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Derivational Morphemes

Derivational morphemes form new words

either by changing the meaning of the base to which they are attached kind ~unkind; obey ~disobey accurate ~ina c c u r a t e ; cigar ette; b o o k ~

a b

c o

t o

~ k

react cigar ~ let

or by changing the grammatical category (part of speech) of the base kind ~ kind ly; act ~ act ive~ act ivity able ~enable; damp ~ dampen care ~ care ful ; dark ~ dark ness

Examples of Derivational Affixes P r e f i x G r a m m a t i c a l category of baseGrammaticalcategory of outputExample i n A d j A d j i n a c c u r a t e u n A d j A d j u n k i n d u n V V u n t i e d i s V V d i s l i k e d i s A d j A d j d i s h o n e s t r e V V r e w r i t e e x N N e x w i f e e n N V e n c o u r a g e S u f f i x G r a m m a t i c a l category of baseGrammaticalcategory of outputExample h o o d N N c h i l d h o o d s h i p N N l e a d e r s h i p f y N V b e a u t i f y i c N A d j p o e t i c l e s s N A d

j l f j f a r s a e r -

p e u c u l e l r e e

o s l a l

w s N r V f V a r

e -

r A e N u

d -

N d

Another examples :In the word happiness , the bound morpheme ness creates a new word by changing both themeaning and the part of speech. Happy = adjectiveThe derived word happiness = noun.

A similar process uses prefixes instead of suffixes In English, prefixes typically change the meaning of a word but do not alter its lexical category. Example : a.

MIS+ Verb Verb ( misstep, misclassify ) b. UN+ Adjective Adjective ( unkind, untrue,unfair ) c. UN+ Verb Verb ( undo, unchain, uncover )

Some derivational morphemes create newmeaning but do not change the syntacticcategory or part of speech. The word unhappy,for example, consists of the base happy and thederivational morpheme (prefix) un-. Happy = adjective

The derived word unhappy is also an adjective .

Derivational Morpheme Derivational Morpheme

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