Mapping biological and cultural transfers in the western Indian Ocean

:
New directions for interdisciplinary research
Martin Walsh
Department of Social Anthropology University of Cambridge mtw30@cam.ac.uk

East Africa in the Indian Ocean:
The Emergence of maritime subsistence, contact and trade on the East African coast Department of Archaeology, University of York, 28 November 2008

Contents

Introduction Defining problems Finding the evidence Before the Sabaki The Swahili diaspora Comorian origins Malagasy migrations Other directions Conclusion

Introduction
Biogeography & comparative ethnography Historical & ethnobiological linguistics

Defining problems

Proto-NORTHEAST COAST BANTU

Proto-SABAKI

Elwana Swahili Comorian N Swahili Mijikenda S Swahili Mwani

Historical development of the SABAKI languages

Lower Pokomo

after Nurse and Hinnebusch 1993

The internal classification of Northeast Coast Bantu and Sabaki

Finding the evidence

NEC Bantu bird names and identifications

Dakatcha IBA Krapf 1882; Binns 1925 Moreau 1940-41 Sacleux 1891; 1939 Pakenham 1959

Brain 1980
Mafia

Louette 1988; 2004 (compilation)

minimal data

some data available

Before the Sabaki

‘click’ substratum

Sample vocabulary from the ‘click’ substratum in Dahalo (Ehret et al. 1989)

PEMBA old continental island first settlement?

Before the Sabaki

CHIFUNDI & VUMBA language shift from Mijikenda

ZANZIBAR archipelago settled by NEC Bantu?

MAFIA archipelago settled by Rufiji-Ruvuma speakers? UNGUJA & MAFIA continuous settlement?

Pemba dialect vocabulary (Whiteley 1958)

The Swahili diaspora

The Swahili diaspora

Comorian origins

Proto-NORTHEAST COAST BANTU

Proto-SABAKI

Elwana Comorian Swahili

Mijikenda

Chifundi Vumba
Lower Pokomo

Kae (Makunduchi) proto-Comorian

Comorian origins

Malagasy migrations
Recent observations on the historical origins of Malagasy make it possible to develop a more definite model for the origin of Bantu loanwords. Blench (in press a) focuses on the terminology for domestic and translocated animals, and considers some other areas of vocabulary in less detail. Another element in the Malagasy lexicon is the development of vocabulary to reflect a wholly unfamiliar natural environment. Walsh (pers.comm.) has recently studied the Malagasy terms for wild animals and it appears that the great majority some derive, not from Austronesian, but from Bantu languages. As with livestock names, almost all are from Swahili and languages of the Sabaki group, not, for example, from the Bantu languages nearest to Madagascar, those in Mozambique. (Blench 2007: 76-77)

*nkomba

ankomba

? ?
Mijikenda ts’anje Bondei sangi antsangy

?
Unguja kitanga < *-canga

?
antsanga

*punti

Malagasy migrations
Malagasy: fontsy

?

Swahili: put’i

Shambaa: huti mgomba-tumbili Wild banana, Musa acuminata

tongonya

bie

viha ~ via

?

mgomba-kofi Typhonodorum lindleyanum

?

Other directions

Conclusion

*Data quality (NEC Bantu)
LIFE FORM PLANTS Wild plants Cultivated ANIMALS Invertebrates Fish / marine Reptiles Birds Mammals Domesticated
Generally inadequate Good in some cases Fair in some cases

BIOLOGY

LING.

ETHNOG.

*a quick, qualitative overview

Basi!

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