General and specific determiners  Determiners are words which come at the beginning of the noun phrase.  They tell us whether the noun phrase is specific or general.  Determiners are either specific or general 1. Specific determiners:  The specific determiners are: o the definite article: the o possessives: my, your, his, her, its; our, their, whose o demonstratives: this, that, these, those o interrogatives: which, what  We use a specific determiner when we believe the listener/reader knows exactly what we are referring to: Can you pass me the salt please? Look at those lovely flowers. Thank you very much for your letter. Whose coat is this? 2. General determiners:  The general determiners are: a; an; any; another; other; what  When we are talking about things in general and the listener/reader does not know exactly what we are referring to, we can use a uncountable noun or a plural noun with no determiner: Milk is very good for you. (= uncount noun) Health and education are very important. (= 2 uncount nouns) Girls normally do better in school than boys. (= plural nouns with no determiner)  … or you can use a singular noun with the indefinite article a or an: A woman was lifted to safety by a helicopter. A man climbing nearby saw the accident.


2 . I like beef. (= All children can do it) With a full licence you are allowed to drive any car. We use the general determiner any with a singular noun or an uncount noun when we are talking about all of those people or things: It’s very easy. lamb. pork . Helen and a few other friends.  We use the general determiner another to talk about an additional person or thing: Would you like another glass of wine?  The plural form of another is other: I spoke to John. 3. Quantifiers  We use quantifiers when we want to give someone information about the number of something: how much or how many. Any child can do it.any meat.

1) Interrogative determiners “which” and “what”  We use “which” as a determiner to ask a question about a specific group of people or things: Which restaurant did you go to? Which countries in South America have you visited?  When we are asking a general question we use "what" as a determiner: What films do you like? What university did you go to? 2) Indefinite article “a” and “an”  We use the indefinite article. (= All dogs like to eat meat) 3 .  We use a/an with a singular noun to say something about all things of that kind: A man needs friends.  We also use it to show the person or thing is one of a group: She is a pupil at London Road School. (= uncount noun)  We use a/an to say what someone is or what job they do: My brother is a doctor. (= plural noun) She has short blonde hair. George is a student. (= All men need friends) A dog likes to eat meat.  We do not use an indefinite article with plural nouns and uncount nouns: She was wearing blue shoes. a/an. with countable nouns when the hearer/reader does not know exactly which one we are referring to: Police are searching for a 14 year-old girl.

In January last year two men walking on the peak were killed in a fall. This is why we use the definite article with a superlative adjective: He is the tallest boy in the class. (= Hearts pump blood around bodies) 4 . The woman fell while climbing. It is the oldest building in the town. o because there is only one in that place or in those surroundings: We live in a small village next to the church. (there is only onein our village) o because we have already mentioned it: A woman who fell 10 metres from High Peak was lifted to safety by a helicopter.3) Definite article “the”  The definite article the is the most frequent word in English.  We also use the definite article: o to say something about all the things referred to by a noun: The wolf is not really a dangerous animal (= Wolves are not really dangerous animals) The kangaroo is found only in Australia (= Kangaroos are found only in Australia) The heart pumps blood around the body.  We use the definite article in front of a noun when we believe the hearer/reader knows exactly what we are referring to. The moon is very bright tonight. o because there is only one: The Pope is visiting Russia. The Shah of Iran was deposed in 1979. The rescue is the latest in a series of incidents on High Peak.

We use the definite article in this way to talk about musical instruments: Joe plays the piano really well. You should tell the police. the United States. unemployed) to talk about groups of people: Life can be very hard for the poor.  The definite article with names: We do not normally use the definite article with names: William Shakespeare wrote Hamlet. elderly. I heard it on the radio. She works for a group to help the disabled. states or republic: the United Kingdom. Paris is the capital of France. the Philippines 5 . o countries which have plural nouns as their names: the Netherlands. But we do use the definite article with: o countries whose names include words like kingdom. poor.(= George can play any piano) She is learning the guitar. the People’s Republic of China. Iran is in Asia. the kingdom of Nepal. o (with adjectives like rich.(= She is learning to play any guitar) o to refer to a system or service: How long does it take on the train. I think the rich should pay more taxes.

the Mona Lisa. Brown’s Hotel. pubs and restaurants*: the Ritz. the Amazon.o geographical features. oceans and canals: the Himalayas. o families: the Obamas. groups of islands. the King’s Head. the Seamen’s Union o hotels. the Atlantic Ocean. the Déjà Vu *Note: We do not use the definite article if the name of the hotel or restaurant is the name of the owner.Brown’s. the Sunflowers o organisations: the United Nations. Morel’s. the Ritz Hotel. The Washington Post o well known buildings or works of art: the Empire State Building. the Panama Canal. e. rivers. seas. such as mountain ranges.g. the Canaries. the Jacksons 6 . o newspapers: The Times.. etc. the Taj Mahal. Morel’s Restaurant. the Atlantic.

 We use these quantifiers with both count and uncount nouns: all any enough less a lot of lots of more most no none of some and some more colloquial forms: plenty of heaps of a load of loads of tons of etc.  Sometimes we use a quantifier in the place of a determiner: Most children start school at the age of five.4) Quantifiers  We use quantifiers when we want to give someone information about the number of something: how much or how many. Some quantifiers can be used only with count nouns: both each either (a) few fewer neither several and some more colloquial forms: 7 . We saw lots of birds. We ate some bread and butter.

He has spent all of his money.  We use every or each with a singular noun to mean all: There was a party in every street.  …but if you are talking about a specific group of people or things. Note that. use of the … as well Few of the snakes are dangerous. particularly with abstract nouns such as time. I never have enough money. if we are talking about two people or things. Both brothers work with their father. we use the quantifiers both. money. either and neither. we often use: a great deal of a good deal of  You can put a noun after a quantifier when you are talking about members of a group in general… Few snakes are dangerous. 8 . etc:. All of the children live at home. trouble. Some quantifiers can be used only with uncount nouns: a little (not) much a bit of And.a couple of hundreds of thousands of etc.

When we stayed at my grandmother’s house we went to the beach every day. We do not say: The every shop was decorated with flowers. 9 . weeks and years: When we were children we had holidays at our grandmother’s every year.  BUT: We do not use a determiner with every and each. We visit our daughter every Christmas. We often use every to talk about times like days. The each child was given a prize.

In his present serious condition. 4. any time. 9. 14. _____________ you say will be taken down and may be used in evidence against you. The storm prevented us from continuing the climb for quite _____________. sometime. "Is there _____________ you want to tell me. 10. 1. 7. somehow. 16. 12. Your driver will take you _____________ you wish to go on the island. anyone. 3. 11. These donkeys cannot carry _____________ goods. George?" said Elizabeth. I think that the doctors would be willing to try _____________ that might improve matters. somewhere. 2. nothing. anything. 5. _____________ has cut the telephone wires. from the time we started rehearsing to the last night. 10 . I'm afraid it will take _____________ before Diana can leave hospital. something. some time. 15. any more. _____________ nothing seemed to go smoothly. The bandits are believed to be hiding _____________ in the hills. we couldn't find _____________ who we thought would be the right man for the job. 13. someone. Come up and see me _____________. Hurry up! We haven't got _____________ to waste. Complete the following sentences with one of the following words: anywhere.EXERCISES GRAMMAR L1 I. 8. You can put the books _____________ you like. Despite the excellent qualifications and experience of several candidates. 6. _____________ I said would cheer him up. I would really like to return to that island _____________.

Do you still live in _____ Bristol? 5. 11 . I like _____ blue T-shirt over there better than _____ red one. 7. Their car does 150 miles _____ hour.17. 18. 10. The tomatoes are 99 pence _____ kilo. Fill in the article “a”. Write nothing where no article is used: 1. What do you usually have for _____ breakfast? 9. Is your mother working in _____ old office building? 6. Where's _____ USB drive I lent you last week? 4. Ben has _____ terrible headache. Carol's father works as _____ electrician. After this tour you have _____ whole afternoon free to explore the city. “an” or “the” where necessary. 3. 8. Sandra is really ambitious and there is _____________ she wouldn't do to get into the national team. Would you like _____________ to help you carry your shopping to your car? II. 2.

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