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Key to References and Authorities

Footnotes: In a verse the first footnote is marked with the letter a, the second with b, the third with c, and so on. In the footnotes, a note is labelled by the number of the verse followed by the letter which marks it in the verse. For instance, in chapter 2, verse 1 has one note, marked a in the verse and labelled as 1a in the footnotes; verse 2 has three notes, marked a, b and c in the verse and labelled as 2a, 2b and 2c in the footnotes. (The Bismillh verse in chapter 1 carries no verse number but has three notes. These are labelled in the footnotes by just the letter, a, b or c.) References: All references given without an indication of the name are to this book. Preceding a colon is the number of a chapter of the Holy Qurn, and following the colon are verse numbers or footnotes in that chapter. For instance, 55:29 denotes chapter 55, verse 29, and 4:142a denotes chapter 4, footnote 142a (marked as a within verse 142, and as 142a in the footnotes). 16:33, 34 denotes chapter 16, verses 33 and 34. 3:148180 denotes chapter 3, verses 148 to 180. 5:64, 64a denotes chapter 5, verse 64 and footnote 64a (i.e. note a in verse 64). 18:94a, 96a denotes chapter 18, footnotes 94a and 96a. When referring to verses or footnotes from within the chapter in which they occur, the chapter number is omitted. For instance, in any chapter a reference to v. 5 indicates verse 5 of that chapter, and 51b indicates footnote 51b of that chapter. In references to adth collections, the first figure is the number of the kitb (book) and the second the number of the bb (chapter), but in references to the Kitb al-Tafsr of Bukhr (B. 65) a number in roman is added to show the number of the srah. In case of adth collections not divided into kitbs and bbs, the first number in Roman refers to the volume and the second to the page; so also in the case of historical and other books. A reference to a Lexicon will be met with under the entry for the root of the word. In the case of Commentaries of the Holy Qurn, the reference given will be met with in the verse under discussion, unless otherwise indicated. Note on verse numbering in chapters 3, 4 and 6: In this edition there is a slight difference from the pre-2000 editions in the numbering of verses in chapters 3 and 6, and near the end of chapter 4. In chapter 3, the verse which was numbered as 3 is now split into two verses 3 and 4. Therefore, subsequent verses (4 to 199) now bear a number 1 more than before (5 to 200). In chapter 6, the verses which were numbered as 73 and 74 are now combined as verse 73. Therefore, subsequent verses (75 to 166) now bear a number 1 less than before (74 to 165). In chapter 4, the verses which were numbered as 173 and 174 are now combined as 173. Therefore, the subsequent verses, 175 to 177, are now numbered as 174 to 176. This change has been made to make our numbering conform to the more widely used convention. In the list below, names of books are given in italics; also in those cases where I-21

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KEY TO REFERENCES AND AUTHORITIES

the abbreviation is based on the name of a person, the relevant part of the persons name is given in italics.
A . . . . . Ass al-Balghah (Dictionary), by Abu-l-Qsim Mamd ibn Umar alZamakhshar. AD . . . . . Kitb al-Sunan (adth), by Ab Dawd Sulaimn. Ah. . . . . . Musnad of Imm Amad ibn anbal (adth). AH . . . . Bar al-Mu (Commentary), by Imm Athr al-Dn Ab Abd Allh Ab ayyn al-Undlus. AIs . . . . . Ab Isq (Grammarian). Akh. . . . . Abu-l-asan Al ibn Sulaimn al-Akhfash (Grammarian). AUb . . . Ab Ubaidah Mamar ibn Muthann al-Bar (Grammarian). Az. . . . . . Ab Manr Muammad ibn Amad al-Azhar (Grammarian). B . . . . . Al-Jmi al-Musnad al-a (adth), by Al-Imm Ab Abd Allh Muammad ibn Isml al-Bukhr. Bd . . . . . Anwr al-Tanzl wa Asrr al-Tawl (Commentary), by Qz Ab Sad Abd Allh ibn Umar al-Baiw. Cr . . . . . . Crudens Bible Concordance. Dk. . . . . . Ab Al al-usain ibn ak ibn Ysir Bar (Poet). Dr . . . . . . Al-Musnad (adth), by Ab Muammad Abd Allh al-Drim. En. Bib. . Encyclopaedia Biblica. En. Br. . . Encyclopaedia Britannica. FB. . . . . . Fat al-Br f Shar a Bukhr (adth), by Imm ibn ajar Asqaln. Ham . . . . Exposition of Dwn amsah (Poetry), by Yay Al Tabriz. IAb . . . . Abd Allh ibn Abbs (Companion). IH . . . . . . Ab Muammad Abd al-Mlik ibn Hishm (Historian). IJ . . . . . Jmi al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn (Commentary), by Imm Ab Jafar Muammad ibn Jarr al-abar. IK . . . . . . Tafsr (Commentary), by Isml ibn Umar (Ibn Kathr). IM . . . . Sunan (adth), by Ab Abd Allh Muammad ibn Yazd ibn Mjah alQazwn. IMsd . . . . Abd Allh ibn Masd (Companion). Itq . . . . Itqn f Ulm al-Qurn (Commentary), by Imm Jall al-Dn Abd alRamn ibn Ab Bakr al-Suy. Jal . . . . Al-Jallain (Commentary), by Jall al-Dn Suy and his teacher, Jall alDn. JB. . . . . Jmi al-Bayn f Tafsr al-Qurn (Commentary), by Al-Shaikh Mun alDn ibn af al-Dn. Kf . . . . Kashshf (Commentary), by Abu-l-Qsim Mamd ibn Umar alZamakhshar.

KEY TO REFERENCES AND AUTHORITIES

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KU . . . . Kanaz al-Umml f Sunani-l-Aqwl wa-l-Afl (adth), by Al-Shaikh Al al-Dn Al al-Muttaq. LA . . . . Lisn al-Arab (Dictionary), by Allmah Abu-l-Fal Jaml al-Dn Muammad ibn Mukarram. LL. . . . . . Arabic-English Lexicon by Edward William Lane. M . . . . . . Al-Mukam wa-l-Mu al-Aam (Dictionary), by Al ibn Isml ibn Sdah. MB . . . . Majma Bir al-Anwr (Dictionary of adth), by Al-Shaikh Muammad hir. Mgh . . . Mughn al-Labb (Grammar), by Al-Shaikh Jaml al-Dn ibn Hishm AlAnr. Mjd. . . . . Mujhid ibn Jbar (Tbi). Ms . . . . . a Muslim (adth), by Imm Abu-l-usain ibn Al-ajjj. Msb . . . . Al-Mib al-Munr f Gharb al-Shar al-Kabr (Dictionary), by Amad ibn Muammad ibn Al al-Muqr al-Faym. Msh . . . Mishkt al-Mab (adth), by Shaikh Wal al-Dn Muammad Abd Allh. N . . . . . . Al-Nihyah f Gharbi-l-adth wa-l-Athar (Dictionary of adth), by Shaikh Imm Majd al-Dn Ab Sadat al-Mubrik, known as Ibn al-Athr. Nas . . . . . Sunan al-Nas (adth), by Ab Abd al-Ramn Amad al-Nas. Q . . . . . Al-Qms al-Mu (Dictionary), by Shaikh Majd al-Dn Muammad ibn Yaqb Al-Firozbd. Qt . . . . . . Qatdah ibn Dumah (Tbi). R . . . . . Al-Mufradt f Gharb al-Qurn (Dictionary of Qurn), by Shaikh Abu-lQsim Al-usain al-Rghib al-Ifahn. Rz . . . . . . Al-Tafsr al-Kabr (Commentary), by Imm Fakhr al-Dn Rz. RM. . . . R al-Man (Commentary), by Abu-l-Fal Shahb al-Dn al-Sayyid Mamd al-Als. S. . . . . . Al-i Tj al-Lughah wa i al-Arabiyyah (Dictionary) by Isml ibn ammd al-Jawhar. T . . . . . . . Tj al-Ars (Dictionary), by Imm Muibb al-Dn Abu-l-Fai Murta. Tb. . . . . Trkh al-Umam wa-l-Mulk (History), by Ab Jafar Muammad ibn Jarr al-abar. Tr . . . . . . Al-Jmi (adth), by Ab s Muammad ibn s Tirmidh. Zj . . . . . . Zajjj (Grammarian).