2

4

6

8

-2.00E-01
-4.00E-01
-6.00E-01
-8.00E-01
Inertia Station Numbers

10

12

14

Critical Speed Mode Shape - Nc2=2713 CPM
6.00E-01
4.00E-01

Normalized Deflections

2.00E-01
0.00E+00
0

2

4

6

8

-2.00E-01
-4.00E-01
-6.00E-01
-8.00E-01
-1.00E+00
-1.20E+00
Inertia Numbers

10

12

14

Comparison of Calculated Torsional Natural Frequencies with Test Data
System 1

Multimass 4 inertia
Calculated
(54
model
Inertia)
crit. Spd.
model
no.

(CPM)

(CPM)

Percent
difference
Multimass
Vs.
4 inertia
model

Test
Data

HZ

Per Cent
Dev. of Test
from
CPM Calculated
Multimass

Per Cent
Dev. of Test
from
Calculated
4 inertia
model

1

513

522

1.754385965 8.625 517.5 0.869565217 -0.869565217

2

797

808

1.380175659 13.75

2073

0.623202301

3

2086

825

3.393939394 2.060606061

Comparison of Calculated Torsional Natural Frequencies with Test Data
System 2

Multimass
Calculated
(33
Inertia)
crit. Spd.
model
no.

1

2

(CPM)

689

1418

3 inertia
model

(CPM)

Percent
difference
Multimass
Vs.
3 inertia
model

Test
Data

HZ

Per Cent

Per Cent

Dev. of Test Dev. of Test
from
from
CPM Calculated Calculated
3 inertia
Multimass
model
0.144927536 0.724637681

695

0.870827286 11.5

690

1414

0.282087447

1500 5.466666667 5.733333333

25

References
• Thomson, W. T., Vibration Theory and Applications, Prentice
Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1965.
• Den Hartog, J.P., Mechanical Vibrations, Dover Publications
Inc., New York 1985 edition. (First published 1934)
• Tse, Francis S., Morse, Ivan E., Hinkle, Rolland T., Mechanical
Vibrations, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, 1964.
• API Standard 617, Seventh Edition, July 2002.
• A HANDBOOK ON TORSIONAL VIBRATION – The British
Internal Combustion Research Association (B.I.C.E.R.A)
• Kirschbaum, H.S., “Transient Electrical Torques of Turbine
Generators During Short Circuits and Synchronizing”,
Transactions Electrical Engineering, February 1945, Volume 64.
• Wahl, A.M., Kilgore, L.A., “ Transient Starting Torques in
Induction Motors”, November, 1940, Transactions Electrical
Engineering.
• Godwin, G.I., “The Nature of A.C. Machine Torques”, IEEE ,
1976.

References (Continued)
• Pollard, E.I., “Torsional Response of Systems”, Transactions of
the ASME, July 1967.
• Pollard, E.I., “Transient Torsional Vibration Due to Suddenly
Applied Torque”, Journal of Engineering for Industry, May 1972.
• De Choudhury, P., “Torsional System Design Relative to
Synchronous Motor Start-Up with a Variable Frequency Power
Supply System”, Proceedings of the International Conference
on Rotordynamics, September, 1986.
• De Choudhury, P., “Aspects of Torsional System Design for
Large Single Shaft Gas Turbine Drives with Variable Frequency
Start Up Motor”, Proceedings of the Sixth International
Conference on Rotordynamics, September, 2002.
• Milton, A. Miner, “Cumulative Fatigue Damage Analysis”,
Journal of Applied Mechanics, September 1945.