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A REVIEW OF GRAMMAR

This chapter is what its title announces: a review. It attempts no more than a retrospective view or survey of material some or most of which are not exactly unfamiliar to the college freshman. Any standard English dictionary provides several definitions of the word grammar. For example, the 1970 edition of The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language consists of seven definitions, of which the first three concern us here. 1. The study of language as a systematically composed body of words that exhibit the discernible regularity of structure (morphology) and arrangement into sentences (syntax), sometimes including such aspects of language as the pronunciation of words (phonology), the meanings of words (semantics), and the history of words (etymology). 2. (a) The phenomena with which this study deals, as exhibited by a specific language at a specific time. (b) The system of rules implicit in a language, viewed as a mechanism for generating all sentences possible at that language. 3. a normative or prescriptive system of rules setting forth the current standard of usage for pedagogical or reference purposes. The first two convey the modern and scientific sense of the word grammar as opposed to its traditional sense conveyed by the third entry: A normative or prescriptive system of rules setting forth the current standard of usage for pedagogical or reference purposes. It is in this latter sense that we retrospectively view, in this chapter, English grammar as a system of rules presented not as orders to be obeyed blindly but as guides to be followed intelligently. This is not to say that we are blissfully unaware of the spectacular recent achievements of structural and generativetransformational grammarians. In the language arts a practical code of communication of technical vocabulary is absolutely essential to enable the instructor to explain or discuss at length the writing needs of students. The option to use traditional technology serves pragmatic ends such as pedagogical efficiency equated with tried and tested methods. The traditional approach to English grammar emphasizes definition and rules. By and large it is deductive. From the generalization contained in a definition and rule, the student proceeds to apply the rule. The traditional approach largely depends on the classification of words into eight parts of speech, in the pattern of Latin grammar, as follows: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection. These are defined by meaning, function or form. Essentially, however, they are functional elements. Thus the subject and object functions are identified as noun functions. The predicate function is identified with the verb function. An adjective modifies a noun; an adverb modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. In short, the traditional approach emphasizes the word as a basic unit of grammar. WORDS Contemporary dictionaries classify words in terms of parts of speech. The part of speech to which a word belongs can be determined only by its use in the sentence. In traditional grammar, the eight parts of speech are identified as follows, depending it must be emphasized on how they are used. Many words can function as other parts of speech as well. Naming Words: Nouns and Pronouns

Nouns are names of people, places, things, qualities, actions, ideas, relationships: President Marcos, Balanga, radio, serenity, dancing, loyalty, kinship. There are five major types of nouns, classified according to the objects or qualities which they designate. Proper nouns name a particular person, place or thing and begin with a capital letter: Manansala, Bulacan, July.all other nouns are called common nouns and begin with a small letter: woman, barangay, feet. Some proper and common nouns may be further classified as collective nouns, which are used to designate a group of persons, or things: Jaycees, crew, flock. Two other classification of nouns are abstract nouns, which refer to things not discernible with any of our senses: loyalty, wisdom, truth; concrete nouns, which refer to tangible things discernible with our senses: bougainvillea, chair, window. Nouns can be recognized in a variety of other ways: 1. Nouns are usually preceded by words like the, a, an, and may also bepreceded by other determiners like this, some, my, your, each. 2. nouns can indicate the meaning more than one by suffixing the letter s: books, owls, pesos, streets; es is suffixed if the noun ends in s, sh, ch or x: glasses, wishes, churches, axes. 3. Some groups of nouns have the following endings: -tion, -ness, -ment, -ure to distinguish them from corresponding verbs or adjectives: organize, organization; kind, kindness; develop, development; seize, seizure. 4. Some nouns are distinguished from corresponding words by stress: rcord, recrd; trnsfer, transfr; sbject, subjct.

5. nouns occur in a specific positions in the sentence in subject position before the verb or in object position after the verb: Education is important. Misbehavior means expulsion. Pronouns are words which refer indirectly to people, places, things, etc.: she, he, it, someone, which, who. There are seven major classifications of pronouns in terms of the way they substitute for a noun or a noun-equivalent. 1. Personal Pronouns The personal pronouns directly substitute for a noun as subject (nominative case): She did it; as object (objective case): I saw her; as owner (possessive case): It is my book. Personal pronouns also indicate the person speaking (first person), the person spoken to (second person), and the person or object spoken of (third person). They likewise indicate the meaning one person (singular) or more than one (plural). The forms of the personal pronouns are as follows: 1st person: Nominative: Possessive: Objective: 2nd person: Nominative: Possessive: Objective: Singular I my, mine me Singular you your, yours you Plural we our, ours us Plural you your, yours you Plural they
their, theirs

3rd person: Singular Nominative: he, she, it Possessive: his, her, hers its Objective: him, her, it 2. Relative Pronouns

them

Relative pronouns link or relate clauses to their antecedents. For example, the two sentences She is the dancer who arrived today. The

relative pronouns are who (whose, whom), which, that, whoever (whomever), whichever, whatever (whosoever, whomsoever, whichsoever, whatsoever). The choice of a relative pronoun is partly determined by its antecedent: who is used to refer to persons only; which, to things; that, to either persons or things. These are the most frequently used relative pronouns; the rest are either less frequently used or are no longer used. 3. Demonstrative Pronouns This, that, these, those are the principal demonstrative pronouns; they also function as modifiers of nouns: This is the last show. This show is the last. Demonstrative pronouns point out precisely or identify certain things or persons. 4. Interrogative Pronouns The interrogative pronouns are used to produce a question: Who picked up the laundry? Which bus should we take? What do you plan to do? 5. Indefinite Pronouns The indefinite pronouns designate persons or things less specifically than other pronouns: Everyone seems satisfied. Each of the students has complaints. The most frequently used indefinite pronouns in English are: all, everyone, everybody, anything, anybody, somebody, one, none, some, nobody, something, everything, few, several, another, other, others. 6. Compound Personal Pronouns The compound are simple pronopu8ns word self or selves. himself, herself, itself, personal pronouns combined with the Myself, yourself, oneself; ourselves,

yourselves, themselves. They are used as reflexive pronouns by simply referring back to the subject (He was quite proud of himself) or as intensive pronouns by emphasizing or intensifying their antecedents (She did it herself). 7. Reciprocal Pronouns The reciprocal pronouns are indicators of some mutual relationship between two or more persons or things. There are only two reciprocal pronouns, and they are compound indefinite pronouns: each other, one another. (They respect each other.) (They trust one another.) These pronouns are used interchangeable. Asserting Words: Verbs and Verbals Verbs are words that specify actions, states, feelings, existence (of people, places, things, etc.): hit, sit, fall, appear, produce. Verbs are of four kinds in terms of their functions: transitive verbs, intransitive verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliary verbs. A transitive verb requires a direct object; an intransitive verb does not. Some verbs may be used both transitively and intransitively: He wrote a letter. (transitive) He wrote rapidly. (intransitive) Cecile plays the violin. (transitive) Cecil plays well. (intransitive) They dance the tinikling. (transitive) They danced until the curfew hours. (intransitive) They will obey your orders. (transitive) They will obey promptly. (intransitive) A linking verb, unlike other verbs, can stand between the subject and a predicate noun or a predicate adjective. The most commonly used linking verb is a form of to be: am, is, are, was, were; other linking verbs are become, feel, get, seem, taste, smell, appear, sound., The teacher became weary.

May father is tall. The answer seems right. The curtain looks new. The effort proved futile. The room appears small. I am glad to see you. The box sounds empty. I feel good. Verbs that accompany other verbs are called helping verbs or auxiliary verbs. combinations of verbs are usually referred to as verb phrases. They are formed by adding have, can, may, shall, will, do, must, which are the most common auxiliary verbs. I have refused the offer. I can improve my work. You may leave now. I have been told the news. She must see you at once. Of several grammatical properties of verbs, voice needs to be mentioned here. Voice is the aspect of verbs which indicates whether the subject acts or is acted upon. A verb is said to be in the active voice if it expresses an action performed by the subject; it is the passive voice if it expresses the action of some agent upon the subject. The agent may or may not be named in the sentence. She brought a dictionary to class. (active) A dictionary was brought to class by her. (passive) A dictionary was brought to class. (passive agent unnamed) Henry wrote a letter. (active) A letter was written by Henry. (passive) A letter was written. (passive agent unnamed) Nora ate the banana. (active)

The banana was eaten by Nora. (passive) The banana was eaten. (passive agent unnamed) Mood is the function of a verb which expresses the manner in which the action or condition of the subject is stated. By means of mood, a verb may distinguish the way in which the statement is regarded by the writer. Indicative mood: as a fact, a statement Subjunctive mood: as a wish, possibility, doubt Imperative mood: as a command The basic mood is the indicative, in which statements are made and questions asked. In English, verb forms are traditionally distinguished as finite or non-finite. Unlike the finite verbs which can make complete predications, the non-finite verbs, also called verbals, are incapable of making complete predications. There are three types of verbals: participles, infinitives, and gerunds. Participles are both verbs and adjectives. Thus they are also referred to as verbal adjectives. Gerunds (or verbal nouns) are used as nouns (though they may still have a subject or object). Infinitives are preceded by to and are used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. Working students need more time to study. (participle) Swimming is more strenuous than jogging. (gerund) To run is easy. (Infinitive used as a noun) He has lots of money to spend. (Infinitive used as adjective) Her method is sure to succeed. (infinitive used as adverb) Modifying Words: Adjectives and Adverbs

Both adjectives and adverbs are modifiers, hence they are conveniently treated together. An adjective is a word that describes or defines a noun or pronoun in order to amplify or restrict its meaning; that is, to make its meaninbg more exact: a black cat, a tedious job, a difficult assignment, these examples. Adjectives are of three general types: descriptive, limiting, and proper. Descriptive adjectives modify the noun by naming a quality or condition of the object it names: a gray sweater, vivid memories, a definite attempt. Limiting adjectives point out an object or indicate quantity or number: this chair, his house, several questions, their drawing, thirty days. Proper adjectives are derived from proper nouns and are originally limiting adjectives: Filipino customs and traditions, Shakespearean plays, Chinese culture. Sometimes a proper adjective becomes simply a descriptive adjective, indicated without a capital: paris green, manila paper, india ink, bacchanalian event, pasteurized milk. Most adjectives are recognizable by their suffixes, the most common of which includes the following: desirable, payable, translatable critical, cordial, hypothetical smashed, sophisticated, four-footed Chinese, Japanese, journalese faithful, playful, soulful selfish, reddish, Swedish harmless, fearless, timeless elementary, visionary, secondary vigorous, callous, marvelous cranky, dreamy, funny artistic, metric, bubonic decisive, excessive, permissive rotten, golden, wooden lonely, friendly, daily handsome, tiresome, bothersome

The indefinite articles (a, an) and the definite article (the) function as adjectives since they limit or specify the words they precede. a trip, a day, a life, a grade, a European trip an hour, an ample reward, an absence regretted the hour of parting, the ability to type The article a is used before words beginning with a consonant sound; an is used with words with a vowel sound. An adverb modifies a verb as in: She talked fast, he wrote quickly; an adjective as in: thoroughly satisfied, extremely happy; and adverb as in: Probably he is wrong. Most adverbs are adjectives or participles with the ending ly: He wrote badly; They were deliriously happy.; He unfortunately left. Other adverb forms are simple: now, quite, since, then, there, where. Most adjectives and adverbs have three forms or degrees of comparison: positive, comparative, and superlative: Positive Adj: hard Adv: hardly Adj: good bad Adv: well badly Comparative harder more hardly better worse better worse Superlative hardest most hardly best worst best worst

Joining Words: Prepositions and Con junctions A preposition is a word relating a noun or pronoun phrase or clause to another word in the sentence. to a verb (She went to the dance) to a noun (the capital of Bulacan) to an adjective (young at heart)

Many words used as prepositions may also be used as adverbs or conjunctions. This is the hottest summer since martial law was declared. (preposition) Since the price of the tickets was high, I took only one. (conjunction) They havent been around since. (adverb) A preposition may be a single word (in, at, on, along) or several words (in order to, because of, according to). A linguist has estimated that of more than 92 percent prepositions used, nine of them recur: at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, with: at home, at her suggestion, at midnight by myself, by force, by candlelight for me, for the university, for arts sake from abroad, from the province, from memory in a hurry, in the city, in trouble of Manila, of the Philippines, of me on top, on paper, on condition in Mindanao, with my classmates a conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, or clauses. It is distinguished from a preposition in that the latter always has an object expresses or understood, which a conjunction does not have. I went to bed, for it was quite late. (conjunction) They did the work for fifty pesos. (preposition) Conjunctions are either coordinating or subordinating. Coordinating conjunctions join words or groups of words of equal rank.

She is young and pretty. David is strong, but Oscar is even stronger. We decided to leave, for we knew what happened. They could not solve the problem, nor did they care to. You should decide or resign. Lucas failed two courses last semester, so he went back to the province. He seemed irresponsible, yet I trusted him. Subordinating conjunctions join dependent clauses to main or independent clauses. He sold the painting that he finished last month. Although it was late, he was not hungry. She did not know where to find him. Some conjunctions are used in pairs. These are called correlative conjunctions: both.and, but, not only but also, neithernor, eitheror, and whetheror. When a greater emphasis is desired, the correlative conjunctions may replace the coordinating conjunction The driver may be found upstairs or in the garage. The driver may be found either upstairs or in the garage. Randy and his wife refused to leave. Neither Randy nor his wife would leave. Another kind of conjunction is an adverb used as a connective. The most important of this kind, which is called conjunctive adverb includes the following consequently, furthermore, hence,

however, moreover, nevertheless, and therefore. (Look for more examples of conjunctions) So far we have reviewed the seven ofd the eight parts of speech in traditional English grammar. The eighth part of speech really serves no function except to express emotion. It is called interjection and has no grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence in which it occurs. Alas, what is to be done? Heavens, what a bore he is! PHRASES A very important sentence element is the phrase. It is one of two types of word group operating as units within the sentence. The other word group is the clause, to be reviewed in the next section. The main kinds of phrases are the noun phrase, the verb phrase and the prepositional phrase. For example, the three words Instructor Nomer Varua form a unit in the sentence Instructor Nomer Varua will lecture in Harvard. As a unit it is called a noun phrase. Will lecture is a unit called verb phrase and in Harvard is also a unit called preposition al phrase. The latter is introduced by a preposition; hence the phrase is called prepositional phrase. The prepositional phrase that modifies noun or a noun phrase is called an adjective phrase; that which modifies or qualifies a verb or verb phrase is called an adverbial phrase. He opened the doors of the lecture hall. Of the lecture hall is a prepositional phrase serving as an adjective phrase modifying noun phrase the doors. He wrote on both sides of the paper.

The three words on both sides constitute prepositional phrase serving as an adverb modifying the verb wrote. Three other types of phrases are traditionally identified as participial phrase, gerund phrases, and infinitive phrases. As their names suggest, these are phrases containing any of the three kinds of verbals or non-finite verb forms: participle (or verbal adjective), gerund (or verbal noun), and infinitive (or verbal noun, adjective, or adverb). The award presented to the clerk made him very happy. (participial phrase modifying award) Anybody using this instrument must be careful (participial phrase modifying anybody) Jogging every morning is a wholesome exercise. (gerund phrase used as subject) The person to see is the dean. (infinitive used as adjective) She came to observe. (infinitive used as adverb) To see is to believe. (infinitive used as noun) In short, phrases can serve as though they are single parts of speech. Thus, they function in a variety of ways. CLAUSES Like the phrase, the clause is a group of related words, but unlike it the clause has a subject and a predicate verb. Traditionally, two types of clauses are distinguished as independent (or main, or principal) and dependent (subordinate). I know the person with whom you were talking. (independent)

In the example given, I is the subject and know is the predicate verb. I know the person is an independent clause to which is contained a dependent or subordinate clause with whom you were talking. There are three types of dependent clauses: adjective clause, adverbial clause, and noun cluse. An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun. The expansion of an adjective to an adjective phrase and then to an adjective clause may be seen in the following: Adjective: A wealthy man is not always happy. Adjective phrase: A man of wealth is not always happy. Adjective clause: A man who is wealthy is not always happy. An adjective clause is joined to the independent clause by a relative pronoun or by equivalents of relative pronouns such as where meaning at or in which and when meaning at or in which. He delivered a speech, which was long. That was the place where he was buried. He comes at a time when he is needed. An adverbial clause modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb. Adverbial clauses express such relationships as place. Time, condition, concession, cause, purpose, result, manner, and comparison. Place: Where his treasure is, there is his heart also. Time: When she arrived, he was away.

Condition: If you study regularly, you are free from cramming. Concession: Although she was in Davao, she did not see him. Cause: He wrote a good exam because he was prepared. Purpose: He left early that he might catch up with you. Result: Jerry spoke so rapidly that we could not understand him. Manner: He died as he had lived. Comparison: He does not try so hard as others do. A dependent clause preceding the independent clause, especially if it contains more than five words, is conventionally separated from it by a comma. One following the dependent clause may or may not be separated from it by a comma; the comma is not used if the relation in thought is very close or if the clause restricts the meaning of the independent clause by explaining or identifying the word to which it refers. In this sense, it is also referred to as a restrictive clause. The student who spoke at the conference is a varsity player. (restrictive clause) Miss Realce, who spoke at the conference, is a varsity player. (nonrestrictive clause) A noun clause performs such functions of the noun as being the subject of a sentence or the object of a verb or a preposition, or a predicate complement. Subject: That you are right is evident. Object of a verb: The professor said that he would come late. Object of a preposition: She is in doubt about who will come. Predicate complement: The problem is that you did not come.

The relationship of a noun clause to the rest of the sentence is so close that it is not ordinarily set off by a comma. SENTENCES A well-formed sentence must contain a subject and a predicate. The subject may consist of a single noun or pronoun as in Bataan falls; or of two or more nouns or pronouns as in Liza and her brother study in BPSU; or of a whole phrase or clause as in Who should be qualified is uncertain. The predicate may consist of a single verb as in Bataan falls, or of two or more verbs, possibly separated from each other, as in the sentence, They examined the documents and sorted them; or of group of verbs such as an auxiliary verbs and the main verb, as in He has been reading all day; or of the main verb and a complement, as in She is an interesting person. A predicate must contain a finite verb. Participles, gerunds, and infinitives are verb forms but are not finite. A group of words containing no other verb forms than one of these verbals has no predicate and therefore is not a sentence. Sentences Classified according to Form The simple sentence. A simple sentence contains a subject and a predicate either or both of which may be compound, with words or phrases which belong to them grammatically. Elsa sings is a simple sentence consisting of a subject Elsa and a predicate sings both without modifiers. The sentence Elsa and Manny sing and dance is a simple sentence with a compound subject and a compound predicate. From the traditional point of view, the following is a simple sentence:

A leader, coveting power or property could, with propaganda, instill in his subjects admiration for warlike attitudes. The simple subject is leader and the simple predicate could instill. The Compound Sentence. A compound sentence is one in which two or more independent clauses are joined. There are three primary ways by which the independent clauses of a compound sentence may be joined: (1) by the coordinate conjunctions --- and, but, for, or, nor; (2) by conjunctive adverbs --- accordingly, besides, hence, however, moreover, nevertheless, so, still, then, therefore, thus. Of course these conjunctive adverbs have other uses than to connect the two independent clauses of compound sentences; or (3) by a relation in ideas so close and obvious that no connective is needed; instead a semicolon takes the place of a connecting word. Examples: The meeting had already started, but he was not there. It was a difficult assignment; nevertheless, she did it. I will do shopping early; I cannot wait for you. A compound sentence must be distinguished from a compound predicate. Simple sentence with a compound predicate: She entered and saw it. Compound Sentence: Some firemen unrolled the hose, and others placed a ladder against the burning building. The Complex Sentence. A complex sentence contains an independent clause and at least one dependent (or subordinate) clause. A complex sentence must contain at least one adjective clause or one adverbial clause or one noun clause. An adjective clause is introduced by a relative pronoun, who, which, what, or that; or

by its equivalent like where or when. An adverbial clause is introduced by any of the subordinating conjunctions. A noun clause is introduced by such words as that, how, why, as in the sentences: I see that you are happy, I asked how she did it, and I wonder why she left. The Compound-Complex Sentence. a compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. She left because she could not see you; later she came back and brought flowers. Sentences Classified according to Meaning and Purpose In terms of meaning and purpose, sentences are classified as declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory. A declarative sentence states a fact or asserts something. An interrogative sentence asks a question. An imperative sentence expresses a command or entreaty. An exclamatory sentence expresses a strong emotion. Declarative: The summer season has begun. Interrogative: Where shall we start? Imperative: Come at once. Exclamatory; How wonderful you are! Sentences Classified According to Arrangement of Content Sentences under this classification are either loose or periodic; they may be balanced. A periodic sentence is one in which the main idea is withheld until the end of the sentence. we read the sentence with a certain degree of suspense as we await the principal thought preceded by subordinate

ideas. In contrast, the loose sentence states its principal thought at the outset, and that is followed by explanatory or qualifying ideas. A loose sentence can be clipped at certain points and still be grammatically complete. On the other hand, a periodic sentence is grammatically complete only after the last word is read. This is not to say that periodic sentences are to be preferred to loose sentences. In fact, there are far more loose sentences than periodic sentences in English. Although the periodic sentence structure is cumulative or climactic in its effect and therefore is rhetorical, too many periodic sentences in one composition would be tedious if not annoying. An occasional periodic sentence imparts vigor to writing style, but an excess of periodic sentences would be irritating. Periodic and Effective: As womens sense of their freedom to make choices grows, the importance of what women have done and been in the past will acquire a new visibility. - Margaret Mead Loose and Effective: Women are trapped in their present conception of a home as a very private place from which everyone but their husbands and children are excluded. - Margaret Mead A balance sentence emphasizes the similarity or contrast between two ideas by expressing these ideas in parallel construction. The hand that rocks the cradle is the hands that rule the world. - William Ross Wallace Truth is beauty; beauty is truth. - John Keats CASE

Case is a change in the form of a noun or pronoun to indicate its relation to other words in a sentence. there are three cases in English: nominative (subjective), genitive (possessive), accusative (objective). In languages like Latin and German, the case endings of the nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative (and the ablative in Latin) are important clues. In English, however, case is much less useful as a grammatical case. English adjectives do not take endings; nouns have two forms of endings a genitive and a common form that serves for all other relationships students students and the personal pronouns have three case endings a nominative, genitive, and accusative (or objective): I my me. The case relation of nouns and pronouns to other sentence elements is expressed through word order. For example, an accusative object follows its verb or prepositions. Nominative Case 1. The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case. He was not manipulated by flatterers. We are speaking of technology transfer. 2. A predicate complement is in the nominative case. It was she. (Not her) Is it you who are going? Note; It is me (its me) are used in colloquial spoken English and informal writing. It is I (Its I) is used by careful speakers and writers in formal situations. Accusative (Objective Case)

3. The object of a verb or preposition is in the accusative (objective case). Whom do you mean? (Who do you mean is colloquial) When she said that to me. I couldnt help laughing. Does that rule apply to us freshmen? 4. The subject, object, or objective complement of an infinitive is in the accusative case. The newsletter reported him to be dead. (Him is the subject of the infinitive to be and not the object of reported) She imagined the writer to be me. (Me is the predicate complement of to be) The student whom I thought to be mediocre surpassed my expectations. (Whom is the subject of to be) 5. An appositive should be in the same case as its antecedent. All are going he, she, and we two. (nominative) She spoke to some of us namely, her and me. (accusative) We all met she, her mother, and I. (nominative) 6. An elliptical clause of comparison preceded by than or as requires the case called for by the expanded construction. She reads faster than I. (Than I Than I read.) I can do it as well as they. (As they as they can do it.) I should see you more frequently than her. (Than her Than I should see her.) Genitive (Possessive Case) 7. A noun or pronoun linked with a gerund should preferably be in the genitive case. She appreciates your coming too see her.

He bought me tickets to the sarzuela without my asking him. They objected to his being here. Note: Although this rule is not universally followed by all writers, it pays to use the genitive case form with the gerund because it is not ambiguous, whereas the accusative form is. When the use of a genitive is awkward, the sentence should be recast. Note also the difference between the possessive-with-gerund and noun-withparticiple constructions: I heard of your appealing for support. (Gerund) I heard you appealing for support. (participle) 8. Do not attribute possession to an inanimate object; use an of-phrase. Awkward: The tables front legs are wobbly. Better: The front legs of the table are wobbly. Note: This rule should not be followed if it violates good idiomatic usage. The following expressions, for example, are acceptable: at my wits end; the laws delay; todays paper; a pesos worth, a stones throw. AGREEMENT OF SUBJECT AND VERB The subject and the verb of a typical English sentence are considered its backbone. The subject provides the starting point and the verb specifies the action, state, feeling, or existence of whatever is named by the subject. Except in inverted order, the subject stands before the verb. A verb agrees with its subject in number and person. What this means is that the grammatical number

of the subject should agree with the grammatical form of the verb. Except for the verb b, English verbs have one form for both numbers and for all persons except an s in the third regular present. Singular: I am happier than usual. A table is beside the window. The project took five weeks to finish. The project takes five weeks to finish. Plural: We are happier than usual. Tables are beside the window. The projects took five weeks to finish. The projects take five weeks to finish. Most nouns and verbs form their plurals in opposite ways. Nouns usually form their plurals by adding s, -es, -ies; book, books; mass, masses; country, countries. On the other hand, most verbs do not add s, -es, or ies to agree with the a plural noun subject. Instead most verbs add an s in the third person singular: he drives, they drive, she talks, the girls talk. Many forms of nearly all verbs show a difference in number. Examples: Singular is was has takes has taken Plural are were have take have taken

1. A verb must agree with its subject in person and number. The students want to see you. (Students and want are in the third person and are plural in number) The student wants to see you. (Student and wants are in the third person and are singular in number) 2. A verb does not agree with a word which intervenes between it and the subject. Wrong: A new list of rules have been issued.

Right: A new list of rules has been issued. (The subject of verb is list not rules.) Wrong: You, the moderator, is supposed to guide the discussion. Right: You, the moderator, are supposed to guide the discussion. (Are agrees with the subject you, not moderator.) 3. Singular pronouns require singular verbs. the following indefinite pronouns are singular: another, anybody, anyone, anything, everyone, either, many a one, nobody, no one, neither, somebody, someone. Each of the students requires attention. (The singular verb requires agrees with its subject each, not with the intervening noun students.) Someone is coming. One of you is expected to go. (Is agrees with one, not with you) Note: None requires a singular verb when it refers to a mass noun; none requires a plural verb when it refers to a countable noun. She examined ten books, but none of them were in English. None of the students told their parents. None of the rice was saved. None of the work is finished. 4. A noun plural in form but singular in meaning requires a singular verb. Note: Authorities on usage differ, but a good rule to follow is this: When in doubt, use a singular verb. The following are usually considered singular: economics, ethics, mathematics, mechanics, mumps, news, physics, politics, whereabouts. Mathematics is too difficult for him. The news is disappointing.

Note: A subject indicating a quantity or number requires a singular verb when the subject is regarded as a unit. Two kilometers is long enough. Ten pesos was hard to earn in my barrio. 5. Two, or more subjects joined by and require a plural verb. Adobo and mongo are his favorite food. Betty and her friend are arriving today. Note: When two subjects are closely related in thought, a singular verb is used. The sum and substance of his view is clear. Rice and fish is the staple food there. 6. Two or more singular subjects joined by or or nor require a singular verb. Wrong: Neither he nor she are here. Right: Neither he nor she is here. Right: Neither he nor she is here. Wrong: Every young man or woman are taken for what they are. Right: Every young man or woman is taken for what he or she is. Note: If the subjects differ in number or person, the verb agrees with the nearer of the two. Neither he nor they know. (Know agrees with the nearer subject they) Either she or I am going. (Am agrees with I) 7. Relative pronouns with plural antecedent require plural verbs. Each of those who want to come is required to pay. (Who refers to those, which is a plural antecedent and agrees with the plural verb want. Try rearranging the sentence and this fact will become clear, thus: Of those who want to come, each is required to pay.)

He is one of the most active members who have been with us. (The relative pronoun who refers to the plural antecedent members; it agrees with have, a plural verb. Rearranged version: Of the most active members who have been with us, she is one.) Note: The verb in a subordinate clause is singular if only or a similar word precedes one. She is the only one of those absent who is excused. 8. A verb agrees with its subject, not with predicate noun. Wrong: The main part of this machine are the large rollers. Right: The main part of this machine is the large rollers. Wrong: The large rollers is the main part of this machine. Right: The large rollers are the main parts of this machine. Note: After the expletive there the verb is singular or plural according to the number of the subject that follows. The expletive it requires a singular verb. It is a privilege to be with you. 9. A collective noun requires a singular verb when the group is though of as a unit; it requires a plural verb when the individuals in the group are thought of separately. Right: The audience was gathering quickly. Right: The audience were of conflicting opinions on the issue. Right: The class has decided to adopt the resolution. Right: The class have been consulted about the resolution.

10. Words and phrases introduced by including, with, together with, in addition to, as well as, no less than, and not, or but not which come between the subject and the verb do not affect the number of the verb. Wrong: This steak with onions taste good. This steak withy onions tastes good. (with onions is a parenthetical addition and does not make the subject plural.) AGREEMENT OF PRONOUN AND ITS ANTECEDENT The word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers to is called its antecedent. She is one person whom I trust. (The antecedent of whom is the word person) He gave me a batch of papers which he asked me to correct. (The antecedent of which is the phrase a batch of papers.) Hes a good cook, which nobody can deny. (The antecedent of which is the clause Hes a good cook.) A pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number, gender, and person. Singular: The girl came with her parents. (feminine gender, third person) Plural: The girls came with their parents. (third person) Singular: The man brought his camera. (masculine gender, third person) Plural: The men brought their cameras. (third person) First Person: I wish you had told me earlier. Second Person: You should have brought it yourself. Third Person: The woman revealed that she was over forty. 1. Singular pronouns refer to singular antecedents. Anyone may be absent if he has a good excuse. Every book is in its place.

Everyone finished his work before the end of the hour. 2. A pronoun agrees with the nearer of two antecedents. He likes anything or anybody who can help him. He likes anybody or anything which can help him. Neither Ricky nor his companions would admit that they cared to come. 3. When the antecedent of a pronoun is a collective noun, the pronoun is either singular or plural depending on the sense of the sentence. The council postponed the date of its meaning. (As a unit) The council welcomed their guests. (As individuals) 4. Two or more nouns preceded by a single article take a singular verb. The barber and surgeon the same person in the Middle Ages. The barber and the surgeon are different individuals today. The President and Armed Forces commander-in-chief was busy during the flood. MOOD Mood (or mode) denotes the manner in which an action or a state is expressed by the verb. English verbs may express one of three moods indicative, imperative and subjunctive. The indicative mood is ordinarily used to make a statement of fact or ask a question regarding a fact. It is also used in a conditional clause introduced by if or unless when one is positive that the condition states a fact.

The books are on your study table. (Statement of fact) Where are the books? (Question of fact) If he is sick, he should be excused. (Condition states a fact) The verb forms used to express the indicative mood are the most commonly used forms. The imperative mood is used to express a command or request. Close the door. (command) Please be on time so that we can leave early. (Polite command) Join our club and invite your friends too. (Request) The verb in the imperative mood has only one form, and it is the same as the present infinitive without to: leave, write, run, do, be, etc. The subjunctive mood is used to express the following: a. Condition contrary to fact. If I were you, I would tell the truth. If I were not training hard, we could go out without an umbrella. b. A wish, a desire, or a demand. I wish he were my adviser. God be with you always. I demand that he be left alone. c. A parliamentary notion I move that the meeting be adjourned. Resolved, that all members of the club be made to do social work. d. A supposition If you were falsely accused, what would you do? Assuming he were here, would he approve this proposal? e. Doubt or Uncertainty She sometimes acts as if she were the only intelligent person around here.

If she were that smart, she would LINKING AND AUXILIARY VERBS have won the prize. f. Necessity to be to have It is necessary that he take the final Principal Parts: was been have had had exam to pass the course. It is expected that every citizen obey INDICATIVE MOOD the laws. g. A highly improbable situation to be Were he elected treasurer, Singular the Plural business would collapse. Present Tense First Person: I am we Do not shift the mood of verbs in parallel Second Person: you are you constructions. Third Person: he is (she, it) they

to do do did

done

are

Inconsistent: If he were here and was Past Tense informed about your proposal, First Person: he wouldInot was we agree to it. Second Person: you were you were Consistent:Third If he Person: were here and were he was they informed about your proposal, he would not agree to it. Future Tense First Person: I shall be we shall be The following outlines of the Second Person: you will be you will be auxiliary verbs toThird be, to have, and tohe do Person: will be they will be show the different forms of the verb in the indicative and subjunctive mood. (from the Present Perfect Tense book A Complete in Freshman FirstCourse Person: I have been we have been th English by Harry Shaw, 4 edition. Pages Second Person: you have been you have been 288-289) Third Person: he has been they have been Past Perfect Tense First Person: Second Person: Third Person: First Person: Second Person: Third Person: I had been you had been he had been we had been you had been they had been

Future Perfect Tense I shall have been we shall have been you will have been you will have been he will have been they will have been SUNJUNCTIVE MOOD to be Singular Plural Present Tense (if) I (if) we (if) you be (if) you (if) he (she, it) (if) they Past Tense (if) I (if) you (if) he (she, it) (if) we (if) you (if) they

First Person: Second Person: Third Person: First Person: Second Person: Third Person:

be

were

were

The use of the indicative and imperative moods give students little trouble, and the use of the subjunctive mood is slowly disappearing. But formal usage still employs the subjunctive whenever the indicative would not serve. As shown in the paradigm above, were and be are the only forms of the subjunctive. TENSE Tense, indicates the time of the action or state of being expressed by a verb. There are six basic tenses in English, and they are expressed in various forms. The primary tenses, or simple tenses are: 1. Present to indicate an action taking place at the time of speaking. Example: I go. 2. Past to indicate an action that took place at a specific previous time. Example: I went. 3. Future to indicate an action that is to take place at some future time. Example: I shall go. The secondary tenses, or perfect tenses, are the present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect.

(Note: These three tenses always indicate completed action.) 1. Present Perfect to indicate an action begun in the past and completed within a period of time embracing the time of speaking. Example: I have arrived. 2. Past Perfect to indicate an action begun in the past and completed before another past event, expressed or implied. Example: I had arrived before he called. 3. Future Perfect to indicate an action that will be completed before some indicated time or event in the future. Example: I shall have gone before you came. The same tense relation may be graphically illustrated, thus: Past Perfect Past

Present: I see (am seeing). Past: I saw (was seeing). Future: I shall see (shall be seeing). Present Perfect: I have seen (have been seeing). Past Perfect: I had seen (had been seeing). Future Perfect: I shall have seen (shall have been seeing). Passive Voice Present: I am seen (am being seen). Past: I was seen (was being seen). Future: I shall be seen. Present Perfect: I have been seen. Past Perfect: I had been seen. Future Perfect: I shall have been seen. Verbals (Non-finite Verb Forms) Present Infinitive: Perfect Infinitive: Present Participle: Past Participle: Perfect Participle: to see to have seen seeing seen having seen

Uses of the Simple Present Tense A. To state permanent truths and generalizations Rivers contain freshwater. Experience teaches us many things. Present Perfect Present B. To make statements of present facts. Water contains hydrogen and oxygen. Hawaii consists of seven large islands. Future Perfect Future C. To express customs and habitual actions. The parish council meets every first Sunday of the month. Uses of the Continuous Present or Perfect Progressive The following list should be carefully noted: Active Voice A. To express action in process at the moment of speaking.

The Textbook Committee is meeting now. I speak several languages, but I am speaking English now. B. To describe a situation existing at present. As I write this portion of my journal, I am sitting in my favorite leather chair. My sister sitting opposite me, is reading a book, while her two sons are working seriously at their new picture puzzles. A cold wind is blowing outside, but we feel warm and comfortable in our cozy living room. C. To indicate an activity or situation that is continuing over a period of time. This year, I am studying natural science, English, mathematics, and history at Bataan Peninsula State University. I am living in a small apartment near campus. Here, I have fewer interruptions in my studies. I am working harder than I did last year, but I am enjoying my work. Uses of the Simple Past A. To make a generalization or statement of fact which was true at one time but is no longer true. Large trees grew by the river in years past. My mothers garden contained many varieties of flowers when I was a child. B. To make assertions about past conditions or events. I did not enjoy the concert last night.

The auditorium was very warm because the air-conditioner broke down. Uses of the Present Perfect A. To express an action or condition that began in the past and has continued to the present or has just been completed. I was in Los Angeles for a year. (The speaker is no longer there) I have been in Los Angeles for a year. (The speaker is still in Los Angeles up to the present) B. To express an action or a condition which has (or has not) occurred in the past and which may or may not occur again in the future. I did not see the circus. (The circus has left town. There is no possibility of seeing it in the town now.) I have not seen the circus. (The circus is still in town. The speaker may yet see it.) C. To express recency of action or condition. I have just rewritten my theme. (The action has just been completed.) The guests have just left. D. To indicate that an act was complete before the moment of speaking. Can you submit your report by tomorrow? Yes, I have finished it. Uses of the Past Perfect When the writer or speaker refers to an event that happened before another event in the past or to a condition that continued up to a time in the past, the past perfect tense is used. We had just finished supper when the unexpected guests came. The hunters searched for the trail. In their eagerness to follow the deer, they had lost all sense of direction.

Uses of the Future Perfect The future perfect is used to express an action or a condition that will be completed at a future time or a condition in the future which will be finished before another future event. He will have left for the Visayas before we get our pay. The textbook will have been printed before the school year opens. Special Uses and Sequence of Tenses A. Statements permanently true are regularly put in the present tense even when illogically used with the tense of the main verb Corn grows well in fertile soil. The early settlers found that crops grow well in fertile soil. B. The present tense is commonly used in discussing literary works. Charles Dickens introduces one eccentric character after another. In David Copperfield, Dickens draws heavily on his early experiences. David represents Dickens himself, who had many hardships as a boy. Note: The past tense had is used in the second example above to refer to events in the authors life. C. In indirect discourse the present tense of direct discourse is changed to a past tense, and the past tense of direct discourse is changed to a past perfect tense. Direct: he said: I am unable to comply with your request. Indirect: He told me that he was unable to comply with my request.

Direct: Father said sharply: I told you before not to molest the bees. Indirect: Father said sharply that he had told me before not to molest the bees. Note: This does not apply when the statement in indirect discourse is a permanent condition or universal truth.. Direct: The lecturer said, Light travels faster than sound. Indirect; The lecturer said that light travels faster than sound. D. When narration in the past tense is interrupted for reference to a preceding event, use the past perfect tense. Last summer they repaired the streets which had been damaged by the floods in the rainy season. The book I meant had been published in Boston. E. Use the present tense of an infinitive or of a participle to express action taking place at the exact time indicated by the principal verb present, past, or future; use the past tense to express action completed at a time prior to that of the principal verb. Wrong: I should have liked to have been present at your party. Right: I should have liked to be present at your party. Wrong: I planned to have written you before I left the city. Right: I planned to write you before I left the city. Right: Lying close to the ground, he kept himself concealed from the enemy. Right: Having missed the train, I decided to go by automobile. PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS The principal parts of an English verb are the present (present infinitive), the past tense, and the past participle. It is best to associate these parts of the verb with the following expressions:

I see today. I saw yesterday. I have seen every day this week. 1. Do not misuse the past tense and past participle. Wrong: He drunk the whole cup. Right: He drank the whole cup. Wrong: The rain has fell all day. Right: The rain has fallen all day. 2. Do not confuse a strong verb with a weak verb. Verbs forming their past tense form past participle by adding d, -ed, or en; the infinitive are called weak; thus forming their parts by a change in their vowels without any addition are called strong verbs. Wrong: He drived slowly. Right: He drove slowly. Wrong: He chhosed another book. Right: He chose another book. The following (ibid. pp. 321-322) verbs should be carefully studied: Present Tense arise bear bear begin bid bid bite blow break burst catch choose come deal do draw drink Past Future Tense Tense arose arisen bore borne (to carry) bore born (given birth to) began begun bid bid (as in auction) bade bidden(as in a command) bit bitten blew blown broke broken burst burst caught caught chose chosen came come dealt dealt did done drew drawn drank drunk

drown eat fall flow fly forget Present Tense get go hang hang know lay lie lie lead lend loose lose pay proved raise ride rise run set sing sit speak swim take tear wake wear wring write

drowned ate fell flowed flew forgot Past Tense got went hung hanged knew laid lay lied led lent loosed lost paid proved raise rode rose ran set sang sat spoke swam took tore woke wore wrung wrote

drowned eaten fallen flowed flown forgotten Future Tense got (gotten) gone hung (an object) hanged (a person) known laid lain (to recline) lied (a falsehood) led lent loosened lost paid proved raise ridden risen run set sung sat spoken swum taken torn woke worn wrung written

ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Adjectives and adverbs are usually treated together since they are both modifiers. An adjective limits or describes a noun or pronoun ; an adverb limits or describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. In spite of this distinction,

adjectives and adverbs usually confused for each other. The confusion arises from the fact that some adjectives and adverbs have identical form. Note the following examples (adapted from Harris Ward Wilsons The University Handbook, New York: Holt and Winston, 1963, p. 135): Adverb Deep in the canyon, he found uranium. Ill see you early next week. How far is it to Tabuk, Kalinga Apayao? Hold fast until hope comes. Try hard to do your best. I just arrived. Do what is right. Drive slow when it rains. You have been well advised. More confusion stems from the fact that most words ending in ly are adverbs, but womanly and holy, for example, are adjectives. Furthermore, some adverbs have two forms which have exactly the same meaning. The current tendency favors the use of the form without ly in speaking and writing informally. In more formal usage, however, the ly form is preferred . late lately The train come late. hard harder He was hard-pressed. just justly I have just come. right rightly Come right in. Common usage; acceptable: Drive slow. Speak loud and clear. Correct: You should drive slowly on rainy days. On the platform you should speak loudly and clearly. Other adverbs have the same form but differ in meanings or shades of meaning. (ibid, p. 136) He has been ill lately. I can hardly see.

He decided the issue justly. He was rightly criticized. 1. Do not use an adjective to modify a verb. Wrong: He looked angry about him. Right: he looked angrily about him. 2. Do not use an adjective to modify another adjective. Wrong: He is real good listener. Right: He is a really good listener. 3. After certain verbs, particularly those of sense perception such as look, sound, smell, taste, and fee, use an adjective if the modifier refers to the subject; use an adverb if the modifier limits or describes the verb. Wrong: She feels finely this morning. Right: She feels fine this morning. (Adjective) Wrong: She feels strong that she is underpaid. Right: She feels strongly that she is underpaid. (Adverb) 4. Use accurately adjectives ending in ly, and especially those words that may be either adjectives or adverbs. Correct: The topic is timely. (Adjective) He donated a goodly sum. (Adjective) She took a kindly interest in the student. (Adjective) She kindly overlooked his mistake. (Adverb) 5. Use comparatives and superlatives accurately. Both adjectives and adverbs may be arranged in form to show a greater or lesser degree of the quality they indicate. In formal writing the comparative degree of an adjective or adverb is used in speaking of two persons or things. The change is indicated by the er ending or by the use of adverbial modifiers (more, less). The superlative degree is used to show relationships

among three or more persons, objects, or ideas. The change comes in the form of the est ending or by the use of modifiers (most, least). Adjective: Comparative: She is the older of two children. Superlative: She is the oldest of three children. Adverb: Comparative: She dances more gracefully than I. Superlative: She dances the most gracefully of them all. Certain adjectives and adverbs are logically incapable of comparisons, for they name absolute qualities: unique (adjective), uniquely (adverb), perfect (adjective), perfectly (adverb), circular (adjective), circularly (adverb), excellent (adjective), excellently (adverb). These cannot be compared.

Faulty: Todays work is more easier than yesterdays. Preferred: Todays work is easier than yesterdays. PRONOUNS For the foreign student of English, pronouns cause a great deal of problems. Refer to the discussion of pronouns earlier in this lecture. 1. Do not confuse the relative pronouns who, which and that. When referring to person, use who (or whom). In referring to things, use which. When in doubt, use that. Right: The student who came yesterday is here. The person whom you saw is my girlfriend. The book which I bought is expensive. The gift that I have in mind is for you. Make the antecedent of each pronoun clear. In formal usage every pronoun must clearly refer to its antecedent. Do not use a pronoun instead of a noun if there can be doubt about its antecedent. Uncertain: He told his father he would soon get a bonus. Clear: He told his father, I will soon get a bonus. CONJUNCTIONS As pointed out earlier in this lecture, a conjunction is a word used to join words, phrases and clauses. As a connecti9ng word its sole function is to link two elements. A conjunction is either coordinate or subordinate. Refer to the earlier discussion on conjunctions.

Illogical: His shooting was the most perfect in basketball history. Logical: His shooting was the most nearly perfect in basketball history. Illogical: He has the most unique method of teaching. Logical: His method of teaching is unique. Note: Avoid including the subject compared if the subject is part of the object with which it is compared. Faulty: He is younger than any student in the class. Preferred: He is younger than any other student in the class. Avoid the double comparative.

1. Do not misuse coordinate conjunctions. Wrong: I did not want you to go, and you did. Right: I did not want you to go, but you did. Wrong: You are absolutely wrong, but you must take the consequences. Right: You are absolutely wrong, and you must take the consequences. 2. Do not misuse subordinate conjunctions. Wrong: That student made a 1 in English 104 and he worked hard. Right: That student made a 1 in English 104 because he worked hard. That student made a 1 in English, and I see that he is happy. 3. In formal writing avoid the use of like as a conjunction. Careful speakers and writers still consider like a preposition. Informal: I did it like she told me. Formal: I did it as she told me. Formal: You look as if you were excited about something. 4. In formal writing never use while to express contrast. Inexact: Mer is intelligent, while his brother John is stupid. Better: Mer is intelligent, but his brother John is stupid. Inexact: A married man must support his family while a single man has only himself to think of. Better: A married man must support his family, whereas a single man has only himself to think of.

The points to be made in this section apply especially after you have copyread what you have written. This section deals with three types of rewriting problems. For convenience, they are referred to as rules or guidelines for (1) correcting, (2) clarifying, and (3) revising your sentences. It is assumed that you are capable of relating them to your own particular needs. I. CORRECTING THE SENTENCE PERIOD FAULT A word, phrase, or clause is not usually punctuated as a complete sentence. if it is but is not meant to stand alone, what you have is a sentence fragment, and your error is called the period fault. Although sentence fragments are used with good effect by eminent writers in English, theirs are the exception rather than the rule. As a general rule, avoid injudicious use of sentence fragments. Rule 1a. Do not write a dependent clause as sentence. Adverbial and adjective clauses are sometimes mistaken for complete sentences. For example: Period Fault: I was feeling sad and discouraged. When Paz suddenly came to tell me that I had won. Right: I was feeling sad and discouraged when Paz suddenly came to tell me that I had won. In the example above, When Paz suddenly is a dependent (adverbial) clause mistaken for a complete sentence. the sentence is corrected by simply removing the period and the capital letter and joining the clause to the preceding sentence. COMMA FAULT The use of a comma to join two sentences is an error called a comma fault or comma splice.

REWRITING THE SENTENCE

Rule 1b. Do not write two sentences with only a comma between them. A comma fault may be corrected by (1) changing the comma to a semicolon or a period, (2) inserting an appropriate word or conjunction, or (3) subordinating one of the parts to the other. The following examples show some remedies: Comma Fault: My friend Myra now studies at the Bataan Peninsula State University, this is the largest university in Central Luzon. Correction: My friend Myra now studies at the Bataan Peninsula State University. This is the largest university in Central Luzon. Improved: My friend Myra now studies at the Bataan Peninsula State University which is the largest university in Central Luzon. Comma Fault: The acacia trees on the campus are now tall and shady, they were planted in 1949 when the university moved from Padre Paura to Diliman. Correction: The acacia trees on the campus are now tall and shady; they were planted in 1949 when the university moved from Padre Paura to Diliman. FUSED SENTENCES When two sentences are run together without any punctuation between them, the error is known as fused sentence. Rule 1c. Do not write two sentences without any punctuation mark between them. A fused sentence may be corrected by the same remedies as those for the comma fault. For example: Fused Sentence: I wasnt feeling well I didnt go to school. Correction: I wasnt feeling well. I didnt go to school. Improved: Because I wasnt feeling well, I didnt go to school.

Fused Sentence: He looked at his watch it was ten oclock. Correction: He looked at his watch. It was ten oclock. Improved: It was ten oclock by his watch. DEPENDENT CLAUSES MISUSED As pointed out in the review of grammar lecture, a dependent clause may function as a noun, as an adjective, or as an adverb. Be careful, therefore, to observe this distinction in function. Rule 1d. Do not carelessly use an adverbial clause as a noun clause. Faulty: I read in the BPSU Newsletter where there has been a delay in the appointment of the Defender editor. Better: I see in the BPSU Newsletter that there has been Rule 1e. Do not use an adverbial clause in place of a noun. Faulty: Leukemia is when there is excessive production of white blood cells in the body. Better: Leukemia is a disease characterized by the excessive production of white blood cells in the body. Rule 1f. Use a noun clause or noun phrase, not a sentence, as the subject or complement of is and was. Faulty: He was confined in the University Clinic was the reason for his long absence. Better: That he was confined was the reason for his long absence. Still Better: His confinement was the reason for his long absence. Faulty: Her only excuse for not coming to my party was she did not have a new dress to wear. Better: Her only excuse for not coming to my party was that she had no new dress to wear. II. CLARIFYING THE SENTENCE

WORD ORDER To make your meaning clear to the reader, arrange the parts of your sentence such that their relations are logical and exact. A good general rule to follow is: Rule 2a. Place modifiers, whether words, phrases, or clauses, as close as possible to the words they modify. Such adverbs as only, hardly, almost, nearly, etc., should stand immediately before the element modified. For example: Vague: He only worked half a day. (Does only refer to He, worked, or half a day?) Exact: He worked only half a day. (Unmistakably, only here refers to half a day) Rule 2b. Avoid squinting modifiers. A word that may modify either what precedes or what follows is called a squinting modifier. For example: Vague: I firmly resolved the next day to start studying. Exact: The next day I firmly resolved to start studying. Or: I finally resolved to start studying the next day. Rule 2c. Avoid ambiguous placement of phrases and clauses. When phrases and clauses are misplaced, the result can be unintendedly funny. For example: Vague and unintendedly humorous: The police repairman was arrested. Exact: The repairman of the policeman was arrested. Rule 2d. Avoid dangling modifiers.

A modifier is said to dangle when the words it modifies is missing or is hidden somewhere in the sentence. the ambiguity caused by a dangling modifier may be clarified by (1) supplying the word modified, (2) expanding the phrase into a clause, or (3) reordering the sentence. Dangling: After pulling my tooth, I left the dentists office. Improved: After the dentist pulled my tooth, I left his office. Dangling: To be sure of your spelling, the dictionary should be consulted. Improved: To be sure of your spelling, consult the dictionary. Dangling: When only six years old, my mother enrolled me in Grade One. Improved: When I was only six years old, my mother enrolled me Dangling: The bus was crowded, thus causing me to become dizzy. Improved: The stifling atmosphere in the crowded bus made me dizzy. SPLIT CONSTRUCTIONS The wrong placement of modifiers or the awkward separation of closely related sentence elements is called a split construction. Rule 2e. Do not aimlessly separate the parts of a verb phrase. Aimless: I have never in all my life seen such a beautiful orchid. Improved: Never in all my life have I seen such a beautiful orchid. Or: I have never seen such a beautiful orchid in all my life. Rule 2f. Place coordinate sentence elements together. Aimless: With good luck we should have a good harvest this year with Gods help. Improved: With good luck and with Gods help, we should have a good harvest this year.

Rule 2g. avoid the unnecessary separation of closely related sentence elements. Unnecessary Split: Mother, not wishing to hurt fathers feelings, agreed. Improved: Not wishing to hurts father feelings, Mother agreed. Rule 2h. Do not split the infinitive unnecessarily. Although the split infinitive is no longer considered an unpardonable sin in writing, still it is avoided in careful writing. A sensible rule to follow is: Split infinitive only when it is necessary to avoid an awkward phrase or to secure a desired emphasis. Awkward: After a while I was able to although not accurately, identify who were the terror teachers. Improved: After a while I was able to identify although not accurately who were the terror teachers. REFERENCE OF PRONOUNS Using pronouns accurately is often harder than using other words. This is because a pronoun refers to something without specifying it. Thus, to complete its meaning, it should refer to some other word or group of words called its antecedent. Rule 3a. Avoid double reference for a pronoun. Vague: The car skidded and crashed into a corner drugstore. It was smashed. (Which was destroyed? The car or the drugstore?) Exact: The car which crashed into the corner drugstore was smashed. Rule 3b. Avoid implied reference for a pronoun. Using a pronoun to refer to an antecedent which has been merely implied

by the preceding words may cause confusion. For example: Vague: Nora has always envied the surgeons life and she decided to be one. Improved: Having envied the life of a surgeon, Nora decided to be one. Rule 3c. Avoid the indefinite use of it and they. The use of it as a pronoun and it as an expletive in the same sentence may result in ambiguity or awkwardness. The use of they without an antecedent results in a lack of clarity caused by wordiness. Vague: It is a critical situation, and it will be difficult to deal with it. (The second it is an expletive.) Improved: The situation is critical and will be difficult to deal with. Vague: They said in the announcement that it is required to plant a tree every month. (Who are they?) Improved: The announcement says that we are required to plant TRANSITION Transition means passage from one position, state, stage, etc., to another. The use of correct transitional expressions makes sentences clear and effective. Transition is of three kinds: within the sentence, between sentences, and between paragraphs. When you rewrite your sentences, remember these rules: Rule 4a. Maker transitions clear by using appropriate words and conjunctions whenever they are needed. Vague: I should not condemn her. I dont really know her that well. Improved: Maybe I should not condemn her since I dont know her that well. Rule 4b. Avoid inexact transition. Inexact: She was so tired and she went to bed without supper.

Better: She was so tired that she went to bed without supper. Inexact: She did not stay long as it was getting dark. Better: She did not stay long because it was getting dark. Rule 4c. Make sentence transitions clear repetition. The repetition of key words important words is an effective means transition between sentences within paragraph or between paragraphs. (Examples to follow) III. REVISING THE SENTENCE CONCISENESS Conciseness is the characteristic of writing or speaking in which there are no unnecessary words or ideas. It can be achieved by reducing predication and avoiding needless repitition of an idea. Rule 5a. Reduce predication by combining two short sentences into one. Wordy: During the elections there were only two parties that contended with each other. The two parties presented their slates of candidates. Improved: During the elections only two parties contended with each other and presented their slates of candidates. Rule 5b. Reduce predication by reducing clauses to phrases or adjectives. Wordy: We agreed that we should start the work the next day. Improved: We agreed to start the work the next day. Wordy: The delegate who came from Batanes arrived late. Improved: The delegate from Batanes arrived late. Even better: The Batanes delegate arrived late. by or of a

Rule 5c. Reduce two or more words to one. Wordy: She always speaks in a very loud voice. Improved: She always speaks very loudly. Wordy: He is a worker who never complains. Concise: He is an uncomplaining worker. Rule 5d. Avoid useless repetition of an idea. Wordy: His recommendations have been taken and accepted without any questions. Improved: His recommendations have been accepted without any questions.