Working in Groups

Chapter 3: Group Membership

Group Membership

• Followership
What types of competences characterize highly effective group members?

• Member Needs
- How do groups satisfy members’ needs?

• Member Roles
Which group roles enhance or obstruct group effectiveness? How communication apprehension affect group competence and confidence?
How does assertiveness achieve a balance between positivity and aggressiveness?

• Member’s Confidence

• Members Assertiveness


A new group member may be engaged or disengaged. Members Needs • People join groups to satisfy personal needs. Highly energized members are active and energized by the group’s common goal and quality of interaction. 2 . Full participation of followers is the engine that makes groups work effectively. and leave groups.3/1/2010 Followership • • • • • • In some countries loyal hard working followers are admired. to satisfy belonging needs. When one joins a group their competence determines whether their group will achieve their common goals and the Leadership ↔ Followership dialectic. college students join clubs to make new friends. stay in. They may be enthusiastic/committed or lack enthusiasm and not participate. • Volunteers express their reasons and do not have hidden agendas. job applicants may decline a job offer because of seemingly “unpleasant ”team members. • Maslow’ Hierarchy of Needs and Schultz’s theory of interpersonal behaviour have made significant contributions to understanding why we join. • A retiree may join as a teacher’s aide to feel productive and appreciated. For example participating in neighborhood watch activity.

4. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs • Maslow arranged five needs in a hierarchy • Satisfactionprogression process • People who experience selfactualization desire more rather than less of this need • Not much support for Maslow’s theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 1. food and shelter • Group of neighbors saved stranded families • Neighbours joined forces to protect homes and belongings.flv • Hunting clan members need cooperation to survive • Farming families rely on members to survive • Police forces and fire departments protect neignourhoods. • Unlikely heroes emerged to help victims.3/1/2010 Abraham H.YOU MUST WATCH THIS_3. Esteem Needs Respect and admiration 5. • Unions protect workers from unfair labor practices. • Medical groups set up makeshift clinics to care for victims • Volunteer groups organized to find and reunite family members. Volunteers took leave from families and jobs to search for and aid victims. • Families provide affection and social support • Joining an exclusive club may be earn a person admiration • Leading a group may enhance member’s status • People find personal rewards in helping others Intellectual and creative needs become important. Self-Actualization Needs: Fulfilling your personal potential • 3 . • Volunteer groups were publicly recognized for their rescue and rebuilding efforts • • Boat owners from distant towns and states rallied to aid flood victims. • Victims banded together to share water. Belongingness Needs: Respect and admiration Satisfying Group Needs Example: Hurricane Katrina YouTube . Physiological Needs: Water. Safety Needs Security and protection 3. food. shelter 2.Hurricane Katrina . • Relief-workers provided counselling to victims. • Teenage groups provide friendships and a sense of belonging.

3/1/2010 Schultz’s Theory of Interpersonal Needs People join groups to satisfy interpersonal needs • Interpersonal needs are based on self image • Three basic human needs are Inclusion. control and affection 4 .

3/1/2010 Inclusion • Refers to feelings of importance • The need to matter so people will care about me Inclusion • • • • • • Manifests itself in people wanting to be attended to Wanting to attract attention Wanting interaction with others Being a distinct person .having a particular identity Happens early in the group formation process A person seeking inclusion wants to be one of the participants in a group 5 .

• Being seen as able to cope with the world 6 .” Control • Refers to feelings of competence. so I will stay away. and I’m not going to risk being ignored.3/1/2010 Psychological Aspects-Inclusion • People with low inclusion needs tend to be introverted and withdrawn • “No one is interested in me. because I am worthless.

win or lose – One seeing control wants to win.and over one’s future – Desire to be controlled have responsibility lifted 7 .3/1/2010 Control • If inclusion is about belonging. then control is about winning – One seeking inclusion wants to be part of the argument. even if he’s not accepted by the group Control • Deals in areas of power. influence and authority • Manifests itself along a continuum from – Desire for control over others .

3/1/2010 Extremes of control needs • The person who will not take responsibility for anything. • The tyrant Affection • Refers to the feeling of being lovable • Definition in your text is simplistic • If you see the real me. you are going to like what you see 8 .

” “I just do what I’m told.” Personal Member “I avoid friendship with other members. control is about winning and affection is about interpersonal relationships • In inclusion phase people encounter each-other and decide if they will continue the association • In control the confront each other and work out how they will be related • In order to continue the relationship.” group’s attention” UNDERSOCIAL MEMBER OVERSOCIAL MEMBER Control Needs “I need to feel influential and important” “Others respect me” Democratic Member “I don’t have influence in the group. • Control deals with power while affection deals with emotional ties – Get down to business vs get to know each other.3/1/2010 Inclusion Needs “I need to feel accepted by the group” “I feel accepted by the group” Social Member “I don’t feel accepted or involved” “I wont participate much “I try to gain the in group discussions. and also say goodbye.” “I try to dominate the group” Abdicrat Autocrat Affection Needs “I need to feel others like me” “I feel that others like me” “I’m not sure that others like me. 9 . affection ties must form and people must embrace each other to form a lasting bond.” “I confide in and try to be very close with everyone” Underpersonal Member Overpersonal Member Conclusions • Inclusion is about prominence.

characteristics and attitudes. • Groups may rely on some members for enthusiasm and promote team work(energizer) and others for reconciling disagreements and reducing tensions(harmonizer). • The members of successful groups know how to identify appropriate roles for themselves and how to work with the roles that other group members adopt. Group Task Roles • Initiative • Information Seekers • Coordinator/Chairperso n • Information Giver • Opinion Seeker • Clarifier/Summarizer • Implementer/Complete r • Evaluator-critic • Energizer • Procedure technician • Recorder/Secretary 10 . • People assume one or more roles depending on their skills.3/1/2010 Member roles • Exhibiting a unique set of behaviour patterns that serve specific function within the group.

3/1/2010 Group Maintenance Roles • Encourager/ Supporter • Harmonizer • Compromiser • Tension releaser • Gatekeeper • Observerinterpreter • Teamworker/ Follower Working in Groups Chapter 3: Group Membership 11 .

• Fostering confidence helps members and groups to commit to ambitious goals and believe in their ability to succeed • Competence is linked to confidence when members’ strong skills combine with a desire to contribute and an ability to collaborate “The observable outcome is an elevated sense of confidence among team members”. and challenging assignments effectively because members have “can do attitude”. problematic behaviour.3/1/2010 Self-Centered Roles • • • • • • • • Aggressor Blocker Dominator Recognition Seeker Clown Deserter Confessor Special interest pleader Member Confidence • Confident groups are likely to succeed • They cope with unexpected events. 12 .

conversations and group settings. 13 . communication apprehension may be the single most important factor predicting communication behaviour in small group. Fr example.3/1/2010 Communication Apprehension • James McCroskey defines communication apprehension as “an individual’s level of fear and anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons. Communication Apprehension • According to James McCorsky and Virginia Richmond. the nature of listeners and characteristics of the occasion or setting. • Different levels of communication apprehension depending on several factors such as the personality of the speaker. speaking at a weekly team meetings vs defending a department’s actions at a company executive’s meeting.” • Includes fear of public speaking.” • Highly apprehensive people often choose seats that inhibit communication.

‘uh’.2 Communication Apprehension in Groups Members with high apprehension may… • Avoid group participation • Talk less often • Agree with others rather than voice disagreements • Smile and giggle inappropriately • Fidget • Use awkward phrases as fillers.3/1/2010 Table 3. Strategies for Reducing Communication Apprehension • Know that you are not alone • Be well prepared • Learn communication skills • Relax physically • Think positively • Visualise success 14 . ‘you know’ • Have difficulty following a discussion Members with low apprehension may… • Initiate discussions • • • • Speak more often Assert themselves and their beliefs Become group leaders Strategically choose when to speak and when to remain silent • Appear more confident • Dominate a discussion or talk compulsively. such as ‘well’.

• Assertive communication can also raise your level of confidence and reduce communication apprehension • Assertiveness seeks balance between passivity and aggression • Assertive members have the confidence to stand up for themselves while interacting to achieve a group goal.” and it has the potential to enhance confidence and effectiveness of a group and its members. 15 .3/1/2010 Strategies for Helping Apprehensive Members • Provide Support and Constructive Feedback • Encourage and Include Anxious Members • Stop Talking Member Assertiveness • Assertiveness is the: “Speaking up and acting in your best interest without denying the rights and interests of others.

even when others disagree • Express their feelings openly • Respect and defend the rights and opinions of other group members. honest.” 16 . open and cooperative • Volunteer their ideas and opinions • Ask and answer questions without fear of hostility • Stand up to their beliefs.3/1/2010 Assertive Members Tend To: • Appear confident. • They often focus on expressing their own ideas and fail to listen to what others have to say • They are unaware that their behaviour is a problem. speak more frequently than others. feel less inhibited and experience lower levels of communication apprehension. “ Lets limit our comments to one minute each” • Interrupt: “I appreciate your comments but I would like to hear what other have to say on the matter. Groups in Balance: Curb Compulsive Speakers • Compulsive speakers tend to dominate a discussion. • Set ground rules for compulsive speakers.

fear criticism from others and do what they are told to do even when they disagree or dislike the order. reluctant to express their opinions and feelings. • Passive people rarely satisfied with their group experiences because they feel powerless and putupon 17 .3/1/2010 Balancing Passivity and Aggression Group Effectiveness Passive Assertive Aggressive Member Assertiveness Balancing Passivity and Aggression • Passive members often lack confidence. experience high levels of communication apprehension.

• Assertive members are trusted because they do not violate the rights and interests of others. 18 . • They are critical. by behaving cooperatively but rarely following through with promised contributions and by appearing to agree while privately planning to oppose an action.3/1/2010 Balancing Passivity and Aggression • Aggressive people put own self-interest at the expense of others. • They get what they want by taking over or by bullying other members into submission Balancing Passivity and Aggression • In some cases passivity and aggression combine to create a passive aggressive. • Often get their way by undermining other members behind their backs. insensitive. combative and even abusive.

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