Lesson 7: Disinfection Objective
In this lesson we will answer the following questions: What disinfection requirements must be met in treating drinking water? How does chlorination fit into the water treatment process? How does chlorination work chemically? What factors influence the efficiency of chlorination? What equipment is used for chlorination? What other methods can be used to disinfect water?
Along with the online lesson, read Chapter 7: Disinfection, in your textbook Operation of Water Treatment Plants Volume I .
What is Disinfection?
Before water treatment became common, waterborne diseases could spread quickly through a population, killing or harming hundreds of people. The table below shows some common, watertransmitted diseases as well as the organisms (pathogens ) which cause each disease. More information on water-borne pathogens can be found in ENV 108.
Pathogen Bacteria: Anthrax Escherichia coli Myobacterium tuberculosis Salmonella
Disease Caused anthrax E. coli infection tuberculosis salmonellosis, paratyphoid
Vibrio cholerae Viruses: Hepatitis Virus Polio Virus Parasites: Cryptosporidium Giardia lamblia
cholera Hepatitis A polio cryptosporidiosis giardiasis
The primary goal of water treatment is to ensure that the water is safe to drink and does not contain any disease-causing microorganisms. The best way to ensure pathogen-free drinking water is to make sure that the pathogens never enter the water in the first place. However, this may be a difficult matter in a surface water supply which is fed by a large watershed. Most treatments plants choose to remove or kill pathogens in water rather than to ensure that the entire watershed is free of pathogens. Pathogens can be removed from water through physical or chemical processes. You may remember that some previously discussed treatment processes, notably sedimentation and filtration, can remove a large percentage of bacteria and other microorganisms from the water by physical means. Storage can also kill a portion of the disease-causing bacteria in water. This lesson will be concerned with disinfection, which is the process of selectively destroying or inactivating pathogenic organisms in water, usually by chemical means. Disinfection is different from sterilization, which is the complete destruction of all organisms found in water and which is usually expensive and unnecessary. Disinfection is a required part of the water treatment process while sterilization is not.
Testing and Requirements
The goal of disinfection is to remove or inactivate all disease-causing organisms in water. However, testing for each type of pathogen individually would be costly and inefficient. Instead, operators focus on three indicators of pathogen removal efficiency. The first two have been discussed in previous lessons - Giardia and viruses. The third test, total coliform, is the most frequently used indicator of disinfection efficiency. Coliform bacteria are often found in the guts of warm-blooded animals such as humans, but can also be found in plants, soil, water, or air. It is relatively simple to test for the number of coliform bacteria found in water, and their presence indicates that other pathogenic bacteria are also likely to be present. If disinfection removes all of the coliforms from the water, then the operator can safely assume that the other disease-causing microorganisms have also been removed.
then no more than one sample can test positive for coliform bacteria. In addition. but you should be aware that chlorination can also be used for taste and odor control.You will remember that the standards for the removal of Giardia and viruses are 99. the longer contact time provided by prechlorination allows the chlorine
. After disinfection. Chlorination is currently the most frequently used form of disinfection in the water treatment field. Postchlorination is the application of chlorine after water has been treated but before the water reaches the distribution system. Postchlorination is nearly always part of the treatment process. water treatment plants typically used both prechlorination and postchlorination.99%. and to remove some gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. so prechlorination increases safety in disinfecting heavily contaminated water. controlling algae problems in basins. If less than 40 samples of water are tested per month. chlorination can be used as a pretreatment process (prechlorination) or as part of the primary treatment of water (postchlorination). iron and manganese removal. At this stage. standards for total coliform require that water should have 0 coliforms per hundred millimeters of water sampled. Treatment usually involves either postchlorination only or a combination of prechlorination and postchlorination.9% and 99. However. other disinfection processes have been developed. either used in combination with prechlorination or used as the sole disinfection process. These alternatives will be discussed at the end of this lesson. reducing odor problems. Until the middle of the 1970s. the chlorine has a much longer contact time when added at the beginning of the treatment process.aiding in coagulation.
Chlorination is the application of chlorine to water to accomplish some definite purpose. If forty or more samples are taken more month.
Prechlorination and Postchlorination
Like several other water treatment processes. we will be concerned with the application of chlorine for the purpose of disinfection. Prechlorination is the act of adding chlorine to the raw water. The residual chlorine is useful in several stages of the treatment process . chlorination is meant to kill pathogens and to provide a chlorine residual in the distribution system. In this lesson. then no more than 5% of the samples can be positive. and controlling mudball formation. respectively. However.
prechlorination has become much less common in the United States.
. Some of the results of these reactions (known as the chlorine residual) are able to kill microorganisms in the water. a variety of chemical processes take place. From the clearwell.
Location in the Treatment Process
During prechlorination. outdoor storage tank such as the one shown below. the water may be pumped into a large. Currently. Postchlorination. the water is released to the customer. water is chlorinated and then pumped to the clearwell to allow a sufficient contact time for the chlorine to act. After flowing through the filter. is often the last stage in the treatment process. chlorine is usually added to raw water after screening and before flash mixing.
Photo Credit: Virginia Department of Health
When chlorine is added to water. In the following sections. prechlorination is only used in plants where trihalomethane formation is not a problem. The chlorine reacts with compounds in the water and with the water itself. Finally. in contrast. we will show the chemical reactions which occur when chlorine is added to water. As a result of concerns over trihalomethanes.to react with the organics in the water and produce carcinogenic substances known as trihalomethanes .
it immediately begins to react with compounds found in the water. A sufficient quantity of chlorine must be added to the water so that. hydrogen sulfide reacts with chlorine and oxygen to create elemental sulfur. It will also react with reducing agents such as hydrogen sulfide. consisting of two chlorine atoms bound together.Chlorine Demand
When chlorine enters water. In the second reaction. and nitrite ions. producing chloride ions or hydrochloric acid which have no disinfecting properties. The chlorine will react with organic compounds and form trihalomethanes. after the chlorine demand is met. but only chlorine dioxide will effectively kill Cryptosporidium. hydrogen sulfide reactions with chlorine and water to create sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid.
Reactions of Chlorine Gas With Water
At the same time that chlorine is being used up by compounds in the water. and chloride ions. We will first consider chlorine gas. The elemental sulfur precipitates out of the water and can cause odor problems. The total amount of chlorine which is used up in reactions with compounds in the water is known as the chlorine demand. All types of chlorine will kill bacteria and some viruses. in which chlorine reacts with hydrogen sulfide in water. water. Chlorine gas is compressed into a liquid and stored in metal cylinders. Giardia. ferrous ions. or chlorine dioxide. Each of these reactions uses up the chlorine in the water. and some viruses. Chlorine may be added as to water in the form of chlorine gas. Let's consider one example. hypochlorite. manganous ions. The reaction depends on what type of chlorine is added to the water as well as on the the pH of the water itself. Two different reactions can occur: Hydrogen Sulfide + Chlorine + Oxygen Ion Elemental Chloride Ions H2 S + Cl2 + O2Sulfur + Water +
S + H2 O + 2Cl-
Hydrogen Sulfide + Chlorine + Water H2 S + 4Cl2 + 4 H2 O
Sulfuric Acid + Hydrochloric Acid H2 SO4 + 8 HCl
I have written each reaction using both the chemical formula and the English name of each compound. In the first reaction. which is the most pure form of chlorine. The gas is difficult to handle
. there is still some chlorine left to kill microorganisms in the water. protozoans. some of the chlorine reacts with the water itself.
This is an important reaction to understand because hypochlorous acid is the most effective form of free chlorine residual. The concentration of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ions in chlorinated water will depend on the water's pH. also known as HTH.
. also known as a bleach. which means that they are also less dangerous. and physical energy can all break down hypochlorites before they are able to react with pathogens in water. they have the major disadvantage that they decompose in strength over time while in storage. At high concentrations. or a hydrogen ion and a hypochlorite ion may join together to form hypochlorous acid. calcium hypochlorite. is a solid which is mixed with water to form a hypochlorite solution. Temperature. depending on pH: Hypochlorous Acid ↔ Hydrogen Ion + Hypochlorite Ion HOCl ↔ H+ + OClNote the double-sided arrows which mean that the reaction is reversible. heavy. meaning that it is chlorine available to kill microorganisms in the water. Hypochlorous acid may further break down. Calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2 ). light. chlorine gas can even be fatal. and commercial bleach: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) comes in a liquid form which contains up to 12% chlorine.)
Instead of using chlorine gas.sodium hypochlorite. Hypochlorites are less pure than chlorine gas. So disinfection is more efficient at a low pH (with large quantities of hypochlorous acid in the water) than at a high pH (with large quantities of hypochlorite ions in the water.since it is toxic. the following reaction occurs: Chlorine + Water Cl2 + H2 O Hypochlorous Acid + Hydrochloric Acid HOCl + HCl
The chlorine reacts with water and breaks down into hypochlorous acid and hydrochloric acid. and an irritant. There are three types of hypochlorites . corrosive. Hypochlorous acid may break down into a hydrogen ion and a hypochlorite ion. Calcium hypochlorite is 65-70% concentrated. some plants apply chlorine to water as a hypochlorite . A higher pH facilitates the formation of more hypochlorite ions and results in less hypochlorous acid in the water. Hypochlorite ions are much less efficient disinfectants. However. When chlorine gas enters the water.
The differences lie in how the chlorine is fed into the water and on handling and storage of the chlorine compounds. dichloramine. first chlorine gas or hypochlorite is added to the water to produce hypochlorous acid. In addition.
Hypochlorites and bleaches work in the same general manner as chlorine gas.monochloramine. The reactions of sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite with water are shown below: Calcium hypochlorite + Water Ca(OCl)2 + 2 H2 O Hypochlorous Acid + Calcium Hydroxide 2 HOCl + Ca(OH)2
Sodium hypochlorite + Water NaOCl + H2 O
Hypochlorous Acid + Sodium Hydroxide HOCl + NaOH
In general. the amount of each type of chlorine added to water will vary since each compound has a different concentration of chlorine. To produce chloramines. Three types of chloramines can be formed in water .Chlorox bleach is 5% chlorine while some other brands are 3. Monochloramine is formed from the reaction of hypochlorous acid with ammonia: Ammonia + Hypochlorous Acid NH3 + HOCl Monochloramine + Water NH2 Cl + H2 O
Monochloramine may then react with more hypochlorous acid to form a dichloramine: Monochloramine + Hypochlorous Acid NH2 Cl + HOCl Dichloramine + Water NHCl2 + H2 O
Some plants use chloramines rather than hypochlorous acid to disinfect the water. They react with water and form the disinfectant hypochlorous acid. and trichloramine. Then ammonia is added to the water to react with the hypochlorous acid and produce a chloramine. disinfection using chlorine gas and hypochlorites occurs in the same manner.Commercial bleach is the bleach which you buy in a grocery store. The concentration of commercial bleach varies depending on the brand .
Chloramines are effective at killing bacteria and will also kill some protozoans. chloramines can be broken down by bacteria.
. but are more stable. Despite their stability. This is in contrast to the free chlorine residual of hypochlorous acid which is used in other types of chlorination. the dichloramine may react with hypochlorous acid to form a trichloramine: Dichloramine + Hypochlorous Acid NHCl2 + HOCl Trichloramine + Water NCl3 + H2 O
The number of these reactions which will take place in any given situation depends on the pH of the water. These compounds use up the chlorine. such as hydrogen sulfide. but they are very ineffective at killing viruses.
The graph below shows what happens when chlorine (either chlorine gas or a hypochlorite) is added to water.Finally. First (between points 1 and 2). the water reacts with reducing compounds in the water. so they are often used as the disinfectant in the distribution lines of water treatment systems. In most cases. producing no chlorine residual. Monochloramines and dichloramines can both be used as a disinfecting agent. called a combined chlorine residual because the chlorine is combined with nitrogen. heat. and light. both monochloramines and dichloramines are formed. Chloramines are weaker than chlorine.
the chlorine reacts with water and forms hypochlorous acid in direct proportion to the amount of chlorine added. When more chlorine is added past the breakpoint. actually lowering the chlorine residual.chloramines. Some combined chlorine residual is formed . the chlorine reacts with organics and ammonia naturally found in the water. the water reaches the breakpoint. if hypochlorous acid is to be used as the chlorine residual. known as breakpoint chlorination.the chlorine has reacted with all reducing agents. Finally. Note that if chloramines were to be used as the disinfecting agent. between points 2 and 3. Between points 3 and 4.Next. organics. more ammonia would be added to the water to react with the chlorine. The process would be stopped at point 3.
There is one other form of chlorine which can be used for disinfection . is the most common form of chlorination. This process. shown at point 4. in which enough chlorine is added to the water to bring it past the breakpoint and to create some free chlorine residual. and ammonia in the water. In contrast.chlorine dioxide. We have not discussed chlorine dioxide previously because it disinfects using neither hypochlorous acid nor
. Using chloramine as the disinfecting agent results in little trihalomethane production but causes taste and odor problems since chloramines typically give a "swimming pool" odor to water. the chlorine will break down most of the chloramines in the water. then chlorine will be added past point 3. The breakpoint is the point at which the chlorine demand has been totally satisfied .
2 mg/L at the extreme ends of the distribution system. Determining the correct dosage of chlorine to add to water will depend on the quantity and type of substances in the water creating a chlorine demand. This residual in the distribution system will also act to control microorganisms in the distribution system which produce slimes. trihalomethanes are not formed and the chlorination process is unaffected by ammonia. if the required chlorine residual is 0. It is also important to understand the breakpoint curve when changing chlorine dosages. One of the most important of these is the concentration of chlorine residual in the water.5 mg/L.
.chloramines and is not part of the breakpoint chlorination process. the chlorine residual should be about 0. Chlorine dioxide can be used to remove sulfide compounds and phenolic tastes and odors. chloramines are being produced. The chlorine dose is calculated as follows:
Chlorine Dose = Chlorine Demand + Chlorine Residual So. tastes. which is a very costly process requiring a great deal of technical expertise. and viruses that other systems may not kill. it may not mean that too much chlorine is being added. Cryptosporidium. or odors. converting the organic matter to carbon dioxide and water. and more chlorine needs to be added to pass the breakpoint. Finally. The chlorine demand will typically vary over time as the characteristics of the water change. In addition.5 mg/L and the chlorine demand is known to be 2 mg/L. In a large system. More likely. By testing the chlorine residual. chlorine dioxide oxidizes all metals and organic matter. If the water smells strongly of chlorine. consisting of hypochlorous acid and/or chloramines. Giardia. must kill microorganisms already present in the water and must also kill any pathogens which may enter the distribution system through cross-connections or leakage. then 2. the operator can determine whether a sufficient dose of chlorine is being added to treat the water. When chlorine dioxide is used. So why isn't chlorine dioxide used in all systems? Chlorine dioxide must be generated on site. chlorine dioxide is effective at a higher pH than other forms of chlorination. is a very effective form of chlorination since it will kill protozoans.
Residual and Dosage
A variety of factors can influence disinfection efficiency when using breakpoint chlorination or chloramines.5 mg/L of chlorine will have to be added to treat the water. Chlorine dioxide .
The chlorine residual in the clearwell should be at least 0. chlorine must be sampled every two hours at the plant and at various points in the distribution system. This residual. chlorine dioxide is highly combustible and care must be taken when handling the chlorine dioxide. ClO2. In order to ensure that the water is free of microorganisms when it reaches the customer. Unlike chlorine gas.
a long contact time. So lower pH values result in more efficient disinfection. and the location of chlorination within the treatment process. efficiency is influenced by the chlorine residual. Warmer water can be treated more efficiently since the reactions occur more quickly. and thorough mixing. a reduced chlorine residual can still provide adequate kill of microorganisms if a long contact time is provided. and most intuitively.
Turbidity of the water influences disinfection primarily through influencing the chlorine demand.groundwater turbidity tends to change slowly or not at all while the chlorine demand of surface water can change continuously. At a lower water temperature. the more efficient the disinfection process is. When using chlorine for disinfection a minimum contact time of 30 minutes is required for adequate disinfection. especially during storms and the snow melt season. at a high pH. Temperature influences chlorination just as it does any other chemical reaction. The most efficient process will have a high chlorine residual. the initial mixing of chlorine into the water. Characteristics of the water will also affect efficiency of chlorination. Turbid water tends to contain particles which react with chlorine. The longer the contact time. The CT value is calculated as follows: CT = (Chlorine residual. reducing the concentration of chlorine residual which is formed. sedimentation. flocculation.Contact Time
Contact time is just as important as the chlorine residual in determining the efficiency of chlorination. minutes) The CT is the Concentration multiplied by the Time. As you will recall. Conversely. longer contact times or higher concentrations of chemicals must be used to ensure adequate disinfection.
Other Influencing Factors
Within the disinfection process. The CT value is used as a measurement of the degree of pathogen inactivation due to chlorination. a smaller chlorine residual can be used as long as the chlorine has a longer contact time to kill the pathogens. As the formula suggests. the hypochlorous acid becomes dissociated into the ineffective hypochlorite ion. Finally. Turbidity is also influenced by the source water . Contact time is the amount of time which the chlorine has to react with the microorganisms in the water. the contact time. changes in these upstream processes will influence the efficiency of chlorination. the number and type of microorganisms in the water will influence
. mg/L) (Contact time. and filtration). the type of chemical used for chlorination. Since the turbidity of the water depends to a large extent on upstream processes (coagulation. which will equal the time between the moment when chlorine is added to the water and the moment when that water is used by the customer.
the disinfection process will be less efficient if these pathogens are found in the water.
The simplest method of continuous chlorination of systems less than 75 gpm is by the use of a hypochlorinator. You can adjust the stroke length or machine speed by varying the pulley size. the Venturi effect creates a small vacuum and pulls the chlorine solution into the water. Both of these adjustments change the hypochlorinator feed rate . Hypochlorinators are motor driven pumps which are used to added hypochlorite solutions to water. chlorinators are more economical when the supply source is greater than 75 gpm and may sometimes be used in smaller systems as well. Since cyst-forming microorganisms and viruses are very difficult to kill using chlorination. Hypochlorinators allow you to adjust the amount of chlorine fed into the water in three ways. You can also adjust the amount of chlorine added by changing the strength of the hypochlorite solution.
It is often necessary to increase or decrease the amount of chlorine added to the water as conditions change.the speed at which the machine puts chlorine into the water.
Chlorinators and Cylinders
While hypochlorinators are usually used to perform continuous chlorination in smaller systems. The pump pulls the hypochlorite solution out of a holding chamber and pumps it into the water to be treated. Anticipated pumping periods and chlorine demand (based on the chlorine residual test) determine whether a hypochlorinator or chlorinator should be
.chlorination efficiency. Where the pipe from the pump joins the pipe carrying the raw water.
the draw off rate should be no greater than 350 pounds of gas/day for a 100-150 pound cylinder. If chlorine is drawn off from a cylinder too quickly.
Liquid chlorine can be stored in 100 or 150 pound cylinders.5 times as heavy as air and will tend to sink to the ground. Whenever dealing with gaseous chlorine. the temperature of the air surrounding the tank will drop and will cause frosting and lower gas flow. The heat which is absorbed by the chlorine as it changes state in the cylinder comes from the surrounding air. The following sections will explain how the proper quantity of chlorine is delivered from the cylinder to the source water. If no breathing apparatus is available. In each case. Chlorinators are devices which introduce chlorine gas to water using liquid chlorine supplied in steel cylinders. the operator should keep his head high since chlorine is 2. If greater feed rate are required. several tanks can be connected using a manifold. The only accurate way to determine the feed rate of chlorine from a cylinder is to weigh the cylinder over time. If the cylinders are weighed over time. ton containers.used in each situation. Ammonia should be kept handy for checking for leaks and storage buildings should be well ventilated. heat is required. the operator can determine how much chlorine gas remains in the cylinder so that empty cylinders can be replaced in a timely manner. or 55 to 90 ton rail cars. he or she should use a breathing apparatus. which is a pipe joining the cylinders together so that chlorine gas is drawn from several cylinders at once. If the operator must walk through an area with chlorine in the air. but expands back into a gas as it leaves the cylinder. safety is an important issue. To prevent frosting. But first we need to understand how the liquid chlorine is stored.
. Whenever a substance changes state from a liquid to a gaseous form. the feed rate of chlorine can be determined to ensure that the proper concentration of chlorine is being added to the water. the chlorine has been condensed into a liquid form. By subtracting the tare weight (the weight of an empty cylinder).
the chlorine gas flows past a regulating device (a V-notch plug or a valve) which is used to adjust the chlorine feed rate. The vacuum is created by water flowing through the injector and creating a negative head. also known as an ejector. is shown below:
In a vacuum chlorinator. The flowing water pulls chlorine into the water. chlorine gas is pulled from the cylinder into the source water by a vacuum. Vacuum chlorinators are very safe since any break in the line with disrupt the vacuum and close the pressure regulating valve. As a result. the chlorine feed rate is measured using an indicator known as a rotameter. Just beyond the rotameter. which is then piped into the main line of water to be chlorinated. This negative head forces open the pressure regulating valve on the cylinder and allows chlorine gas to flow out of the cylinder and into the chlorinator. The injector consists of a pipe filled with flowing water. Then the chlorine gas is pulled into the injector. The most common type of controller is the flow proportional controller which automatically feeds chlorine based on the flow rate of the water. This type of chlorinator is also known as a solution feeder since the chlorine gas is dissolved into a small amount of source water. Chlorinators can be controlled manually (using the regulator) or with a controller. both chlorinating the source water and creating a vacuum in the chlorine line which pulls more chlorine gas out of the cylinder.Vacuum Chlorinators
The most typical kind of chlorinator. chlorine leaks are very uncommon. Once the gas has entered the chlorinator. a vacuum chlorinator.
The table below summarizes eight disinfection processes. direct feed chlorinators are used instead of vacuum chlorinators. like the one shown below.
Since the chlorine is under pressure. the pressurized chlorine is prone to leakage. the chlorine gas is under pressure and is pumped directly into the main flow of water. disinfecting small. maintained improving coagulation. and odor removal. Disinfection Disinfection Process Method Advantages Disadvantages Chlorine Uses
chemical reaction with pathogens widespread use to disinfect water.
Other Disinfection Methods Types of Disinfection
Up until this point. chlorination can cause the formation of trihalomethanes chemical reaction with pathogens good disinfectanthigh cost. residual can be used in color. so safety issues limit direct feed chlorinators to small installations or for use as emergency equipment. taste. the chlorine is evenly dispersed into the water using a diffuser. There.Direct Feed Chlorinators
In a few cases. However. a pressurized water supply is not needed for use with a direct feed chlorinator. in some cases. also a small dose kills bacteria rapidly. In a direct feed chlorinator. a variety of other methods can be used to disinfect water. harmful to pregnant emergency treatment of water supplies. non-permanent water
. we have been concerned only with disinfection using chlorine. However. and killing algae.
future water treatment may see an increased use of ozone or ultraviolet (UV) light. safety problems. and organics. three oxygen atoms can be bound together instead. chlorine can combine with organic substances in water to produce trihalomethanes. Both types of treatment are effective disinfecting agents and leave no toxic residual. handling difficulties chemical reaction with pathogens good disinfectant. treating iron and manganese. In addition. no track record UV light causes biological changes which kill the pathogenslack of dangerous by-productslack of measurable residual. cost of operation. odor. water treatment plants have principally relied on the use of chlorine for disinfection. forming ozone (O3). which are suspected of causing cancer.
Oxygen in the air (O2) is composed of two oxygen atoms. better virucide than chlorine. sulfide. storage difficulties. unpredictable disinfection. until recently. Under certain conditions. oxidizing organics. oxidizes iron. turbidity interferes with disinfection sound waves destroy pathogens by vibration very expensive boiling water for about five minutes will destroy essentially all microorganismssimple. As a result. residuals hard to obtain. primarily for treating swimming pool water
sterilize water pipes
disinfection. However. has been available at a reasonable cost. The prevalent use of chlorine has come about because chlorine is an excellent disinfecting chemical and. and taste high cost. expensive
supplies very limited use.
. removing color. supply is limited Bases (sodium hydroxide and lime) Ozone chemical reaction with pathogens bitter taste in the water. manganese. Chlorine is becoming more expensive and has been shown to be toxic to fish and other biota. removes color. helping flocculation. requires little equipment very energy intensive. chlorine has several disadvantages. removing algae. maintenance requirements. We will consider ozone and UV disinfection briefly below.women Bromine chemical reaction with pathogens handling difficulties. lack of residual. treating tastes and odors
small or local systems and industrial applications
Individuals may boil their water for household quantities of water when quality of water is questionable
In the past.
000 times faster than with chlorine. so a prolonged contact time is unnecessary. Disinfection with ozone occurs 30. It can be used to deactivate protozoans so that they can't reproduce and to significantly reduce the concentration of bacteria in water.
The picture below shows a UV disinfection setup:
. a high cost for the initial set-up. and a high electricity consumption. It kills all pathogenic organisms by a direct effect on their DNA.
Ultraviolet. And there is no harmful residual left in the system. light is light outside the range usually detectable by the human eye. The disadvantages of an ozone disinfection system include a corrosive nature. or UV.Ozone has many advantages as a disinfectant.
The table below lists some of the factors which may influence the choice of treatment method in a new plant. In addition. so water must be free of turbidity before being treated with UV light.The primary disadvantage of UV light is a high operating cost. five have been used extensively in water treatment. anything which blocks UV light from reaching the water will result in a lack of treatment.
Choosing a Disinfection Method
Of the many disinfection methods.
Chlorine (Gas or Hypochlorite) Produces trihalomethanes? Produces other troublesome byproducts? Impacted by lime softening? Impacted by turbidity? Meets Giardia removal standards? Meets Cryptosporidium removal standards? Meets virus removal standards? Operator skill level Applicable to large utilities? Applicable to small utilities? yes yes yes somewhat no no Chlorine Dioxide no yes no somewhat yes no Chloramine Ozone Ultraviolet
yes yes yes somewhat no no
sometimes no yes no sometimes yes
somewhat yes yes yes no no
yes low yes yes
yes high yes yes
yes medium no yes
low/medium high yes yes yes yes
as chlorine dioxide. any additional chlorine added to the water will produce hypochlorous acid. Breakpoint chlorination is a common form of disinfection in which chlorine is added to water until the chlorine demand has been satisfied and some free chlorine residual has been formed.You may note that many of the disinfection methods do not meet standards for Giardia. Chlorination may occur as a pretreatment process or as the final step in the treatment process. contact time. Disinfection equipment depends on the type of disinfectant used. a free chlorine residual.
Drinking water is disinfected to kill or inactivate waterborne pathogens. minutes)
. or ammonia may be added with chlorine to form disinfectant chloramines. although ozone and UV light are also used in some plants. Cryptosporidium. The chlorine demand involves the reaction of chlorine with compounds in water. Chlorination efficiency depends on chlorine residual. type of chemical used. and UV light is more complex and requires a higher level of operator skill.
New Formulas Used
To calculate chlorine dose during breakpoint chlorination:
Chlorine Dose = Chlorine Demand + Chlorine Residual
To calculate CT value: CT = (Chlorine residual. Chlorine may be added to the water as chlorine gas or hypochlorite (both of which produce the disinfectant hypochlorous acid). and on characteristics of the water being treated. mixing effectiveness. Once all of these reactions have occurred. ozone. location in the treatment process. reducing the amount of chlorine available to kill microorganisms. Disinfection equipment used for chlorine dioxide. Hypochlorite is added to water using a hypochlorinator. mg/L) (Contact time. This does not mean that these disinfection methods cannot be used. A sufficient quantity of chlorine must be used to both kill microorganisms already existing in the water and to maintain a chlorine residual throughout the distribution system. and virus removal. When used in conjunction with filtration. Gaseous chlorine is added to water using a chlorinator. The most common form of disinfection is chlorination. all of the disinfection methods can be used to meet removal standards.
Environmental Protection Agency. mail or fax the assignment to your instructor. Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual. complete it and mail or fax back to the instructor or you may send an email with the correct answers numbered accordingly. (Crossword worth 50 points)
. Water Treatment Plant Operation.D. either email.75 MGD.8 mg/L. NMED Surface Water Quality Bureau: Santa Fe. If there is insufficient information to find the answer. K.
Part 2 of your Assignment: Work the following crossword puzzle that comes from definitions in your textbook. Find the chlorine demand in mg/L for the water being treated in #1 with a chlorine dose of 2. Version III. California State University: Sacramento. (Each question is worth 25 points) 1. When you are done. Show all of your work and circle the answer for each math problem below. 1999.4 mg/L. Ragsdale and Associates. Kerri. You may either print the puzzle out. Find the chlorine dose in mg/L. 2. Water Works Operator Manual.References
Alabama Department of Environmental Management. New Mexico Water Systems Operator Certification Study Guide.
Part 1 of your Assignment: Answer the following questions. 1989. A chlorinator is set to feed 15 pounds of chlorine in 24 hours to a flow of 0. The chlorine residual after 30 minutes of contact time is 0. write "Insufficient information". 2002.
print the page and either mail or fax it to the instructor. You may also take the quiz online and submit your grade directly into the database for grading purposes. When you have gotten all the answers correct.
.Answer the questions in the Lesson 7 quiz .