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# Stress-Strain, Creep, and Temperature Dependency of ADSS (All Dielectric Self Supporting) Cable’s Sag & Tension Calculation

Cristian Militaru

Alcoa Fujikura Ltd., Spartanburg, SC Abstract
It has been common in the industry to calculate sag & tension charts for ADSS cables without taking into consideration the influence of creep, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). and the difference between the initial and final modulus. In some applications where the sag and tension performance of the cable is not critical. the presentation of data in this manner is appropriate. However, the great majority of applications require very exact determination of sag and tension, and the influence of the above factors is important. There is also confusion between the “final state” (after creep) and the ‘loading condition” (wind+ice). which are 2 different cases. Following thorough and repeated stress-strain and creep tests, this paper will show that ADSS cable has both an “initial state” and a “final state”, each state having an ‘unloaded” (bare cable) and a “loaded” (ice and/or wind) case with resulting sag 8 tension charts as a function of creep and CTE. Additionally, the results of this work were compared and validated by common industry sag &tension software, including Sag10 and PLS-CADD.

Y 1
w

Fig.1 - Catenary Curve Analytic Method

.x + k,

(1 I), followed by:

Catenary Curve Analytic Method
Fig.1 presents an ADSS cable element under the extrinsic (wind and ice) stresses and intrinsic (cable weight) stresses, with a length, On the curve y(x), given by the formula: I= I,/=. dr (1); yields: g = ,/q XI Also,the equilibrium equations results in: (4) considering rel. (2). the derivative of rel. (4) yields: (2)

4-Z = .(f+) y’+ l + y (12) which has as solution: y’ = sinh&.x+k,)
(13) ; integrating rel.(13) results: (14);for x=0 results:

y=f.cosh(\$.*+k,)+k, ,,=c(15)and: y’=O

(16),so:

k, = k, = 0 (17).

H, =H, =H (3); dV dl

V,-V, =dV=w.dl

resulting the catenary curve

- = W.-g= w -F l+y,,, (5); also, the slope in any du
point of the catenary curve is defined as the first derivative of the function Y(~) of the curve: V=H.tancp=H.%=H.y’(6);yields:

dV -= H 4’ a!x ‘Yz
and (8) results:

(7) ; and: g = H.JJ’ (8) : using rel. (5)

H. y ” = w .
integrating rel.

(9) , and then:

(10),

y’ = sinh? (20). a In Fig.2 the designations are: S= span length B=S/2= half span length (assuming level supports) D= sag at mid-span H= tension at the lowest point on the catenary (horizontal tension) - only for level span case, it is in the center of the span T= tension in cable at structure (maximum tension) P= average tension in cable L/2=arc length of half-span I= arc length from origin to point where coordinates are (x,y)

International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999

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rel.dx= 0 [= where:c&z=OS. (18) yielding the “parabolic” equation: ‘3 terms” formula for rel.31 (38) For sags larger than 5% of the span. PC---=9052 Dbsl: p = 9052 W’s1 2 s”. so.3.12 [fit D=C-a=27. Example for an ADSS cable on transmission lines C=a. H=9038 [Ibs]=assumed value.) as long as they respect the cetenary equations.277 [Ibs/ft] H= ADSS plus heavy loading: according to NESC: Regular ice density: rice = 57 [lbs/ft3]. while rel. = .1M a ( 1 \$. T= IV. = 0...6447 [in2]. jcosh.:r-l terms--] 3 terms.o&(21).9372 [%I. E= i-1 . Temperature: 0 = Wind velocity: VW=40 [mph].Vw2 =4 ]ps6. (36) the parabolic equation gives erroneous results. H+T ?=9Ocj5 [Ibs].yi.100=0. a and:sinhX=6. .. . (22) The following variables.(26) becomes wc=0.-+ Resultant weight: w.0025. 100 = 1. ADSS.me of the ADSS characteristics. presenteWd in this example.___.906 [in]. At the limit. ret. AAC. using B=S/2 and rel. Loading Curve Type: B= ADSS w/o ice or wind C’bare unloaded” cable): resultant weight: wr=wc=0. for: x =: = becomes: B. EHS.& = 0. Ice weight: 0 [OF]: is defined as arc elongation in percent of span: A Taylor’s series for cash yields: w. rel. (38) provides a more accurate solution.or. (23). length equation: x =: = B. are:d=0.y) w= resultant weight per unit length of cable E = cable strain (arc elongation in percent of span).5. 4 A (d+2. jJq.12 [ft]. (25) the cable ” (28). c = 9065 [Ibs].a.2. resulting from rel. (19) yields the ‘approximate catenary” formula : 1 D = g+&:. for the same span.sinhB=1401. a=H/w=9038 [fl]. NESC factor: k=0. etc.4 Ml.[l++(+)2 +\$@‘-*] (37) which. B=S/2=700 [ft].635 . for (20 -1 L=2.277 [Ibs/ft].5 [in].a and C respectively = distance of origin (of support respectively) from directdx of catenary t= angle of tangent at support with directrix k= angle of tangent at point (x.t)* -d2 . Ice radial thickness: t=0.615 [Ibs/ft] 606 International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999 . (28). (28) results in: (36) D=u. n -2 terms” formula for rel. cln (25). have the same values for any material (ACSR. = pw “ti 2 “) = 0. the exact solution being given by rel.875 Ws/fil 144 [Ibs/ft] Wind force: w. a I = jm. C=mosh~=9065. w=1 [Ibs/ft]= constant value.f = a. (28) results in: At the limit shown in Fig.dr 0 (24). Wind pressure: Pw=0. =& +wicJ +ww2 + k = 1. Span: S=1400 [ft].

) are characterized by a polynomial function of the 4th degree (5 coefficients). E p (also referred to as “set"). in Fig. The extrapolated value after 87380 hours (10 years. and right side: sag: D [ft]. Stress-Strain Tests Stress-strain tests on ADSS cable performed in the lab show (see Fig.. and from that point. which is defined as strain at 87380 [h] minus strain at 1 [h]. 0.8 days) the strain was 314. because for this cable: MRCL=56%.g=m B H This catenary table is transformed in a Preliminary SagTension Graph.3) that they tit a straight line. etc. b) initial tension (when installed) at 600F w/o ice or wind (“bare” cable) not to exceed 35% RBS: TEos.. when going from tension [ibs] to stress [psi]. which depends on the ADSS design.. ADSS.4. The strain after 1 hour. is 271. etc. is obtained the point on the ‘IO years creep” curve corresponding to that tension for which the creep test was performed. MRCL=[%MIN. Other creep tests performed on other ADSS cable designs showed ‘IO years creep” values in the same range. whereas metallic cables (conductors.3). Tensions Limits: a) Maximum tension at Oo F under heavy loading not to exceed 51.%MAX/2] RBS=ct. (see Fig.41[pin/in]. Final tension at 600F w/o ice or wind (“bare” cable) not to exceed 25% RBS: Guide to Columns: 1 and 2 are the same for any span.%M~RBS therefore the test is done at T=[%MIN/2. After 1000 hours (41. any material. E f (slope of the “discharge” curve) and their values depend upon the ADSS cable design. = 35%RBS c) [Ibsl. Also.. E 0 Always. MRCL/A).RBS. characterized by a polynomial function of 1st degree. From ail the tests performed.10 [pinlin]. in order for this ADSS cable to cope with limit c) presented below. AAC.Loading I Curve Type Resultant weight: wr [lbs/ft] 0. OPT-GW. ADSS. EHS. strain. the ‘default” constant tension for the test would be: T=25%.6447 0.4. AAC. Creep Tests According to the ADSS cable draft standard. Drawing a line from the origin through that point gives the slope (the modulus) for the “IO years creep”. 7 and 8 are different.277 1.) International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999 607 .89 [pin/in]. etc. was 1100 [pin/in]=O. E i (slope of the “charge” curve) and the final modulus. The values ware recorded after every hour (see Fig.ll [%I. defined as ‘initial creep”. 8 WI. there is a division by the cross-sectional area of the cable.35%RBS [Ibs].615 cross Sectional area:A [in21 0. Considering a ‘nominal” value of MRCL=50% RBS. IEEE P12221. Therefore. defined as strain at 1000 [h] minus strain at 1 [h]. The only difference is that on the ordinates (y) axis. from one material to another (ACSR. a parallel to the x axis intersects the ” initial modulus” curve in a point of abscise. was 42. going horizontally.6447 S=1400 [ft] Stress [psi] +(pj (509g+9 @q. The values on the strain (x) axis remain the same. EHS. Polynomial Curve” and Fig.35% RBS: MWT=51. adding the ‘IO years creep ” value of 0. RBS. MRCL for 1000 hours at room temperature of 60’ F. working tension) was selected less than MRCL. at the “discharge”. 364 days/year) was 1142.G-"Creep Test: Logarithmic Curve”). for the same span for any material: ACSR. MRCL=28Yc RBS. the creep test must be performed at a constant tension equal to 50%. A [in2]. The curves on the stress-strain and tension-strain graphs are identical. So the recorded creep during the test. results show. This graph has 2 ‘y” axes: left side: stress [psi]. it has 2 ‘x” axes.5.5. T=50%MRCL (a=50%. E MRCL. The creep test on the cable design analyzed was performed at a constant tension: T=50%.11 [%I. E [%] (arc elongation in percent of span) and temperature.8”CreepTest. I I Note: M& (max. that differences exist between the initial modulus.3) at a tension (stress) equal with the value for which the creep test was performed. for ADSS cables. og and OH: B-bare cable: H-heavy load.6 are the same. the “IO years creep”. 3. There is also a permanent stretch. in general. For the stress-strain graph (Fig.69 [pin/in].

> Ei > E.Anqle: a'>d >p Slope: ton g >ton d >ton /i Modulus: E.A0 iep (10 Y'S) Fig. 4 . 3 .General Stress-Strain Chart for an ADSS cable Fig. tnOl .Preliminary Sag-Tension Graph for an ADSS cable 608 International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999 .

: 100000 Fig. 5.69 TIME: t [ hours ] LOG 87360 h (10 yn) 1 year=364 days Fig.CREEP: E vs.Creep test for a particular ADSS cable : Logarithmic Curve International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999 609 .Creep test for a particular ADSS cable : Polynomial Curve log E = 0.log(t)+ log42.2889 . TIME: t (FITTED LINE) I 100 I 1000 TIME: t 1 hours 11 / 10000 . 6 .

parallel to curve 3.7) intersects the curve H on the index mark=11300 psi (tension limit a]) the imposed maximum tension at OoF under heavy load.8).for any ADSS design. The temperature off-set to the right at 8OoF (Fig. the stress-strain graph is moved to left (Fig. same loading conditions. Therefore. (after 10 years creep at 8OoF)=lO900 psi (7027 Ibs) is found at the intersection between curves 3b and H. designs with low number of aramid yam ends have a CTE typically in the range 2.) is found vertically on curve D. 3 (and also in 610 International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999 . ‘8creep”. The corrected final tension at OoF. the relation between the 3 moduli is Ef>Ei>Ec. which is the curve after loading to the maximum tension (MWT=51%RBS).tl [l/OF]. bare cable=8750 psi (4352 Ibs) is found at the intersection of curve 2 with curve B. SAG10 will print only the final chart afler creep (not the final chart afler heavy load).1 1 & Fig. The final sag and tension at OoF must now be corrected using the revised stress-strain curve. When viewing sag charts (Fig.8.35 fl) is found vertically on curve D. at OoF.1 1 & Fig. The corresponding sag (18.40 ft.8) until OoF on the temperature scale coincides with reference point R (Fig. bare cable. the location of OoF on its temperature scale is marked on Fig. The CTE for cables with higher numbers of aramid ends are often 100 to 1000 times smaller. This MWT. 12). The corresponding final sag (18.8). The final tension at 800F after creep for IO years=5500 psi (3548 Ibs) is located at the intersection of curve 3b (or curve 4) with curve B . the above relation is true only if the 2 states of the cable are in the same stage. for those designs.3) of the ADSS cable is superimposed on the ADSS preliminary sag-tension graph (Fig. The final stress-strain curve 3a. For this purpose.01992 [%] to the lefl (Fig. the stressstrain graph (Fig. Therefore. Therefore. and does not include the change In plastic elongation (the creep). this equation will allow a user to go only vertically from one case to another case. To appreciate the impact of the contribution of aramid yam to the ADSS CTE. in Fig. For purposes of this paper. CTE=l2. Users of PLSCADD will see the same results in the chart called “FINAL AFTER CREEP” (see Fig. g iven by the ratio (conductor IO yrs. users of Sag10 will see the flag.7). creep is the governing case. The most accurate and exact solution is the graphic method. The initial tension at 8OoF=8530 psi (4210 Ibs) is found at the intersection of curve 2 with curve B. Fig. at OOF. The final tension at OoF under heavy loading. Sag-Tension Charts The well known general equation of change of state: (40) shows.12). The initial tension at 8OoF. &Ai I.7 as reference point R.10. but it will not allow him to go horizontally (same temperature.9). is drawn from the intersection point of curves 4 and B. At. after heavy loading =6440 psi (4151 Ibs) is found where curve 3a intersects curve B.07 fl) it’s on curve D (Fig.59 ft) is on curve D.01992 j%] (41) where a=3.i.7) until 8OoF on the temperature scale coincides with reference point R (Fig.01992 [%I (Fig.7. For this case. was used to be sure that neither tension limits b] or c] will be exceeded. under heavy loading. and so. the stress-strain graph is moved to the right with 0. Designs with a low number of aramid yarn ends (typically for short spans) will yield larger differences in sags due to temperature than designs with a high number of aramid yam ends.10-8 [l/OF which is relatively close to aluminum. the only thing is that the Initial chart. “CREEP IS A FACTOR”. Before moving the stress-strain graph from its present position. which is the intersection point of curves 2 and H. The next operation is to determine whether the final sag after IO years creep at 8OoF will exceed the final sag after heavy loading at OoF.10-g [IloF]. which is less than the cable’s MRCL of 56%RBS. CTE=8. the influence of CTE on sag is negligible.4).13 ft) is found vertically on curve D (Fig. while the rest of the elements have a positive a. the influence of CTE is smaller than that of creep. a MWT of 51%RBS was imposed.9). (Fig. The superimposed graphs then appear in Fig.8) to provide the values at OoF. A simplistic way of solving this issue which is still used in some European countries is the following: the creep influence is considered to be equivalent with an “off-set temperature”. creep-initial elongation)/ CTE. Therefore. and the corresponding sag (18.8) exceeds the flnal sag at OoF after heavy loading=16. initial or final. (after creep for 10 years at 8OoF)=5720 psi (3887 Ibs) is found at the intersection between curves 3b and B. the final sag at temperature ‘8” is equal with the initial sag at temperature ‘9+9creep’. tension limit a] is the governing condition. noted “2”. But this is not an exact method. The corresponding sag (19. so their abscissas coincide and the whole system of curves from Fig. and sometimes larger than steel.32. because it only calculates an INITIAL sag&tension chart. after creep for IO years at 800F. the temperature axis will have an off-set of 0. parallel with the “x” axis. with the FINAL sag&tension chart being identical with the initial chart.10-8 [l/OF] is the ADSS CTE.10-6 [l/OF] to 9. Therefore. 3 . which was developed by Alwa2.3 are translated to the left. Now.13 ft Coefficient of Thermal Expansion The values for CTE (designated here as a) were determined by the individual material properties in a mixture formula: a = .10-6 [l/OF]. 2. It’s corresponding resultant final sag (58. which is the final stress-strain curve afler loading to MRCL=56%RBS. cross-sectional area and modulus of each one of the “t’ elements in the ADSS construction respectively. parallel to curve 3.10 ft.: EIAI (39) where oi. the final tension at OoF. up until the initial curve. This is due to the fact that the aramid yarn is the only element with a negative a .7) in %strain is equal to a80oF~100=0.1 lft) is found vertically on curve D (Fig. In this method. from initial stage to final stage) due to the influence of creep.that the change in slack Is only equal to the change In elastic elongatlon + change In thermal elongation.35 ft (Fig. The resultant initial sag at OoF under heavy loading (54.4. Since the final sag at 600F after creep for 10 years=19. and the corresponding sag (15. When is moved to align It with the new corresponding temperature.) is found vertically above point a] on curve D. The final stress-strain curve 3 b.10-8 [l/OF] to 8. is drawn from point a].8). For the great majority of ADSS cable designs. Ei are the CTE.

to check effect of 10 years creep. .d. for WF .I.-i- Fig. L.. 8. at WF International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999 611 .1*..1.....1.. pg::: Fig..00 .I. I.* .. 1...Second Trial. *A*../.....r Y..... . . . . O.. .. ... 0.* . .l.a. .. .*.I.1... .” L... e 0..II.S I.First Trial check of tension limits...<.I....“.F . . 7 . . . ...: . .v “. ......

10. after adjustment for 10 years creep correction 612 International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999 . for IZOOF.Fig.Final Trial.

A reasonable assumption is 12OoF (49oC). which does not exist for ADSS cables. Romania. there can be many situations when the permanent elongation after heavy loading (due to the stretch of the cable. due to the continuous current rating of the conductor.Standard for All Dielectric Self-Supporting Fiber Optic Cable (ADSS) for use on Overhead Utility Lines .5 ft.D. and from 1. 1989 Alcoa Handbook. As can be noticed. the output in SAG10 is presented in Fig. changes in sag due to temperatures ranging from -2OoF to 12OoF would yield 0. the stress-strain graph is moved to the right with this value (Fig.01 ft) for those designs with maximum numbers of aramid yarns. and corresponding sag (19. In these cases. for different ADSS designs and different span and loading conditions.75 fl for low aramid yarn counts applications.11.5 ft up to 1.O.determining temperatures for calculation of sag and tension performance. or 212oF (IOOOC). The influence of creep on ADSS cable sags is different from one design to another. as a Development Engineer in the OPT-GW 8 ADSS cable and hardware department. Since 1996 he has been employed with Alcoa Fujikura Ltd.PLS-CADD Output for this ADSS design References 1. 3. For spans over 1600 ft the differences can be 3-3. SC 29304-3127. the temperature off-set to the right (Fig.third edition. while the output screen for PLS-CADD is presented in Fig. Mr. As an example. Thus. the graphical method presented above produces very similar results in these two programs. Spartanburg. in %strain is : a~120oF~100=0. 167’JF (75oC).12. P.Draft. The final tension at 12OoF (after creep for 10 years at 6OoF)=5265 psi (3407 Ibs) is found at the intersection of curve 3b (or 4) and curve B. the flag “CREEP IS NOT A FACTOR” is shown. chapter 5.Box 3127. Cristian Militaru International Wire & Cable Symposium Proceedings 1999 613 . For spans under NESC Light or Medium loadings. Therefore. As a note.9) until 12OoF on the temperature scale coincide with reference point R (Fig. for 12OoF. Electrical conductors can reach higher values. 2. The influence of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the ADSS cables is smaller than that of creep: as an example. the creep influence results in sag differences less than the numbers listed above.5 ft. for users of the SAG10 program. and becomes negligible (0. He worked for 11 years as a Transmission Design & Consultant Engineer in the power utility industry in Europe. The initial tension at 12O~F=6311 psi (4069 Ibs) is found at the intersection of curve 2 with curve B. Mailing Address: Alcoa Fujikura Ltd. i.9) to get values at 12OoF. the maximum temperature of the ADSS cable should be the maximum ambient temperature plus the heat absorbed by the cable.67 ft) is on curve D.5 ft up to 1. IEEE 1222P. under NESC Heavy loading. April 1995 Aluminum Electrical Conductor Handbook.e.12 .. Conclusions Using this ADSS cable characteristics as input data. Middle East and SouthEast Asia. USA. as well as in other sag and tension programs on the market. Fig.10). Users of PLS-CADD will see the same result in the chart called “FINAL AFTER LOAD”. and the final sag printed is the sag after heavy load (no more after IO years creep). the difference between the final and initial sag can range from 0.03964 [%I. E p) is larger than the elongation after 10 years creep. and corresponding sag (16.2 fl in a span range of 200-600 fl. Section 8:“Graphic Method for Sag Tension Calculation for ASCR and Other Conductors”-1970 received MS degree (1980-1985) and Ph.10). degree (1990-1995) in Electrical Power Engineering from Polytechnic University of Bucharest.5 fl in a span range of 600-1400 fl. up to 2.91 ft) is on curve D (Fig.