ICEST 2009

25-27 JUNE, 2009, VELIKO TARNOVO, BULGARIA

Voltage Source Inverter Connected to the Grid with Nonlinear Filter Inductor
Georgi Kunov1, Elissaveta Gadjeva2, Dimitar Todorov3
Abstract – In this paper, the grid connected voltage fed inverter with a hysteresis current control is investigated. The influence on the minimal and the maximal commutation frequency for the transistors when applying filter inductor with a nonlinear inductance is a subject of consideration. A computer PSpice macromodel of the nonlinear inductance is developed. A control system, realizing this mode of operation, is presented. The simulation results of the developed control system with a nonlinear inductance are given. Keywords – Full bridge transistor DC-AC Hysteresis limits control system, PSpice simulation converter,

of investigation of the paper is the influence on the minimal and the maximal commutation frequency for the transistors when applying filter inductor with a nonlinear inductance.

II. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF GRID CONNECTED
VOLTAGE INVERTER

I. INTRODUCTION
Many types of voltage fed inverters are used in the contemporary power electronic devices to convert dc to ac. There are two types of inverters: stand-alone and grid connected. These two inverter types have several similarities, but they are different in terms of control function. A standalone inverter is used in off grid applications with battery storage. Grid interactive inverters must follow the voltage and frequency characteristics of the utility generated power presented on the distribution line. A typical application of the grid connected voltage inverter is in the photovoltaic (PV) systems [1]. The main two requirements from the power supply to the inverter are: the requirement for the inverted current to be in same phase with the voltage of the mains network, and the requirement for the inverted current to be with minimal high-order harmonic components. The second requirement means that the waveforms of the inverted current have to be near to sinusoidal signals. In order to obtain sinusoidal current, a number of algorithms for voltage inverter control are used. They are presented in a synthesized form in [2]. In the case of grid connected voltage inverters, the average current mode control [3] and the hysteresis current control [4] are mostly used. In the present paper, the method of hysteresis current control is used. Besides the near to sinusoidal shape of the inverted current and the low values of the high-order harmonics, this method is characterized by a variable commutation frequency of the inverter transistors. A subject
Georgi Kunov is with the Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Technologies, Technical University of Sofia, Klimenrt Ohridski Blvd. 8, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria, E-mail: gkunov@tu-sofia.bg 2 Elissaveta Gadjeva is with the Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Technologies, Technical University of Sofia, Klimenrt Ohridski Blvd. 8, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria, E-mail: egadjeva@tu-sofia.bg 3 Dimitar Todorov is with the Faculty of Electronic Engineering and Technologies, Technical University of Sofia, Klimenrt Ohridski Blvd. 8, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria, E-mail: dgt@tu-sofia.bg
1

The circuit of the grid connected voltage inverter is shown in Fig. 1. The value of the DC source has to be greater than the magnitude of the line voltage in order to ensure normal operation of the circuit. In this manner, the principle of operation of the circuit is reduced to the principle of operation of BUCK DC-DC converter with a load the line voltage.

Eg 1 E GAIN = 3

Q1
IRF460

Q2
IRF460

Eg2 E GAIN = 3
+ -

Vg1

+ -

+ -

Rg1 10 Rcs 1m

Rg2 10

+ -

Vg2 0

0

Lnl 400Vdc
+ -

+ -

V-PV

Ecs E GAIN = 1000 0

GAIN = 1 HIx = 15A HIy = 40mH LOx = 5A LOy = 20mH

Vac
VOFF = 0V VAMPL = 310V FREQ = 50Hz

I

Eg 4 E GAIN = 3

Q4
IRF460

Vcs

Q3
IRF460

Eg 3 E GAIN = 3
+ -

V-N

+ -

+ -

Rg4

1k

Rg3

10

+ -

V-P 0

0 0

Fig. 1. Grid connected voltage inverter

During the positive waveform of the line voltage, the inverter works according to the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 2. In this time-interval the transistors Q2 and Q4 are turnoff, Q3 is turn-on during the whole half-period, and Q1 is commutated by the frequency, defined by the control system. The incorporated reverse diode of the transistor Q4 acts as a free-wheeling diode of the BUCK DC-DC converter.

E Eg 1 GAIN = 3

Q1
IRF460

BUCK-Positive Waveform

Vg1

+ -

+ -

Rg1

10

0 V-PV 400Vdc
Rcs 1m

Irise-positive V_Line Lnl
(+)

(-)

Ecs E GAIN = 1000 0

FREQ = 50Hz VAMPL = 310V VOFF = 0V

Q3
IRF460

+ -

E Eg 3 GAIN = 3
+ -

+

-

Dreve rse /Q4

Vcs

Rg3

10

+ -

V-P

Ifall-positive

0

0

Fig. 2. Equivalent circuit for the positive waveform

503

ICEST 2009
BUCK-Negative Waveform
Q2
IRF460 Eg 2 E GAIN = 3
+ -

25-27 JUNE, 2009, VELIKO TARNOVO, BULGARIA

Rg2 10

+ -

V g2 0

V-PV 400V dc
Eg4 E GAIN = 3 V-N

Rcs 1m

Irise-negative V _Line Lnl
(-)

(+)

Q4
IRF460

Ecs E GAIN = 1000 0

FREQ = 50Hz VAMPL = 310V VOFF = 0V

+ -

+ -

+

-

+ -

Rg4

10

V cs

Dre ve rs e /Q3 Ifall-negative

0

0

Fig. 3. Equivalent circuit for the negative waveform

During the negative waveform of the line voltage, the inverter works according to the equivalent circuit shown in Fig. 3. In this time-interval the transistors Q1 and Q3 are turnoff, Q4 is turn-on during the whole half-period, and Q2 is commutated by the frequency, defined by the control system. The incorporated reverse diode of the transistor Q3 acts as a free-wheeling diode of the BUCK DC-DC converter. The algorithm of operation of the power circuit, described above, is illustrated by the waveforms shown in Fig. 4. The concrete control system with a hysteresis current control [5], realizing the described algorithm, is presented in Fig. 5.

Fig. 4. Illustration of algorithm of operation

III. MODELING OF NONLINEAR INDUCTANCE
A. Description of the parameterized PSpice model of nonlinear inductance The nonlinear dependence Lnl = f(i) shown in Fig. 6 is modeled by the following expression:
Vcs
R1 5.1k D3 D1N4148
11

⎛ abs(i ) − B x ⎞ ⎟ L(i ) = − B y − Ay tanh ⎜ ⎜G ⎟ + LO y + HI y Ax ⎝ ⎠ where HI y − LO y HI + LO y Ay = ; By = y 2 2 HI x − LO x HI + LO x Ax = ; Bx = x 2 2 LO x = i min HI x = i max
LO y = Lmin HI y = Lmax

(1)

The nonlinear inductance model is developed in the form of parameterized subcircuit in two variants: using schematic view and using subcircuit description in text form.
+5V U22 TOPEN = 2us

1 U1A LM319 4 + +12V +5V 2 R3 510 12 3 1 U4A 74HC04 2 U8A 74HC08 3 1 2 1 2 U9A 74HC08 3 R12 10k U12A 74HC32 3 1 2 U14A 74HC00 3 1 2 13 R14 1k

R2 5.1k 5 Rh1 100
V

V+

0
U16A 74HC11 12

OUT V-

G

D4 D1N4148

0 0
U6A 74HC04 2 1 2 U10A 74HC08 3

Vg1

6

-12V U2A LM319 4 R6 5.1k 5 Rh2 1k
V

+12V +5V
11

0

R13

10k

R5 5.1k

D5 D1N4148

1 R7 510

+

V+

1 1 1 2 U11A 74HC08 3 2 U13A 74HC32 3 2 U15A 74HC00 3

OUT V-

12 3

1 2 13

U17A 74HC11

12

Vg2

G

D6 D1N4148

-12V

0
Vcc 12Vdc

+12V Vee 12Vdc

-12V Vdd 5Vdc

+5V 1 2 13 U18A 74HC11 12

0
P ARAM E T ERS:
Vrefvar = 10V R9 10k

11

U3A LM319 4 +

6

+12V +5V R11 510 12 3 1 2 U7A 74HC14

V-P

V+

0
1 2 13 U19A 74HC11 12

Vac-re f
VOFF = 0V VAMPL = {Vref v ar} FREQ = 50Hz

OUT V-

5 R10 10k

G

V-N

-12V

0

0

0

6

Fig. 5. Hysteresis current mode control system

504

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25-27 JUNE, 2009, VELIKO TARNOVO, BULGARIA
L_nonlin

1 IOFF = 0 IAMPL = 20A FREQ = 1kHz

2
Ay = {(@HIy -@LOy )/2} By = {(@HIy +@LOy )/2} Ax = {(@HIx-@LOx)/2} Bx = {(@HIx+@LOx)/2}

Iin
I

GAIN = 2 HIx = 15A HIy = 40mH LOx = 2A LOy = 10mH

0

Fig. 6. The nonlinear dependence Lnl = f(i)
L_nonlin

Fig. 9. Testing of the inductance model

1

2

Fig. 7. Block definition of the inductance model
1

IN- OUTIN+ OUT+ G1 GVALUE {V(L)*I(Vsense)}

VL

1

L1 1

Vsense E2 IN+ OUT+ IN- OUTEVALUE {1*V(VL)} 3

Fig. 10. The modeled dependence L(i)

2

0
L 2 {-@By -(@Ay *TANH(@GAIN*(abs(I(Vsense))-@Bx)/@Ax))+@LOy +@HIy }

In order to test the behavior of the inductance model, the circuit shown in Fig. 9 is used. The sinusoidal independent current source Iin with a amplitude 20A is used. The modeled dependence L(i) is shown in Fig. 10. C. Parameterized PSpice model of nonlinear inductance using subcircuit description in text form In this case the block is connected to the PSpice subcircuit model in text form. The description of the library element has the form: .subckt Lnl1 1 2 Params: Ax=1 Bx=1 Ay=1 + By=1 GAIN=1 LOy=1 HIy=1 Vsense 1 3 0 E_VL 3 2 VALUE={1*V(VL)} E_L L 0 VALUE {-By -(Ay*TANH(GAIN* (abs(I(Vsense))-Bx)/Ax))+LOy+HIy} G_PSI 0 VL VALUE={V(L)*I(Vsense)} L_VL VL 0 1 .ends The block description is in the form: X_Lnl1 %1 %2 Lnl1 PARAMS: Ax={(@HIx@LOx)/2} Bx={(@HIx+@LOx)/2} \n+ Ay={(@HIy-@LOy)/2} By={(@HIy+@LOy)/2} GAIN={@GAIN} \n+ LOy={@LOy} HIy={@HIy} In this way, the block parameters are transferred to the subcircuit. The circuit input file has the form:

Fig. 8. Schematic description of the inductance model

B. Parameterized PSpice model of nonlinear inductance using ABM elements A block definition is used to construct the model as shown in Fig. 7. The schematic description of the model is presented in Fig. 8. The ABM block models the dependence L(i) according to (1), represented by the value V(L) .The dependence L(i) according to (1) is realized by the PSpice expression: {-@By -(@Ay*TANH(@GAIN*(abs(I(Vsense))@Bx)/@Ax))+@LOy+@HIy} The dependent current source G1 models the flux ψ = L(i ).i , represented by the value V(VL)= {V(L)*I(Vsense)} The voltage uL (t ) has the form:

u L (t ) =

dψ L ( t ) d = (L(i L (t )).i L (t )) . dt dt

(2)

uL (t ) is obtained across the inductance L1 in the model shown in Fig. 8. The VCVS E2 is of value {1*V(VL)}. As a result, the block realizes an inductor with nonlinear inductance, connected between nodes 1 and 2.

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Fig. 11. Simulation results for the case of linear inductance – Llin=12mH

Fig. 12. Simulation results for the case of nonlinear inductance – Lnonlin=12mH/10A; Lnonlin=30mH/1A

.LIB ".\lnonl.lib" .lib "nom.lib" .TRAN 0 5ms 0 1u SKIPBP .PROBE V(*) I(*) D(*) R_R1 0 UL 1T X_Lnl1 UL 0 Lnl1 PARAMS: Ax={(15A-1A)/2} + Bx={(15A+1A)/2} Ay={(40mH-10mH)/2} + By={(40mH+10mH)/2} GAIN={2} + LOy={10mH} HIy={40mH} I_Iin 0 UL DC 0Adc AC 0Aac +SIN 0 20A 1kHz 0 0 0 .END

V. CONCLUSION
The grid connected voltage fed inverter with a hysteresis current control has been investigated. The dependence of the minimal and the maximal commutation frequency for the transistors when applying filter inductor with a nonlinear inductance is considered. A computer macromodel of the nonlinear inductance is developed in accordance with the input language of the PSpice simulator and the model description is given. The simulation results of the developed control system with a nonlinear inductance are presented.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The investigations are supported by the R&D project 091ni041-03/2009 with the Technical University of Sofia.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
The simulation results of the grid connected voltage inverter with sine band hysteresis control are shown in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12. It is seen that for the value of linear inductance equal to the nonlinear inductance corresponding to the magnitude value of the sinusoidal current, the commutation frequency of the inverter transistors is the same. As a result of the fact, that the nonlinear inductance value increases when the value of the sinusoidal current i(t) decreases, the commutation frequency of the inverter transistors decreases compared to the case with linear inductance. When using nonlinear filter inductance, the mode of operation is near to the case of the fixed band hysteresis control [4], conserving best shape of the inverter current as in case of sine band hysteresis control.

REFERENCES
[1] Rashid, M.H. (2001) Power Electronics Handbook, Academic Press. [2] L. Rossetto, G. Spiazzi, P. Tenti, "Control techniques for power factor correction converters", Proc. of Power Electronics, Motion Control (PEMC), September 1994, 1310-1318. [3] M. Raou, M. Lamchich, “Average Current Mode Control of a Voltage Source Inverter, Connected to the Grid: Application to Different Filter Cells”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 55, No. 3-4, 2004, 77-82 [4] Ajay T and Paresh C.S, “Comparative analysis of fixed and sinusoidal band hysteresis current controllers for voltage source inverters”. IEEE Trans. On Ind. Electronics, VOL. 39, NO. 1, Feb1992. [5] Anchev M., G. Kunov,G. Staichev, E. Gadjeva, “Investigation of Step Up/Step Down AC/DC Converter with Improved Power Factor”, Intern. Comf. Electronics – ET’2002, September 2002, Sozopol, Bulgaria [6] PSpice User’s Guide, Cadence Design Systems, 2003.

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