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2005-06

Department of Electronics and Communication

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the seminar titled “CELLULER COMMUNICATION”


has been submitted by Avinash Chandra Srivastava in partial fulfillment of
the requirement for the award of the degree Bachelor of Technology in
Electronics and Communication of Uttar Pradesh Technical University,
Lucknow under our supervision and guidance during the academic session
2005-06.

Under Guidance of: Head of Department:

Mrs. Poonam Pathak Mr. Shailendra Thailiyani

Dated: 07/04/2006
ACKNOWLEDEMENT

I would like to thank Mr. Shailendra Thailiyani, Prof. R.G


Gupta, and Mrs. Poonam Pathak for their able guidance, constant inspiration, valuable
suggestions and constructive criticism at every stage of my seminar preparation.

I am also thankful to my friends, for not only their constant


vivacious encouragement but also helping me selecting the topic and preparing it.

AVINASH CHANDRA SRIVASTAVA

B.TECH III YEAR,


Electronics & Communication Engg.
INDEX

1. Cellular Concept

2. Operation and Planning

> System Architecture

> Location Updating and Call Setup

> Handsoff

3. Multiple Access Technologies

> Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)

> Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

(a) GSM

(b) D-AMPS

(c) PDC

> Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

4. 3G mobile communication systems

5. 4G Mobile communications

6. Bibliography

7. References
Cellular concept

The cellular concept was developed and introduced by the


Bell Laboratories in the early 1970s. One of the most
successful initial implementations of the cellular concept was
the advance mobile phone system (AMPS), which has been
available in the United States since 1983.

The principle of cellular system is to divide a large


geographic service area into cells with diameters from 2 to 50
km, each of which is allocated a number of radio frequency
(RF) channels. Transmitters in each adjacent cell operate on
different frequencies to avoid interference. Since, however,
transmit power and antenna heights in each cell are relatively
low, cells that are sufficiently far apart can reuse the same set
of frequencies without causing cochannel interference. The
theoretical coverage range and capacity of a cellular system are
therefore unlimited. As a demand for cellular mobile service
grows, additional cells can be added, and as traffic demand
grows in a given area, cells can be split to accommodate the
additional traffic. Figure on the next page illustrates an
idealized view of a cellular mobile system, where cells are
depicted as perfect hexagons.
Figure is drawn on the next page
View of a cellular mobile system

A cellular system should provide the capability to hand off


calls in progress, as the mobile terminal/user moves between
cells. As far as possible the handoff should be transparent to the
user in terms of interruption and/or call failure.
Cells are designed for mobility: a call is "handed off" from one cell to
another as the caller leaves one cell and enters another. However, when
too many callers demand the use of one cell site, those callers who are
connected first or who are closest to the cell site's antennas get priority.
Callers who are late or at the edge of the cell site could get dropped or
be denied access. This "over-demand" leads to the need for a new cell
site which, when installed, will serve a smaller cell. Wireless carriers
call this increased coverage, but it really is increased capacity.

Operation and Planning

The Exact system operations and radio system planning


will largely dependent on the technical standards used by the
mobile system. However, the following general principles are
broadly applicable.
These are
1. System Architecture
2. Location Updating and Call Setup
3. Handsoff

We will describe each in brief

System Architecture

The coverage area of a cellular system is partitioned into


a number of smaller areas or cell with each cell served by a
base station (BS) for radio coverage. The base stations are
connected through fixed link through a mobile switching center
(MSC), which is a local switching exchange with additional
features to handle mobility management requirements of a
cellular system. To accommodate the dynamic nature of
terminal location information and subscription data, the MSC
interacts with some form of database that maintains subscriber
data and location information. MSCs also interconnect with
PSTN.
Typical cellular system architecture is shown on the next page.
Typical cellular system architecture

In each cell, one radio channel is set aside for carrying


signaling information between the networks (i.e., the base
station) and the mobile station in that cell. The signaling
Channel is used in the mobile-to-BS direction to carry signals
for location updating, mobile-originated cal setup, and
responses to incoming call setup messages. In the reverse
direction (BS to mobile) the signaling channel carries message
related to operating parameters (e.g., location area identity, cell
identity), call setup (e.g., paging), and location updating

Location Updating and Call Setup

To deliver an incoming call to a mobile station, the network


must maintain information on the location of a mobile station
as it moves through the coverage area. The mobile station
monitors the overhead information broadcast by the network on
the signaling channel and updates the operating parameters as
necessary. It also checks the location information broadcast by
the new cell and, if it differs from the previous cell, the mobile
advices the network of its new location. Whereupon the
network updates its location registers. The information is then
used to route incoming calls.

The procedure for call setup is described here. A mobile user


originates a call by keying in the called number and depressing
the send key. Note that there is no equivalent of dial tone in a
cellular system. The mobile transmits an access request on the
uplink signaling channel. If the network can process the call,
the BS sends a speech channel allocation message, which
enables the mobile to lock on the designed speech channel
allocated to that call while the network proceeds to setup the
connection to the called party. A terminal validation procedure
may also be invoked as part of the originating call setup to
ensure that the terminal originating the call is a legitimate
terminal.

Handsoff
The final obstacle in the development of the cellular
network involved the problem created when a mobile
subscriber traveled from one cell to another during a call. As
adjacent areas do not use the same radio channels, a call must
either be dropped or transferred from one radio channel to
another when a user crosses the line between adjacent cells.
Because dropping the call is unacceptable, the process of
handoff was created. Handoff occurs when the mobile
telephone network automatically transfers a call from radio
channel to radio channel as a mobile crosses adjacent cells.

A typical intercell handoff

During a call, two parties are on one voice channel. When the
mobile unit moves out of the coverage area of a given cell site,
the reception becomes weak. At this point, the cell site in use
requests a handoff. The system switches the call to a stronger-
frequency channel in a new site without interrupting the call or
alerting the user. The call continues as long as the user is
talking, and the user does not notice the handoff at all.
Multiple Access Technologies

Generally a fixed amount of frequency spectrum is allocated


to a cellular system by the national regulator. Multiple Access
Techniques are then deployed so that many users can share the
available spectrum in an efficient manner. Multiple Access
systems specify how signals from different source can be
combined efficiently for transmission over a given radio
frequency band and then separated at the destination without
mutual interference. The three basic multiple Access methods
currently in use in cellular system are:
(A). Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)
(b). Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
(c). Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
In these the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is also
divided into three parts these are:
(1). GSM
(2). D-AMPS
(3). PDC
We will discuss each in brief.
The diagram of each technique is given below
Frequency vs. Time diagram of FDMA, TDMA, CDMA

Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA)


Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) is an analogue
transmission technique used for mobile phones
communications, in which the Frequency band allocated to a
network is divided into sub-bands or channels. Each frequency
channel can carry either a voice conversation or digital data,
and one channel will be assigned to each subscriber for the
duration of a call. Using FDMA in this way, multiple users can
share the available band without the risk of interference
between the simultaneous calls.
The diagram of FDMA frequency slot is given on the next
page.
Allocation of subscriber channels within an assigned frequency band (range)

FDMA is one of the three main multiplexing techniques that


enable users to share the radio spectrum, and in the case of
FDMA the receiver will discriminate between the signals by
tuning to the particular frequency channel that carries the
desired signal. Alternative multiple access techniques are
TDMA and CDMA, in which the receivers discriminate
between signals by using, respectively, different time slots or
different codes. However, in practice TDMA and CDMA are
always found in combination with FDMA, i.e. TDMA or
CDMA are used to increase capacity on a channel within an
FDMA system.
FDMA Advantages and Disadvantages
* Advantages
- Simplicity and proven technology.
* Disadvantages
- Lack of flexibility in case of reconfiguration.
- Less throughput at large number of accesses due to
inter-modulation products from the amplifiers.

Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

TDMA is one of several technologies used in wireless


communications. TDMA provides each call with time slots so
that several calls can occupy one bandwidth. Each caller is
assigned a specific time slot. In some cellular systems, digital
packets of information are sent during each time slot and
reassembled by the receiving equipment into the original voice
components. TDMA uses the same frequency band and channel
allocations as AMPS. Like NAMPS, TDMA provides three to
six time channels in the same bandwidth as a single AMPS
channel. Unlike NAMPS, digital systems have the means to
compress the spectrum used to transmit voice information by
compressing idle time and redundancy of normal speech.
TDMA is the digital standard and has 30-kHz bandwidth.
Using digital voice encoders, TDMA is able to use up to six
channels in the same bandwidth where AMPS uses one
channel.
The diagram is drawn on the next page.
3-d diagram of TDMA

Currently three digital cellular standards are based on


TDMA technology one for each economic region. The
European standard is GSM (global system for mobile
communication). The North American standard is D-
AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service), and the third is
Japanese Standard I.e., PDC (Personal Digital Cellular). We
will discuss each in brief.

global system for mobile (GSM)

The GSM standard was developed by the Groupe Special


Mobile. in 1982 the Conference of European Posts and
Telegraphs (CEPT) formed a study group called the Groupe
Spécial Mobile (GSM) to study and develop a pan-European
public land mobile system. The proposed system had to meet
certain criteria:
• Good subjective speech quality
• Low terminal and service cost
• Support for international roaming
• Ability to support handheld terminals
• Support for range of new services and facilities
• Spectral efficiency
• ISDN compatibility
The GSM meets in all the criteria mentioned above.
Commercial service was started in mid-1991, and by 1993
there were 36 GSM networks in 22 countries.

Architecture of the GSM network


A GSM network is composed of several functional
entities, whose functions and interfaces are specified. Figure
1 shows the layout of a generic GSM network. The GSM
network can be divided into three broad parts. The Mobile
Station is carried by the subscriber. The Base Station
Subsystem controls the radio link with the Mobile Station.
The Network Subsystem, the main part of which is the
Mobile services Switching Center (MSC), performs the
switching of calls between the mobile users, and between
mobile and fixed network users. The MSC also handles the
mobility management operations. Not shown is the
Operations and Maintenance Center, which oversees the
proper operation and setup of the network. The Mobile
Station and the Base Station Subsystem communicate across
the Um interface, also known as the air interface or radio
link. The Base Station Subsystem communicates with the
Mobile services Switching Center across the A interface.
The diagram of General architecture of a GSM network is
given below.

Figure 1. General architecture of a GSM network

Mobile Station
The mobile station (MS) consists of the mobile equipment (the
terminal) and a smart card called the Subscriber Identity
Module (SIM). The SIM provides personal mobility, so that the
user can have access to subscribed services irrespective of a
specific terminal. By inserting the SIM card into another GSM
terminal, the user is able to receive calls at that terminal, make
calls from that terminal, and receive other subscribed services.
The mobile equipment is uniquely identified by the
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). The SIM card
contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
used to identify the subscriber to the system, a secret key for
authentication, and other information. The IMEI and the IMSI
are independent, thereby allowing personal mobility. The SIM
card may be protected against unauthorized use by a password
or personal identity number.

Base Station Subsystem


The Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts, the
Base Transceiver Station (BTS) and the Base Station Controller
(BSC). These communicate across the standardized Abis
interface, allowing (as in the rest of the system) operation
between components made by different suppliers.
The Base Transceiver Station houses the radio tranceivers that
define a cell and handles the radio-link protocols with the
Mobile Station. In a large urban area, there will potentially be a
large number of BTSs deployed, thus the requirements for a
BTS are ruggedness, reliability, portability, and minimum cost.
The Base Station Controller manages the radio resources for
one or more BTSs. It handles radio-channel setup, frequency
hopping, and handovers, as described below. The BSC is the
connection between the mobile station and the Mobile service
Switching Center (MSC).
Network Subsystem
The central component of the Network Subsystem is the
Mobile services Switching Center (MSC). It acts like a normal
switching node of the PSTN or ISDN, and additionally
provides all the functionality needed to handle a mobile
subscriber, such as registration, authentication, location
updating, handovers, and call routing to a roaming subscriber.
These services are provided in conjuction with several
functional entities, which together form the Network
Subsystem. The MSC provides the connection to the fixed
networks (such as the PSTN or ISDN). Signaling between
functional entities in the Network Subsystem uses Signaling
System Number 7 (SS7), used for trunk signaling in ISDN and
widely used in current public networks.

Advanced Mobile Phone Service (D-AMPS)

D-AMPS stands for Digital Advanced Mobile Phone


Service. Like AMPS, D-AMPS uses frequency ranges within
the 800 and 900 Megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic radiation
spectrum. Each service provider can use half of the 824-849
MHz range for receiving signals from cellular phones and half
the 869-894 MHz range for transmitting to cellular phones. The
bands are divided into 30 kHz sub-bands, called channels. The
receiving channels are called reverse channels and the sending
channels are called forward channels. The division of the
spectrum into sub-band channels is achieved by using
frequency division multiple access (FDMA). The time division
multiple access processing (TDMA) is added to each sub-band
channel created with FDMA to triple the number of channels
available. IS-54 and IS-136 are second-generation (2G) mobile
phone systems, known as Digital AMPS (D-AMPS). IS-54
stands for Interim Standard-54, which is a mobile
communication standard employing digital technology.

An advantage of D-AMPS is that it is easier to upgrade to


from an existing analog AMPS network. An alternative to D-
AMPS and the other two TDMA technologies is direct
sequence code division multiple access (CDMA).

Personal Digital Cellular(PDC)

PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) is a second-generation


technology used in digital cellular telephone communication in
Japan. It uses a variation of TDMA (time division multiple
access) which divides each cellular channel into individual
time slots in order to increase the amount of data that can be
carried. PDC is currently only used in Japan, with the first
systems introduced by NTT DoCoMo in 1991 as a replacement
for the earlier analog networks. It operates in the 800MHz and
1,500MHz bands

PDC TECHNICAL DETAILS

PDC is the most spectrally efficient of TDMA technologies,


with six half-rate (or three full-rate) channels possible in a
25kHz frequency space, compared to three channels in 30kHz
in IS-136 and eight channels in 200kHz for GSM. It even
compares favorably to CDMA (code division multiple access),
using spread-spectrum technology to allow up to 131 channels
in a 1,250kHz spectrum band.
Full-rate speech normally requires a digital data transfer rate of
9.6kbps (kilobits per second), as is used in GSM, TDMA IS-
136 and CDMA networks. PDC offers two alternative rates;
9.6Kbps in full-rate channels or 5.6kbps in the half-rate
channel. The quality of speech along a 5.6kbps connection is
significantly lower than the standard 9.6kbps connection, but is
a useful trade-off with the number of channels available.

Features of PDC

The PDC network supports many advanced features in-line


with the other second-generation technologies, such as text
messaging and caller identification. Utilizing its Intelligent
Network (IN) capabilities, PDC also supports pre-paid calling,
personal numbers, Universal Access Numbers, advanced
charging schemes and wireless virtual private networks
(VPNs). VPNs are closed user groups that allow colleagues
working in different locations to communicate through the
mobile phone network as though they were using a
conventional office phone system.
TDMA Advantages and Disadvantages

* Advantages
- No inter-modulation effect.
- Throughput remains high for large number of
accesses.
- All stations transmit and receive on the same
frequency.
* Disadvantages
- The need for synchronization, makes the system
more complex.

Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)

CDMA is a digital air interface standard, claiming 8 to 15 times


the capacity of analog. It employs a commercial adaptation of
military, spread-spectrum, single-sideband technology. Based
on spread spectrum theory, it is essentially the same as wireline
service—the primary difference is that access to the local
exchange carrier (LEC) is provided via wireless phone.
Because users are isolated by code, they can share the same
carrier frequency, eliminating the frequency reuse problem
encountered in AMPS and DAMPS. Every CDMA cell site can
use the same 1.25-MHz band, so with respect to clusters, n = 1.
This greatly simplifies frequency planning in a fully CDMA
environment.
CDMA is an interference-limited system. Unlike
AMPS/TDMA, CDMA has a soft capacity limit; however, each
user is a noise source on the shared channel and the noise
contributed by users accumulates. This creates a practical limit
to how many users a system will sustain. Mobiles that transmit
excessive power increase interference to other mobiles. For
CDMA, precise power control of mobiles is critical in
maximizing the system's capacity and increasing battery life of
the mobiles. The goal is to keep each mobile at the absolute
minimum power level that is necessary to ensure acceptable
service quality. Ideally, the power received at the base station
from each mobile should be the same (minimum signal to
interference). It mainly uses the spread spectrum technique.

3G Mobile Communication Systems

Third generation mobile communciation systems often


called with names3G, UMTS and W-CDMA promise to boost
the mobile communications tonew speed limits. The promises
of third generation mobile phones arefast Internet surfing,
advanced value-added services and video telephony.What will
be the reality we will start to see in few years. Mobile
communication is promised to move from simple voice to rich
media, where we use more of our senses to intensify our
experiences.3G technology improves upon 2G systems in two
main ways. First, is a move towards packet switching from
circuit switching. Packet switching uses the communication
system more effectively, therefore boosting the capacity of the
system. Packet switching also enables users to always be
online. This will eliminate the need for users to "dial up". Via
judicious use of the frequency spectrum and inventive coding
methods, 3G technology is poised to achieve bit rates up to 2
Mbps. Essential qualities and characteristics of a 3G wireless
system:

1. Bit rates reaching up to 2 Mbps.


2. High-speed access, supporting broadband services
such as fast Internet access or multimedia-type
applications.
3. Flexibility, supporting new kinds of services such as
universal personal numbering and satellite telephony.
4. High spectrum efficiency.

4G Mobile communications

Cellular service providers are slowly beginning to deploy


third-generation (3G) cellular services. As access technology
increases, voice, video, multimedia, and broadband
dataservices are becoming integrated into the same network.
The hope once envisioned for 3G as a true broadband service
has all but dwindled away.While 3G hasn't quite arrived,
designers are already thinking about 4G technology. To achieve
the goals of true broadband cellular service, the systems have
to make the leap to a fourth-generation (4G) network. 4G is
intended to provide high speed, high capacity, low cost per
bit,IP based services. The goal is to have data rates up to 20
Mbps.Most propable the 4G network would be a network
which isa combination of different technologies (current
celluart networks,3G celluar network, wireless LAN, etc.)
working togetherusign suitable interoperability protocols (for
example Mobile IP).There is standardization work on 4G
already on the way. For example IEEE is standardizing 4G
celular networks. The aim is to support up to 4 Mbit/s speeds.
The networks is expected to support communications to
moving vehicle up to speeds of 250 km/h. This 4G system is
going to be based on OFDM modulation, CDMA and multiple
antenna technology. The aim is to bring together 4G mobile
technology, WLAN and satellite communications so that they
can all work seamlessly together.

Bibliography
AMPS- advanced mobile phone service; another
acronym for analog cellular radio
BTS- base transceiver station; used to transmit
radio frequency over the air interface
CDMA- code division multiple access; a form of
digital cellular phone service that is a spread
spectrum technology that assigns a code to
all speech bits, sends scrambled transmission
of the encoded speech
DAMPS- digital advanced mobile phone service; a
term for digital cellular radio in North
America
GSM- Global System for Mobile Communications;
standard digital cellular phone service in
Europe and Japan; to ensure interpretability
between countries, standards address much
of the network wireless infra
MS or MSU- Mobile station unit; handset carried by the
subscriber
MSC- mobile services switching center; a switch
that provides services and coordination
between mobile users in a network and
external networks

MTSO- mobile telephone switching office; the central


office for the mobile switch, which houses
the field monitoring and relay stations for
switching calls from cell sites to wireline
central offices (PSTN)
MTX- mobile telephone exchange
PCS- personal communications service; a lower-
powered, higher-frequency competitive
technology that incorporates wireline and
wireless networks and provides personalized
features
PSTN- public switched telephone network; a PSTN is
made of local networks, the exchange area
networks, and the long-haul network that
interconnect telephones and other
communication devices on a worldwide b
SIM- subscriber identity module; a smartcard which
is inserted into a mobile phone to get it going

References
1. Mobile and Personal Communication Systems and
Services –
By Raj Pandya
PHI Publications.

2. Websites
→ www,iec.org
→ www.planwireless.com
→ www.mobilecomms-technology.com
→ www.epanorama.net