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# So many forces of different kinds and different magnitudes act upon a munition, from manufacture to target impact, that

fuzes must be designed with special care so as to discriminate among the forces. The fuze must be capable of response to the desired forces and incapable of response to the rest. For example, the action of the arming mechanism may be controlled solely or in combination by any of the following forces: setback due to initial acceleration, centrifugal due to spin, creep due to deceleration, wind due to airflow past the munition, or pressure due to ambient conditions. 1. Setback Setback is the relative rearward movement of component parts in a munition undergoing forward acceleration during launching. The force necessary to accelerate the part together, with the munition is balanced by a reaction force. This is called the setback force. It may be calculated by determining the acceleration a of the projectile and multiplying it by the mass m of the part affected. Dimensions must be kept consistent. If the acceleration a is given in gs, one multiplies it by the weight w of the part affected 2. Creep Creep is the tendency for compact parts of a munition to move forward as the munition slows down. This is similar to setback but is much smaller and acts in the opposite direction. The inertial force is calculated by multiplying the weight of the part by the deceleration of the munition , see fig 5-7. By use of eq. 5-3, the creep force on a fuze part is given by 3. Centrifugal force The mos commonly used means of arming a fuze is centrifugal force. Wherever frictional force are increased during setback centrifugal arming forces may not prevail until the rotational velocity increases sufficiently or setback ceases to exist. Centrifugal forces are calculated from the equation. 4. Tangential force Tangential forces may be used in some fuzes. For example, spring-loaded weights move tangentially under the application of angular acceleration. The tangential force is given by Where dw/dt is the angular acceleration. It can be obtained by taking the derivative of eq. 5-4 with respect to time or. Since pressure-time curves are generally more available than velocity time curves. 5. Coriolis force The coriolis force is seldom used to operate an arming device, but in certain fuzes its effects may be balanced out to improve fuze operation. It is illustrated in fig 5-9 as a force on a ball in a radial slot that rotates at the angular velocity . if the ball is not moving relative to te slot there is no coriolis force. When the ball moves in the slot, there must be a coriolis force. A simple explanation is afforded by citing the coriolis force as that necessary to change the tangential velocity of the ball as its distance from the center of rotation changes. The force is calculated by Where v is the radial velocity, ft/sec, of the part of mass m, slug, and w is the angular velocity, rad/sec. the coriolis force as shown in fig. 5-9, is directed perpendicular to the radial motion of the part and in the plane swept out by the radius.

6. Torque Torque is the product of a force and its lever arm. Usually a torque causes an angular acceleration of a part, and the acceleration is proportional to the torque above that necessary to overcome friction. For fuze parts, torque is associated with three main types of angular acceleration: (1) that experienced by all parts as the munition increases or decreases its spin, (2) that caused by centrifugal effects and (3) those gyroscopic precessional accelerations present in all spinning bodies. Consider the firs type. The torque is equal to the product of the moment of inertia and the angular acceleration. If an accelerating torque is transmitted throuht a small shaft, the effects of inertia are useful for arming device because the frictional countertorque is small. The second type is more commonly used. The driving torque is derived from an inertial force acting at the center of mass of the moving part but not acting through its pivot point. The pivot axis may be perpendicular to the spin axis, as in the simple centrifugal plunger shown in fig. 5-10 or parallel to it as in the rotor shutter of fig 5-10b The third type is characteristic of all spinning bodies. If the part experiences a torque about any axis other than its spin axis, it will precess, i.e., it will turn about still another axis. The rate and direction of turning may be obtained from the equations concerning the dynamics of rotating bodies. It is readily shown that the part will turn about an axis that is perpendicular to both the spin axis of the munition and the torque direction. If the torque is G, the moment of inertia is l, and the spin is w, then the precessional angular velocity, both w and n in rad/sec is 7. Forces of the air stream Air forces are used to turn propellers in bombs and rockets. The torque created depends upon the air flow past the propeller blades. The power developed is a function of area, angle of attack, and mean radius of the blades as well as density and velocity of the air stream. Usually an empirical solution is developed from tests in a wind tunnel. Past work has indicated that the power output H may be expressed as Where C is the coefficient of power derived, p is the air density, w is the rotational velocity, and do and di are the outer and inner diameters of the blade area, respectively. 8. Ambient pressure Ambient pressure is often used in sea mines and depth charges. It may be used in bombs dropped from aircraft, but the available pressure differences are not as large in air as in the sea. The hydrostatic pressure Pv is given by

Begitu banyak pasukan dari berbagai jenis dan besaran yang berbeda bertindak atas mesiu, dari pembuatan target dampak, yang fuzes harus dirancang dengan perawatan khusus sehingga dapat membedakan antara pasukan. Murang harus mampu menanggapi kekuatan yang diinginkan dan tidak mampu menanggapi sisanya. Misalnya, aksi mekanisme mempersenjatai dapat dikendalikan secara sendiri maupun kombinasi dengan salah satu kekuatan berikut: kemunduran karena akselerasi awal, sentrifugal karena berputar, merayap karena perlambatan, angin karena aliran udara melewati mesiu, atau tekanan akibat dengan kondisi sekitar. 1. Kemunduran Kemunduran adalah gerakan ke belakang relatif komponen dalam sebuah munisi mengalami percepatan ke depan selama peluncuran. Gaya yang diperlukan untuk mempercepat bagian bersama-sama, dengan mesiu yang seimbang oleh gaya reaksi. Ini disebut gaya kemunduran. Ini dapat dihitung dengan menentukan percepatan a proyektil dan mengalikannya dengan massa m dari bagian yang terkena. Dimensi harus tetap konsisten. Jika percepatan yang diberikan dalam g, salah satu mengalikan dengan berat w bagian yang terkena 2. Merayap Creep adalah kecenderungan untuk bagian kompak dari amunisi untuk maju sebagai mesiu melambat. Hal ini mirip dengan kemunduran tetapi jauh lebih kecil dan bertindak dalam arah yang berlawanan. Kekuatan inersia dihitung dengan mengalikan berat bagian oleh perlambatan mesiu, lihat gambar 5-7. Dengan menggunakan eq. 5-3, gaya merayap pada bagian murang diberikan oleh 3. Gaya sentrifugal Mos umum digunakan sarana mempersenjatai murang adalah gaya sentrifugal. Dimanapun gaya gesekan yang meningkat selama kemunduran mempersenjatai pasukan sentrifugal mungkin tidak berlaku sampai kecepatan rotasi cukup meningkat atau kemunduran berhenti ada. Kekuatan sentrifugal yang dihitung dari persamaan. 4. Gaya tangensial Pasukan tangensial dapat digunakan dalam beberapa fuzes. Sebagai contoh, beban pegas bergerak tangensial bawah penerapan percepatan sudut. Kekuatan tangensial diberikan oleh Dimana dw / dt adalah percepatan sudut. Hal ini dapat diperoleh dengan mengambil turunan dari eq. 5-4 terhadap waktu atau. Karena kurva tekanan-waktu umumnya lebih tersedia daripada kurva kecepatan-waktu. 5. Coriolis Kekuatan coriolis jarang digunakan untuk mengoperasikan perangkat mempersenjatai, tetapi dalam fuzes tertentu efeknya dapat diimbangi untuk meningkatkan operasi murang. Hal ini digambarkan dalam gambar 5-9 sebagai kekuatan pada bola dalam slot radial yang berputar pada kecepatan sudut. jika bola tidak bergerak relatif terhadap Slot te tidak ada kekuatan coriolis. Ketika bola bergerak dalam slot, harus ada kekuatan coriolis. Penjelasan sederhana diberikan dengan mengutip kekuatan coriolis seperti itu diperlukan untuk mengubah kecepatan tangensial bola jarak dari pusat perubahan rotasi. Pasukan dihitung dengan