CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AND ITS PROBLEM

This chapter explains and explores the various concepts, as well as the problem and the rationale, which serve as the background of this research study. It also provides the problem statement, the study’s significance, the limits set by the researchers, and the important terminologies used. Introduction “...It’s what you want to convey about yourself, your business, your product, your work ethics, and your professionalism combined with the strategy you’ve developed to reach the target audience…” Klein, K.E. (20 December 2006)

An image of organization or a company as what Klein (2006) mentioned on her article in Business week that anything that sticks to the minds of potential audience. An image does not only cover logos, emblems, taglines, advertisements, websites, and the like, but it also supplements to the corporate culture established inside and outside the organization, including its products, rooted principles, ethics, and professionalism in line with the skills developed in reaching the target audience. In order for an organization to succeed on delivering its message, tools and tactics must be used. As one of the recognized communication technique, campaign in general is described as the message content which undergoes several processes and directed by certain intention and will. Message is what communicators share and exchange in communication process. Hence, the

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researchers found out that the said campaign is worth to be studied, explain, understand, interpret, analyze, and evaluate deeply via television and print advertisements in order to determine its contribution to the image of the organization itself. As an advertising campaign, Pepsi-Cola Products Philippines (PCPPI) launched the Sarap Magbago campaign on late 2009. It was broke out into series of television advertisements which features their product in line with the description of aforementioned campaign. The slogan of the advertising campaign “Sarap Magbago, Sarap MagPepsi” was achieved its recognition from people as it is posted on the signages and posters in some stores, establishments, wall, and other public places. The said print ads are still in line with their advertising campaign. This study will determine its role in the image of Pepsi as organization to its market. In late 2009, the campaign was launched to the public by airing a 30-seconder animation television commercial. On the succeeding years, advertisements related to the campaign used humoristic and funny approaches as what reflected on their television commercials. On 2011, their advertisement “Pepsi sa Akin ang Pinas” was introduced which features the 1980’s Philippine Movies with a glimpse of introduction of their new product “Pepsi Pinas” (Pepsi Blue in other countries). One TV Commercial which introduces Pepsi as distinct among other cola brands was introduced on early 2012 entitled “Di Pwede ang Pwede na Yan”. The said advertisement persuades the target market not to be passive consumer. Around September 2012, “Pepsi Pogi, Ober sa Pogi “TVC was launched to the public. It previews change as it features its new product “Pepsi Pogi.” Until now, Pepsi continue to use their advertisement “Sarap Magbago.” As Cathy Mata, PCPPI Marketing Officer said that the main targets of the said advertising campaign are the 2|Page

teenagers. Moreover, this campaign also describes their innovation to their new and upcoming products. This 2013 midterm polls, Sarap Magbago Ad campaign also implies change among young voters to be a catalyst for change by electing officials who are not traditional, innovative and lift servant. Advertising as being defined as any paid form of communication which intends to sell and market a product, services, and ideas. Aside from that, it is also a way to put mark on a certain brand of a product in line with the organization. As a communication tool, advertising campaign conveys a message of branding a certain product. In order to determine its contribution to the image of the organization, the study shall be conducted. The American Marketing Association (AMA) defines a brand as a "name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of other sellers as cited by Lake. She included that understanding branding is not about getting your target market to choose you over the competition, but it is about getting your prospects to see you as the only one that provides a solution to their problem. "We are the beverage company of choice - preferred by consumers, trade partners, investors and employees of the Philippines. As such, we continuously delight them by offering quality beverages at best value, for every drinking occasion. We are a happy team in our workplace as we build a sustainable and profitable business, providing healthy financial rewards to our shareholders and opportunities for growth and enrichment to our business partners, employees and the communities where we operate. We are guided by our core values of Passion, Excellence, Professionalism, Service and Integrity." This is the Mission and Vision of the company giving their publics the security of the benefits that the company will provide for them. The Mission and the Vision of a company is of

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Nielsen mentioned in Campaign Asia-Pacific that in the Philippines Coca-Cola remained on the top one spot.4% and Cosmos Bottlers Philippines with 23.course a tool for branding. In that case. In this study. Happiness Campaign of competitor brand was already measured by the buying behavior towards their product as what reflected on the ranking of cola brands.3% defeated by Coca-cola with 48. It can be compared to the first speech freshmen will speak to his newly met classmates. while Pepsi notches down to fourth. many are aware that Coca-Cola has already established its reputation through its various communication efforts. the researchers want to determine whether or not the campaign contributes to image of Pepsi as an organization. On 2011. 4|Page . People’s perception is immeasurable without conducting a research. Pepsi Sarap MagBago Ad Campaign is worth to be studied to know based on academe perspective if the aforementioned campaign really helps to build their integrity as a company or organization. Furthermore. The question will be why Pepsi Sarap Magbago? Is it relevant? As cited in 2TradeAsia AC Nielsen ranked Pepsi Cola Products Philippines Inc. Few words can indeed speak for a whole complex company that is why the mission and vision of an organization is well thought off that it will take a lot of studies before it will be passed and be official. This is like the immediate impression the company can give to their publics aside from their service or product.3%. (PCPPI) on third place on January 2008 garnering 17. From those ranking.

in terms of being: i. Organization 2. (PCPPI) “Sarap MagBago” Advertising Campaign contribute to its image as an organization? Specific-Problem statement: 1. Print advertisements in terms of: 5|Page . What mass medium used by the respondents to have an access in the campaign? 3.Statement of the Problem General Problem Statement: How does Pepsi-Cola Products Philippines Inc. Product iii. Values presented b. Brand ii. How do the teenagers view Pepsi-Cola Products Philippines Inc. How do the respondents perceive the campaign in terms of: a. Slogan ii. Tagline iii. TV advertisements in terms of: i.

Academe – It will substantiate the lectures deliver by advertising professors to discuss deeply the strategies and theories in making advertising campaigns. Furthermore. Advertising Students –This study will help them to widen their knowledge understanding and analysis on various advertising concepts and theories. brand management and communication campaign.i. decision-making process ii. Slogan ii. What images created by the campaign to Pepsi among the respondents in terms of ad theme? Significance of the Study This study will serve as important matter to the following matters: 1. this research could also serve as a case study for their classroom discussions. as well as. buying behavior 5. 6|Page . Values presente 4. 2. Tagline iii. How did the target market’s perception of the Advertising campaign contents influence their : i.

their awareness. It may also serve as support basis in getting the market perception regarding their on-going campaign. implementation. This study will concentrate in the Pepsi-cola Sarap Magbago Campaign ad in television. advertising. and perception about the advertising campaign which includes related television and print advertisements. 4. posters. Future Researchers – This will enable the future researchers of the same study and field to have a research literature that would clearly define and discuss some matters in advertising. this study will also take into considerations some online advertisements related to Sarap Magbago Ad Campaign. The campaign’s target markets who are teenagers is also part of the coverage of the study including their views about the said organization. and evaluation. public relations and the like.3. Furthermore. Pepsi Cola Product Philippines Incorporated (PCPPI) – Although. and other related activities. Furthermore. and signages. it will also discuss the image created by Sarap Magbago advertising campaign among its target publics. 7|Page . Scope and Limitations of the Study This study will mainly concentrate in the content of the Sarap Magbago advertising campaign including its strategies. campaign. this study will enable to be used as their additional resource in their decision making related to their future advertisements. tarpaulins. Pepsi is an organization who are already conducting research regarding their actions like campaigns. knowledge.

Campaign – It is a form of communication tool which is in general as connected series of operations designed to bring a particular result.It is a summary of audience’s idea that not only focuses with the brand and its functions but also it the meanings connected to it Brand Management . radio advertisements will not be in our scope of the study anymore. Advertising Campaign .A process of maintaining. including its taglines and communication efforts (e. campaign and program for an instance) that supplements to the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firm’s customer Brand Image . It is the last stage of RACE model. ideas. symbol. improving. and upholding a brand so that the name is associated with positive outcomes. Definition of terms Advertising – Any paid form of communication with an intent to sell products.However. 8|Page . and services.g. Brand Equity – It is a process of interconnecting brand’s name. Evaluation – A process of looking to the total contribution of a campaign.It is a course of action which designed to advertise the company for cause or a product that employs an intentional and carefully coordinated series of marketing tools in order to reach its target audience Brand – It is the over-all characteristic of an organization that put edges on its competitor.

and interpret sensory stimulation with a conveying meaning or message. Perception It is a complex process which the communicants learn to select. 9|Page . arrange.Identity – Anything that will support the image of organization. Image – It is defined as process of knowing and discovering the background of an organization.

brand management and equity. and health. a faculty member in Suez Canal University – Egypt substantiated the given statements above by stating that campaign has imparted ideas with specific purpose and 10 | P a g e . Rice & Atkin (2001) also added that campaign is a form of public communication with a purpose to inform. which focuses on the application of advertising principles. and motivate behavior changes in relatively well-defined and diverse audience for non-commercial benefits to the individuals. Nonetheless. the researchers have found various literature and studies that are related to the study. Conceptual Literature Campaign: definition and types In general definition. ideas. attitudes.CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES The study. within a definite period of time through organized communication efforts. Salama (n. environment. and perception in line with the contribution of Pepsi Sarap MagBago Ad Campign to the image of Pepsi as an organization. and behavior of large populations across the a various domains . campaign describes as connected series of operations designed to bring about particular result. This general definition was supported by Rice & Atkin (2001) that a campaign covers strategies for producing effects on the knowledge.d.) . persuade. and methods that serve as the foundation of this research work. which includes outcomes in different aspects such as pro-social. political. society. branding. may be considered as a pioneering research study. marketing communication. All of these are found useful in the formulation of concepts.

know the problem. and integrated effort to manage certain well-focuses activities with its supporting communication to attain more results. Grunig & Ipes (1984) added that communication campaign transforms the passive public into high involvement constrained public or high involvement problem-facing public. Meaning to say.attempt to shape behaviors and desirable results. Advertising Campaign refers to series of action designed to advertise the company for cause or a product that employs an intentional and carefully coordinated series of marketing tools in order to reach its target audience. The end goal of it is to boost awareness regarding the subject and to call for participation.centered. and ends with evaluation. (Tatum. audience where the campaign is targeted have to see the issue. Coffman (2003) said that campaigns also uses tactics and approaches with an objective to aid individuals in order to make the world a better place to live in. systematic. Definition of Campaign in Advertising Perspective A communication tool. It is also defined as an organized. The campaign always starts with research. and strategy decision s. seek information about it. Furthermore. campaign has the power to influence its targeted audience for a certain purpose. As what Kendall (1996) added that forming a campaign is following of certain procedure. proceeds with goal setting. and formulate something that could help know what they can do about the issue. developing an organized idea and do something about the issue. In other words. planning. 2003) 11 | P a g e . Grunig (1984) explained the purpose of forming the campaign to increase the audiences’ perception to an issue as problems involving the hope that they will then seek more information. campaign is not only contentoriented but also a result.

images. Furthermore. Kenya. It was proven by the propagation of family planning information in Honduras. in forming an advertising campaign the following steps shall be conducted. one of the distinct aspects of radio communication is the percentage message retention by the audience ranging from 36% in Nigeria to 69% in Pakistan and from 50% to 80% in the United 12 | P a g e .Furthermore. Audience uses mass media to rely on the message. First. Without them. It may run for a weeks or years depending upon the impact of advertisements on its marketing and branding.Rogers et. and perspective being given by the said communication. Second step in forming advertising campaign is to know the o Medium in Addressing the Campaign Rice (18981) enumerated different channels where the campaign should be sent. In traditional advertising. al (1978) viewed radio as one of the most effective medium in disseminating information. They are the following: a) Radio. the advertiser should be know and learn their target market. and Taiwan. idea . Identifying the target market means giving direction on the campaign. Guinn & Semenik (2011) supported the preceded statement by defining advertising campaign as series of coordinated advertisements that communicate a reasonably cohesive and integrated theme about the brand. (Blakeman. mass media is being utilized. Traditional advertising in that sense is not a consumer centered. it doesn’t look for feedback unless research is being conducted. There are two ways to deliver advertising message like an advertising campaign which are integrated marketing communication (IMC) and traditional advertising. Iran. the campaign objectives will not be realized. 2011) According to Hoffman (2007) .

Branding and Image Building and it’s implication in disseminating the campaign In determining the image of organization. paradigm changes and television now became a general medium to access information. lack of program control over free broadcast time. Paisley (1981) cited different difficulties in using radio specifically in the areas of poor production radio such as technical difficulties in transmitting radio messages. b) Television. In that sense. Kotler (1994) clearly gave the operational definition of brand as a name. it is important to know the difference between the brand. Its influence cultivates people’s attitudes and behavior. and identity. lack of interpersonal follow-up and programming problem. the term “brand” is one of the salient points.for the past. the literate public to be exact.States. Brand in general defines the organization and it set the differences between its competitors. However. newspaper focuses on the segmentation of audience. emblem. Campaign could be addressed here in a more informative matter rather than motivation. or any information that identifies the organization’s effort. term.as a communication medium. Doyle (1998) also affirmed with Kotler (1994) statement that brand defines organization identity and gives meaning and direction. One of the end-goal of organization promotion is the building of their brand to the target publics. image. 13 | P a g e . (Gerbner. television is one of the main communication medium for the elites and the urban population as time goes by. nd) c) Newspaper.

These aspects (for example innovation and quality) are created by the people. Brand image describes by Herzog (1953) as over-all impressions of the public that receives from various sources. As a process. quality.Brand as an organization as Aaker (1996) said concentrates less on the product or service itself but primarily on characteristics of the organization . As a support and addition to the statements given above. Gaining public reputation will take a long time for a brand such as brand loyalty which is the center of brand equity. and other brands’ private property are the dimensions required to possess brand equity. values. Aaker (1991) explained that brand equity is interconnecting brand’s name. Dicther (1985) agreed with this statement as total impression of an entity make out in the minds of others. including its taglines and communication efforts (e. values and programs of the company and are more defiant to competitive claims. This is because it is easy to copy a product and product features but duplicating an organization with unique people. Branding is one of the methods and effort to integrate the contribution of the message brought by an organization to the public. He also substantiated that brand awareness.g. set of brand dependents. On the other hand. image in totality defined by Levi & Glick (1973) as summary of audience’s idea that not only focuses with the brand and its functions but also it the meanings connected to it. symbol. and programs is almost unworkable. While. 14 | P a g e . culture. campaign and program for an instance) that supplements to the value provided by a product or service to a firm and/or that firm’s customer. Keller (2003) also added to the definition of brand equity as it sets a bridge between what happened to the brand in the past and what it should occur in the future.

and logo of a particular company. and credibility to the brand or organization were now established. He also added that trust also holds the relationship with the customer together. When there is brand loyalty. Hence. and loyalty of the public to continue. and perceptions. sign. Brand Management as Shamoon. public trust. It is a process of managing the image brand. other resources maybe utilized by the company apart from promotion or other alike communication tool because of the personal knowledge built by the brand to an organization. liking. & Tehseen (2012) justified that it creates an emotional connection between the company including its products and services with its customers. confidence. It allows the trust. The main essence of building the image is the integrity and credibility of the brand.) agreed that credibility is very significant in building brand image and identity of an organization. The preceded statements were supported by Rundell & Bennett (2001) describing brand loyalty as an opportunity to maximize brand potentials and reducing cost. Farquhar (1989) also stated that a brand must posses a power of attaining the virtue of name. Moore (1993) brand equity described the brand awareness. Trust in accordance with Dawson (2012) statements stated that trust builds and maintain strong. On the other hand. emotionally driven. Another concept which defines the image creation of an organization particularly the brand is the brand management. Raven & Kottler (n. Sumaira. Mojaveri & Allabakshs (2012) affirmed with Akker (1991) stating that the centrality of brand loyalty helps the public to take less time in seeking information about the brand due to constancy. In general definition. 15 | P a g e .d. confidence. and enduring brand.Rhamani.

Image and identity are interconnected elements of branding. stationery. The Evaluation process analyzes what has been done during the first three steps to see 16 | P a g e . However. on the other hand. Turney (2011) explained the elements of the RACE model. While. improving. make plans for your response. The whole campaign process can be explained by the RACE model which is a four-step continually cycling process. Argenti (1994) supports that brand logo. The Communication process takes advantage of all the available media to deliver carefully-focused messages to the most appropriate channels so they can have positive effect to the company’s public. Steps in evaluating the campaign The RACE model of communication by Morston (n. you can take advantage of the benefits or somehow lessen the harm the situation might cause.) was devised to be used in planning programs for public relations. symbols. there difference still reflects with the definition added by Argenti (1994) that image is a process of knowing and discovering the background of an organization. whatever it is. products. and all other tangible things created by the organization to communication on its target audience defines the identity of an organization as manifestation of the image. buildings. then implement these plans. and upholding a brand so that the name is associated with positive outcomes. uniforms. services. The research process will find out what situation the company is facing whether good or bad. Campaign can be a tool of many aspects and one of which is public relations.d. identity is a manifestation of the image that give supports to the overview of the market towards the brand. The Action Process uses the research findings to determine the best course of action.Brand Management also a process of maintaining. in this way.

there are evaluation categories said by Kendall (1996) which are: goal achievement. cost efficiency of the campaign. effects of the campaign on the organization itself . subjective evaluation in which anecdotal. or the judgment of the practitioner is used to estimate the effectiveness of a PR program. you will return to the research step and begin the research again. Every campaign is done with the company or the organization’s hope that this process will be effective enough to reach a goal that will bring out improvement for the benefit of the organization. It also includes evaluating the medium used in addressing the campaign. Kendall (1996) formulated the basic categories of evaluation that will give proof to a campaign and will measure its success or effectiveness. ” and Scientific dissemination campaign deals with the distribution of message. The effectiveness of a campaign can be measured by means of evaluation. These categories include: goal achievement. measurement of results. 17 | P a g e . causal observation. unexpected effects if the campaign. unexpected effects of the campaign. Once this step is completed.how it affected the publics and their perception to the organization. effects of the campaign in organization itself. measurement of improvement. measurement of results. Dozier (1984) mentioned the three evaluation styles in conducting the campaign such as: Scientific impact evaluation which employs quantitative method and social sciences approach in evaluating and measuring campaigns success. cost efficiency of the campaign. Seat-of-the-evaluation composes of “personalized. and perhaps unarticulated hopes that leaders of the organization may bring to the campaign. how it was sent or delivered to the public. . and hopes that leaders of the organization may bring into campaign. Furthermore.

or faculty of perceiving as defined. and (9) economic analysis. McGaan (2013) enumerated the factors that cause perception to vary between people which are: physiology. reminded evaluators of the campaign to remove personal bias and judgment in order to determine whether or not the objectives of the campaign met. (8) impact assessment . memory retention is the faculty by which sensations. and ideas are stored and recalled. On the other hand. culture and co-culture. A good perception of the company from the public is the product of an effective campaign. 18 | P a g e . (3) small-scale testing. He also added that differences in background. Perception as part of communication Perception is the process. inconsistencies between the verbal and non-verbal communication and prior trust (or distrust) between the parties. Rao (2009) discussed perception as one of the major aspects of communication process in line with the other elements such as emotions. however. (6) fiscal accountability. These two elements play a big role to dictate the effectiveness of a campaign. (5) policy analysis . language.Scheirer (1987). (2) basic research. culture and beliefs affect the perception varieties. act. schema. experiences. and present feelings. impressions. (7) coverage accountability. knowledge. It is also the recognition and interpretation of sensory stimuli based mainly on memory. past experience and roles. Why we need to evaluate? Is it necessary? The answer is yes. because the National Academy of Sciences as cited by Kendall (1996) evaluated the nine evaluation purposes: (1) assessment . (4) field evaluation .

the latter are the internal psychological factors which influence the perception and may refer to subjective and emotive analysis to one particular subject matter. attitudes. observation. and tactile). While. and Prakash describing perception as cognitive or intellectual phenomena. olfaction. Knowledge also controls attention. and interaction. Lahlry (1991) cited by Werner on defining the perception as a process of accepting resonance of sensory senses (e. Here’s Scott (1994) agreed with Bennett. On the other side. arrange.g. Werner (2000) reiterated that perception is a form of inferences. vision. Through knowledge. 19 | P a g e .On the other hand. It also enables to supplement the additional data that will be going to receive by the receiver. needs. gestation. It is also noted that people tends to choose what they perceive and receive according to their wants. perception described as bottom-up. meaning the person receives the message depends on the information that goes upward to them. Bennett. enumerated two types of influences on our perception such as structural and functional. the message is being recognized and identified. audition. Structural influences refer to the external factors being delivered by physical aspects of the stimuli – or the urges from five senses. Hoffman. Berelson & Steiner (1984) added the definition of perception as a complex process which the communicants learn to select. updating perspective. and Prakash stated perception as an active communication entity since it allows learning. However. and interpret sensory stimulation with a conveying meaning or message. and not all inferences are tended to be always valid. On the side of Sekuler (1994). and other internal factors and it was coined by Werner (2000) as selective perception. He also said that perception may go other way around through top-down meaning the knowledge supplements the information being sent.Werner (2000). Hoffman.

and observation. The 20 | P a g e . & Paronia.R. constant exposures of the respondents in the commercial puts recall power on the product. Asad Rauf (October 1991) On the perception study conducted among grade 6 students of Dasmariñas Elementary School on the message of one cooking seasoning commercial by Mendoza. because as what they stated the consumers behave according to the facts they’ve seen. and received. Perception forms the integrity and foundation of advertising strategies which gauge the effectiveness of its overall content. Perception and its application to advertising “…Information provided by the television advertisements help shape the viewer’s perception….” . experiences.Advertising loves Perception Khan. interpreting and selecting thoughts. who is not only after with marketing the product of his company but also on the impact of advertising and other promotional activities related on the sales output. (1991) describes individual perception as important component to the marketing manager . Perception Research Literature. Perception as defined in the preceded page that it is a complex system of arranging. K. Digo. understanding. understand. A. & Newstrom (1989) supplemented that perception is important among the advertisers and organizations.Khan. ideas. Davis.

The elements of advertisements such as jingles. health. social and moral values.1 %. The said study simply proved that there are certain factors that the audience considers in determining the image of the advertisement. teenagers are junior and senior high school and college students. Adolescents likewise have positive attitude. In the aforementioned research. Bulacan towards TV Advertisement and its relationship with values and buying behavior.economic.4 %. including respondents’ demographics . Most of the respondents are highly literate. the researcher looked on the attitude towards the TV Advertisement do the people of Calumpit possess. adolescents rated TV advertisements positively and responded to the 5-point rating 21 | P a g e . In general. it appeared that 90 % of their respondents belong to the middle and below income group. children are enrolled in grade school (either primary or intermediate). while only 4% came from the high income group. Likewise.D.elements to the commercial makes the respondents recall the product. J. Here’s another perception study conducted by Mamaradlo. including their buying behavior and how those attitudes relate to their buying behavior. The following are the reason presented by the study regarding the reasons of respondents in perceiving positive image on the advertisement: the message of the advertisement garnered 34. promotion of positive values got 37. On the said study . and the message are useful to make the people recall the product and the advertisement itself. respondents are from ages five to twenty-seven. and how respondents’ attitude towards the TV ads incorporate it into their values. Children have positive attitude toward TV advertisement based on their responses to the 5-point rating scale which were all positive.5 % and the other one which is diversion function or enjoyment earned 28. (1993) regarding the attitude of the people of Calumpit.

The said research also explained that endorsements on TV commercials by celebrities (basketball and TV stars to be particular) are generally patronized by children and teenagers where adults’ responses were normally unconcerned. It may used through the principle of advertising and marketing communications. and methods that was used for the study. 22 | P a g e . As what signifies the whole literature review. Values Presentation as Element of Advertising Synthesis The preceding review of related literature and studies served a tremendous help for the researchers’ formulation of concepts. On the other hand. ideas. Campaigns may lead us into new thinking or may supplement on our knowledge or perception. Results proved how susceptible children are in absorbing advertising messages on television compare with adolescents and adults who are less influenced by the TV advertising strategies. communication campaigns denote a message. as Mamaradlo’s study shows have the possibility to influence their parents in the purchase of particular products. but these attitudes don’t affect their buying behavior. However. These findings indicate that adults varied in exposure. are more discriminating than children and adolescents who responded more positively to the 5-point rating scale. The children’s susceptibility. respondents’ attitude towards TV advertisement do not relate to their buying behavior. Children and adolescents may have positive or negative attitude towards TV advertisement. it tends to acquire people’s attention and interest. and higher level of education. experience. adults responded 5-5 (five negative and five positive responds).scale except in one item.

Those concepts maybe align along brand management and equity. or a company. on the other hand is different from identity. It represents what they cover as an entity with reputation.Image. a person. Image is what the public perceives to the sender of message it maybe an organization. Identity is what actually covers the sender. 23 | P a g e .

but many. McQuail (1987) Communication Campaign Model Campaign as one of its characteristics. These are McQuail Communication Campaign Influence Model and Berger’s and Gilmore’s Persuasion Process Model. conceptual. non-government and government agencies. and others. The sender or (message source) is not only one entity. and operational frameworks of the study. personality. This model is the breath of the campaign. media companies. often an institution or an organization occupying known position in society which is responsible for the possibility of the campaign’s success. dealt with the institutionalized behavior that is likely to be in line with the organization’s values. and image. educational institution. norms. The theories that serve as the foundation of the study’s framework are classified according to the principles of branding and image building. union. and advertising.CHAPTER 3 FRAMEWORKS OF THE STUDY This chapter presents the theoretical. It may be a business firm. 24 | P a g e . communication campaign. Theoretical Framework Two theories are considered by the researchers to support the framework of this study. The two communication models will give deeper understanding on the contribution of Pepsi’s Sarap Magbago Advertising Campaign in the perception of target market in their image as organization. conviction.

(Olson. These heterogeneous publics are the one who receive and respond to the messages. important as determinants of success or failure of a campaign. press release. and hence. These are the hindrances for the message to flow to the whole or chosen public. plan. reinforcing. 2009) FIGURE 1.The essence of a campaign based on this model implies the idea of directing. Those filtering conditions must put a mark on its audience. Signitzer & Windall. They are nonetheless.1 COMMUNICATION CAMPAIGN INFLUENCE MODEL OF MCQUAIL (1987) The McQuail Communication Campaign Model or also known as Communication Influence Model is known as emphasis of campaign’s breath. buying goods. raising money for good causes or achieving better and health safety. news 25 | P a g e . Messages like campaign. activating existing tendencies toward socially approved objectives like voting. The collective source may refer to an organization or any multiple sources as a sender. The strategy is based on the use of more than a single channel and the messages too are manifold in order to reach different parts of often heterogeneous publics. many of the conditions of the effect on individuals which have been also described is also apply to campaign. The communication planner must consider those filtering factors that may apply to the campaign under consideration. A communication campaign has filter conditions no different from those of any other type of communication. Several channels may refer to mass media (either broadcast or print) and new media.

Group situation. inference. and group situation. and judgment. As it reaches the public. codes. Attention. affective. it contributes to their cognitive. c. This allows the messages to be interpreted and it becomes the basis for the formulation of views. b. with the chances of reach and effect varying according to the established nature of the channels and the message content. Campaigns also aim the redistribution of limited amount of public attention. arrange thoughts. action or money. Perception. and make an inference lie between the fields of semantics. These may refer to the demographics of the affective group. It allows the campaign to determine its audience based on their social function or identity. (200). and behavioral approach. Through being informed.are being filtered through attention. It depends on the interest and matters which are relevant for the receivers. thoughts and ideas regarding certain idea. It is significant due to its dominant power. Without semantics a meaning cannot be created. on their motives. Semantics on its derivation from the study of signs. meaning effect could not occur without capturing the public attention. as what this model implied its fruits such as report. defined as the study of meanings in texts or in this case media texts (advertising in particular). (McQuail. and symbol (Rayner & Wall. Berger and Gilmore’s Model of Persuasion Process How the person formulate ideas. and predispositions and on channel-related factors. 1987) The following are the Filter conditions and their importance in the success or failure of campaign: a. perception. Berger & Gilmore affirmed that semantic thrichotomy is 26 | P a g e . the campaign is being aligned to its organization even to their objectives as a whole. This embodies the normal condition that a media.

a semantic dimension of systematic way of analyzing the composition of language. (Hayakawa. smell or see. The possibility of acceptance or rejection may occur here. some inferences are immediately verifiable. (b) Inference – All statements which are undergo estimation or own view. Language which is they also added as the reason of persuasion process. Rosenthal (1971) adds that if a message lacks verifiability. inferences. Semantic Thrichotomy: its components and foundations The semantic thrichotomy of reports. According to Condon. (c) Judgment – On this component. (a) Reports – It refers to any statement which passes through our sense. While. Hayakawa (1972) gave his insight and presented those components as powerful meter towards persuasion. 1972) 27 | P a g e . a report is subject to verification and not a subject to inferences or judgment. There are numerous levels of abstraction. Condon (1985) defined the term as a series of description and it is not subject to debate because it can be accepted easily. Hayakawa (1972). Hayakawa (1972) is a form of drawing conclusions or known as “abstraction”. taste. (Hayakawa. the perceiver or the receiver tries to evaluate or analyze the things which undergone upon their senses and inferences. still others are totally unverifiable. and judgments were derived from the book of S. touch. For example. 1972) Aside from that. one can reason that one's dentist bills will be lower if one uses toothpaste which reduces plaque and retards tooth decay. it can be heard. Or one can reason that one will be more attractive to members of the opposite sex. others take longer to verify. the pre-existing knowledge of the listener may be essential to interpret the message in terms of its "truth" or meaning. I. Condon (1985) emphasizes the lower verifiability of inferences as compared to reports.

more broadly . consistent cognitive processing. any event (either external or internal) which is capable of producing a behavioral event called response.al (2000). Dellosa . Coining the attribution theory. elements of attributions such as stimulus.2 BERGER’S AND GILMORE’S MODEL OF PERSUASION Attributions and its derivation Berger and Gilmore Model of Persuasion process is a combination of Kelley’s attribution theory and Chaiken’s heuristic model of persuasion. 1982). persuasion-stimulus. a statement of judgment adds the values of the person making the judgment to the meaning of the statement.According to Condon (1985). The persuasion involves message recipients engaged in logical. et. Hence. 28 | P a g e . and the person were incorporated. judgment is the final stage of semantic thrichotomy. Stimulus and persuasion will undergo into in depth of person who has the possibility not only to perceive but also to believe in the information that he/she obtained. it doesn’t it there and it still subject to attribution factors. FIGURE 1. It is innate to an individual towards conditioning the own mindset specifically in the field of advertising. An alternative to the systematic approach to message learning has been proposed by Chaiken (1980. However. defined stimulus as any physical energy capable of arousing or exciting the sense organ .

the researchers combined the Communication Influence Model by McQuail and Berger & Gilmore’s Model of Persuasion Process. Filter Conditions component in the McQuail’s model was presented as an interaction between the semantic thrichotomy of the latter model.3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK OF SARAP MAGBAGO AD CAMPAIGN USING COMMUNICATION INFLUENCE MODEL AND PERSUASION PROCESS MODEL However. It also exemplifies the persuasion as the general effects covering the cognitive. and behavioral aspect. 29 | P a g e . affective. FIGURE 1. the researchers want to reiterate that the combination of two model is a form of consensus of message formation and the receiver response.The Integrated Communication Model of Communication Influence and Persuasion Process In adherence to the theoretical foundation of this study.

the researchers were able to apply the theories and concepts for its operational framework here in indicated below. the researchers were able to apply the theories as indicated below.Conceptual Framework As part of framework of the study. 30 | P a g e . FIGURE 1.3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PERCEPTION STUDY IN THE CONTRIBUTION OF SARAP MAGBAGO AD CAMPAIGN TO THE IMAGE OF PEPSI AS ORGANIZATION Operational Framework As part of framework of the study.

2007). It also describes and explains how these tools and methods were used by the researchers. This study will focus on the contribution of Sarap MagBago Campaign Ad to the image of Pepsi-Cola Philippines as an organization will also classify as descriptive survey method. and interpretable information (Polit & Beck. Research Design and Methods As Ricohermoso (2012) cited Beck & Polit (2007) research design defined as overall plan for answering research questions and hypothesis.FIGURE 1. and also provides the logic in analyzing the research data.3 OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE PERCEPTION STUDY IN THE CONTRIBUTION OF SARAP MAGBAGO AD CAMPAIGN TO THE IMAGE OF PEPSI AS ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the different tools and methods used in the gathering and analysis of research data for the study. objective. The design spells out strategies the researcher will up utilize to gather accurate. Ricohermoso (2012) cited Salmarin (2006) in Castillo (2002) defines descriptive research as a 31 | P a g e .

Cavite. Phase 2: As part of using descriptive-survey method of research. all the respondents that will involve in FGD shall not take part anymore in answering survey questions. However. and compared. The details of three phases of the research process are as follows: Phase 1: Focus group discussion shall be conducted among selected teenagers along DBB. the researchers will also implied quantitative and qualitative research to clearly describe. or area of interest factually and accurately. 32 | P a g e . focus group discussion will be conducted among the selected teenagers along DBB. and BBDO. In order to know the respondents’ perception. surveys will conduct among selected teenagers among selected teenagers along chosen community in cities of Imus and Dasmarinas. described. Furthermore. This is to have an in-depth discussion towards their perception in the ad campaign. and measure the influence of the aforementioned campaign ad to image of PCPPI.research design wherein events are recorded. interviews with the organization’s involved such as key persons from Pepsi Cola Products Philippines Inc.Guerrero/ Proximity Philippines Advertising Agency to serve as a validation of the researchers’ analysis. After getting and analyzing the target market (teenagers) perception towards Pepsi and Sarap Magbago Campaign ad. condition. Above all. analyzed. interpreted. City of Dasmarinas. the study will also look respondents’ perception. Dasmarinas City. Its objective is to describe systematically a situation.

Phase 3: In the last research phase. 33 | P a g e . Variables and Measures The concepts and variables used in the study were measured using the parameters set by the researchers. In the first phase. as well as the perception towards Pepsi and the campaign ad. Using the guide questions. and meaning and another portion at the lower part for the answers to the guide questions used for analysis. and evaluate by the organization. The interview guides included questions related to how the campaign strategized. implement. They were also asked whether or not they think that the representations of the youth in the program were done accurately. The power of communication campaigns and advertising were used and clearly defined in literature review as one of the variable. Research Instruments The study will use mainly of coding sheets. interview with Pepsi and BBDO-Guerrero / Proximity Philippines will be conducted to validate the information acquired. the respondents were asked about their insights on how the youth is represented in the selected episodes. The branding. audio. The basic information sheet helped determine the demographics. This method needed guide questions and basic information sheet for the respondents. focus group discussions will be conducted. brand management and equity were also defined and will use continually by the researchers in determining the contribution of Sarap MagBago Ad Campaign to the image of Pepsi as organization among teenagers. The coding sheet will be composed of three columns for video. interview guides and basic information sheets in order to gather sufficient data for the research process.

Participants of the Study 34 | P a g e . The participants will come from teenagers who are living in selected locale in cities of Dasmarinas and Imus ages 13 but not more than 19. To also support the literature gathered by the researchers. In the final phase of the research process. Data Analysis Different methods for the analysis of data were be used by the researchers. including the medium used like broadcast and print medium. the researchers will use of coding sheet and guide questions for their own analysis and verification in the results that will come up in surveys and FGD. the researchers will conduct surveys among selected teenagers in selected localities in Cavite.In the second phase of the research process. Primarily. It will also include their means to be aware in the campaign. The main method used was descriptive survey method combined with qualitative method. an initial interview on an expert on youth was done. The researchers personally gathered the data needed for the study. library research was the main method of obtaining necessary information to analyze the subject. Units of Analysis and Sampling The study will evolve around perception. The questions will involve the Pepsi and the ad campaign.

Cavite. 000. for participants.500 2. Furthermore.19 living in selected localities of Dasmarinas and Imus. defense day. This is to get accurate and balance response from the respondents. both of the two cities considered as one of the highly populated cities in Cavite as what National Statistics Office 2010 survey proven. Being one of the highly industrialized cities in Mega Manila.000 1.The participants of the study will be teenagers ages 13. panelists 3.000 35 | P a g e . for interviewees) Printing of thesis 3. Dasmarinas City. The respondents for the survey will be teenagers along Pag-asa Subdivision and PatindigAraw. interviews among marketing director of Pepsi and Sarap MagBago ad campaign coordinator from BBDO-Guerrero / Proximity Philippines will be conducted.500 5. Budget breakdown: Thesis panel fee and Adviser fee Transportation Food (overnight work. Timetable and Budget The budget for this research is 15. while for FGD respondents will be teenagers along DBB. Cavite. Teenagers are the target market of the Sarap MagBago ad campaign. different stores and eateries were spread throughout the said areas. Imus City. To validate the results of survey and FGD.000 Drafts of thesis passed to adviser.

Other expenses Below is the schedule of tasks for this study: TASKS Thesis proposal revision Library research to improve review or related literature and contacting interviewees Formulation of survey questionnaires and distribution Tabulation of results of survey Focus Group Discussion Analysis of Results Interviews with Pepsi and BBDOGuerrero Finalization of Thesis MAY JUNE 2.500 JULY AUG SEPT 36 | P a g e .

37 | P a g e .

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