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by Vedat S. Arpaci University of Michigan

The foundations of any engineering science may best be understood by considering the place of that science in relation to other engineering sciences. Therefore, our first concern in this chapter will be to determine the place of heat transfer among the engineering sciences. Next, two modes of heat transfer -diffusion and radiation-will be briefly reviewed. We shall then proceed to a discussion of the continuum and the molecular approaches to engineering problems, and finally, to a discussion of the foundations of continuum heat transfer.

**1-1. The Place of Heat Transfer in Engineering
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Some problems taken from mechanics can be solved by using only Newton's second law of motion, combined sometimes with Newton's first law and/or the conservation of mass; these are called mechanically determined problems. Some mechanics problems, however, require an extra condition in addition to Newton's laws of motion and the conservation of mass. These are called mechanically undetermined problems. Thermodynamics problems may similarly be divided into two classes. Some thermodynamics problems can be solved by employing the general (first and second) laws of thermodynamics and, if necessary, the general laws of mechanics; these are called thermodynamically determined problems. Others, however, require the use of conditions in addition to the general laws (Equation Of States); these are called thermodynamically

Gas dynamics and heat transfer are the major disciplines which deal with thermodynamically undetermined problems. In addition to the general laws of thermodynamics, gas dynamics depends on the equation of state as a particular law.

Heat transfer employs two particular laws, related to the so-called modes of heat transfer which we shall now describe: Diflusion: In diffusion, heat is transferred through a medium or from one to another of two media in contact, if there exists a nonuniform temperature distribution in the medium or between the two media. On the molecular level, the mechanism of diffusion is visualized as the exchange of kinetic energy between the molecules in the regions of high and low temperatures. Particularly, it is attributed to the elastic impacts of molecules in gases, to the motion of free electrons in metals, and to the longitudinal oscillations of atoms in solid insulators of electricity. Radiation: The true nature of radiation and its transport mechanism have not been completely understood to date. Some of the effects of radiation can be described in terms of electromagnetic waves, and others in terms of quantum mechanics, although neither theory explains all the experimental observations. According to wave theory, for example, during the emission of radiation a body continuously converts part of its internal energy to electromagnetic waves, another form of energy. These waves travel through space with the velocity of light until they strike another body, where part of their energy is absorbed and reconverted into internal energy. NOTE: In the foregoing classification we have not considered convection to be a mode of heat transfer. Actually, convection is motion of the medium which facilitates heat transfer by diffusion and/or radiation.

the molecular theory is also called the microscopic theory. In other words. 1-2. which we shall call convection. the mean free path of molecules is small compared with all other dimensions existing in the medium. the medium fits the definition of the concept of field. The contrast between these two views of heat transfer is reflected in the two alternative approaches to engineering problems in heat transfer: In the first approach. and the diffusion of heat in moving deformable bodies. which we shall call conduction. corresponding to the macroscopic view. or phenomenological view. the medium is assumed to be a continuum. we distinguish between the diffusion of heat in moving or stationary rigid bodies. That is. the transfer of heat is thought to come about through the exchange of kinetic energy between molecules. such as velocity V. The properties of a field may be scalar. such that a statistical average (global description) is possible. Continuum Theory Versus Molecular Theory* * The continuum theory is also called the field or macroscopic theory. . The process of heat transfer by diffusion was described in two different ways: From a macroscopic or phenomenological standpoint. From a microscopic or molecular standpoint. or vectorial. is transferred from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature in a medium.NOTE: For customary reasons only. such as temperature T. as evidenced from experimental observations. heat.

the principle of idealization and the principle of approximation. either a statistical average of the molecular behavior is not possible or it is possible but not desired. Foundations of Continuum Heat Transfer Any engineering science is based on both theory and experiment.In the second approach. 1-3. . Problem-solving in theoretical heat transfer. as in other disciplines of engineering. corresponding to the molecular view. may be outlined as follows: From this outline we see that two principles are involved in all problems of engineering.

and Differential Formulations .PART I FORMULATION Chapter 2 Lumped. Integral.

Ampere's circuit law. or electromagnetically determined problems. the ideal gas law.Particular laws General law is characterized by the fact that its application is independent of the nature of the medium under consideration. Such as: Hooke's law of elasticity. and Faraday's induction law. thermodynamically or electromagnetically undetermined problems. Fourier's law of conduction. The first law of thermodynamics. thermodynamically. Lorentz's force law. The second law of thermodynamics And two particular laws: Fourier's law of conduction. The problems of nature which can be formulated completely by using only general laws are called mechanically.The natural laws may be classified as: 1. . Particular law is characterized by the fact that its application depends on the nature of the medium under consideration. On the other hand. and Ohm's law of electricity In this text we shall employ three general laws: The law of conservation of mass. Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation. Newton's second law of motion (including momentum and moment of momentum). Newton's law of viscosity. the problems which cannot be formulated completely by means of general laws alone are called mechanically. the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Such as: conservation of mass. the law of conservation of electric charge.General laws 2.

2-1. Property: A macroscopic characteristic of a system or control volume which is ascertained by a statistical averaging procedure. . This can be visualized as sitting in a boat and drifting down a river. The Eulerian specification of the flow field is a way of looking at fluid motion that focuses on specific locations in the space through which the fluid flows as time passes. For most problems in this text. Plotting the position of an individual parcel through time gives the path line of the parcel. The boundaries of a system may expand or contract. The Eulerian method of fluid mechanics is used in the mathematical description of a control volume. except that the rest of the continuum may cross the fixed or deformable boundaries (control surfaces) of a control volume at one or more places. This is the only difference between a control volume and a system. except for simple cases are not considered. This can be visualized by sitting on the bank of a river and watching the water pass the fixed location. NOTE: In fluid dynamics and finite-deformation plasticity The Lagrangian specification of the flow field is a way of looking at fluid motion where the observer follows an individual fluid parcel as it moves through space and time. System: A part of a continuum which is separated from the rest of the continuum for convenience in the formulation of a problem. but they are always so assumed that the rest of the continuum does not cross them during any change of the system. Control volume: The same as a system. The Lagrangian method of fluid mechanics is used in the mathematical description of a system. Definition of Concepts Continuum (field): A medium in which the smallest volume under consideration contains enough molecules to permit the statistically averaged characteristics to adequately describe the medium. control volumes with deformable boundaries are not necessary and.

The limiting state which the two approach is called the state of equality of temperature. negative. Work done by a system or control volume is considered positive. Heat transferred to a system or control volume is considered positive. Therefore. work done on a system or control volume. NOTE: It can be shown that the work and heat interactions between a system or control volume and the surroundings depend on the path followed by the associated process. A state may be determined when a sufficient number of independent properties is specified. work and heat are not properties. heat transferred from a system or control volume. Process: A change of any state of a system or control volume. The most common forms of work are discussed in the statements of the first law of Equality of temperature: When any two systems or control volumes are placed in contact with each other. Work: A form of energy which is identified as follows. in general they affect each other as evidenced by changes in their properties. Heat: A form of energy which is transferred across the boundaries of a system or control volume during a process by virtue of inequality of temperature. Cycle: A process whose initial and final states are identical.State: A condition of a system or control volume which is identified by means of properties. Work is done by a system or control volume on its environment during a process if the system or the control volume could pass through the same process while the sole effect external to the system or the control volume was the raising of a weight. . negative. The definition of equality of temperature implies the existence of states of inequality of temperature for this pair.

distributed: (a) integral. of B. and to be distributed if its terms This is demonstrated in Figure by a volume property B.lumped (or averaged) 2. Statement of General Laws The first step in the statement of a general law is the selection of a system or control volume. At a point P(r). A general law may be formulated in either of the following forms: 1. (c) variational.2-2. t) denote the lumped and distributed values. B = B(t) and B = B (P. The second step in the statement of a general law is the selection of the form of this law. . A general law is said to be lumped if its terms are independent of space. where r denotes the position vector of P. respectively. (b) differential.

Lumped Formulation of General Laws Conservation of mass (lumped formulation) By definition. therefore.2-3. a system is so constituted that no continuum (mass) may cross its boundaries. for a system we have First law of thermodynamics (lumped formulation) Second law of thermodynamics (lumped formulation) .

Assume that at time t a system coincides with this control volume.2-4. Integral Formulation of General Laws Consider a control volume which is fixed in space and through which a property B flows. We wish to evaluate the time rate of change of the property within the system. Conservation of mass (integral formulation) First law of thermodynamics (integral formulation) Second law of thermodynamics (integral formulation) .

then omitting the volume-integral operation results in the differential form. using the divergence (Green's) theorem.2-5. converts the surface integrals of this form to the volume integrals. The second method directly establishes the differential Conservation of mass (differential formulation) First law of thermodynamics (differential formulation) Second law of thermodynamics (differential formulation) . Differential Formulation of General There are two ways of obtaining the differential forms of the general laws: One of these starts with the integral form and.

Conductivity is the same in all directions are said to be isotropic. Statement of Particular Laws Fourier's law of conduction Classification of Conductivity according to variation: Homogeneous conductivity does not vary from point to point within the continuum. Conductivity is the variation in all directions are said to be anisotropic. Heterogeneous conductivity does not vary from point to point within the continuum.2-6. .

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Equation of Conduction.Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation The emissivity of a surface is defined as: Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation as follows: 2-7. Entropy Generation Due to Conductive Resistance The equation of conduction for heterogeneous isotropic solids and frictionless incompressible fluids: .

The equation of conduction for homogeneous isotropic solids and frictionless incompressible fluids: The equation of conduction for heterogeneous anisotropic solids: The equation reduces to: .

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2-9. Methods of Formulation Method of formulation is summarized in the following five steps: .

Solution: Lumped Formulation: .

Differential Formulation: .

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Integral Formulation: The first law of thermodynamics applied to the lumped system of Figure. by integrating the differential form of the first law of thermodynamics . results in The same result may also be obtained following the mathematical approach instead. but with its terms interpreted by the differential system of the same figure.

The integral formulation is useful for obtaining approximate solutions.? When this product form is introduced into the integral formulation. Each function in this product depends on only one of the independent variables entering the problem. hence we shall give the method here. say the temperature. is assumed to be composed of the product of simple (polynomial. containing an unknown parameter to be determined. this value of the parameter is inserted into the product form. The profile. etc. and is chosen such that the boundary conditions are satisfied. circular. and when. This method is based on the selection of an approximate profile for the unknown (dependent) variable. an approximate solution is obtained for the problem under consideration. the result of integration specifies the unknown parameter. Ritz method: . which are convenient for problems whose exact solution is rather involved algebraically.) functions. Solution of the integral formulation requires no further mathematics than that which we assume the reader to have. in turn. and indispensable for complex problems having no exact solution.

Kantorovich method: The boundary: .

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and if the unsteady profile within a scale factor resembles the steady distribution. .More specifically. if an unsteady problem asymptotically tends to a steady solution.

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The case of finite h .

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If k is constant

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based on a radially lumped analysis. .

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