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Medieval Instrumental Dance Music Author(s): Joan Rimmer Reviewed work(s): Source: Music & Letters, Vol. 72, No. 1 (Feb.

, 1991), pp. 61-68 Published by: Oxford University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 15/11/2012 16:05
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Though both were concerned with the practice of dance. ed. Timothy J. using a methodologyreminiscentof the magisterial classificatory systems of his earlier professionas a curator of musical instrument collections in Berlin and Cairo. 1989. printed on sturdypaper and spiral-bound. though its overall metrical significance is not defined. Having in one volume a considerable part of the known body of notated dance music frombefore 1430 will no doubt save many students of musicologymuch preliminaryscrabbling through a number of different and not always easily accessible publications. she firstproceeds on her father'sright arm. I view this book . 1937). One must nevertheless add that its usefulnessdepends to a great extent on the recognition bank of the present-dayviewer.50. Bloomington & Indianapolis. As dance music. bonneted in middle age and on the arm of a youngman. The Geschichte der Tanzkunst by the Polish dance-master Albert Czerwinski(Leipzig. then as an elegantly-hattedmarried woman on her husband's arm.a pair of shawms and nakers.72. In fact. This comparatively inexpensive production. but it was written with technical masteryof much contemporarydance. The author pertinently points out that iconographical material is a neglected source of informationnot only about earlier music practice but also about dance. it seems to be an allegoryof a woman's life fromgirlhood to old age.MEDIEVAL INSTRUMENTAL BY JOAN RIMMER DANCE MUSIC COMPAREDwithhistoricalmusicologists. The reverse is the case with TimothyJ.. these. but as a somewhat speculative study along the way to a complete understanding'.it is another matter. as well as a 'counting unit' for each item. From the consumer'spoint of view. too. The text is presented in four sections: 'Dance in the Middle Ages'. But of choreometric structureor stylethere is no hint. and the author's speculative views in the preceding text and the notes.followed by 121 pages of music notations and thirteenpages of notes on these. then on the leftarm of an exquisitelydressedyouth. amply allows forthe scribblingin of personal disagreements withthe transcriptions given here. and finally a sad. (Indiana UniversityPress. 'The Repertoryof Textless Dances'. merelya procession. Curt Sachs. McGee.232 on Thu. heavy and downcast figurein black on the arm of a middle-aged historianshave been thinon the ground and often particular in standpoint. an Italian fresco of c. perhaps her son.since these 48 notationsare unhelpfulto the choreographically uninformed. McGee's collection of westernEuropean dance music. 'Dancing' and 'Performance Practice'. whetherof facsimiles or of earlier transcriptions. ISBN 0-253-33353-9. a slender girl with hair braided down her back.168. who is not known personally to have set foot to floor in any serious sense. . may not depict dancing.presumablyher betrothed. the last referring to musical. 1862) was concerned only with Antiquityand Europe. For example. thereare two distinctproducts here -the hard stuff in the shape of the notations and illustrations. illustratinga scene in the Garden of Delight fromLe Roman de la Medieval Instrumental Dances.' which contains 36 pages of text and fiveillustrations. trans. 1420.Pitch. followed by herself. 15 Nov 2012 16:05:28 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . He cautiously admits that Plate 3. produced a World Hzstoryof the Dance (Eng. however.are listed individually for each item. not as the definitive writingon medieval instrumentaldance music.Plate 4. A lack of foot-on-floor realitypervades the text. New York. To the sound of a pair of long trumpets. . McGee's recognition bank appears to be minimallystocked. not dance performance. In a shortpreface McGee writesmodestly:'This edition contains all the compositionsknown or suspected to be instrumentaldances frombeforeca.. $27.. they provided very few notations of dance music. 1430 . rhythmic interpretation and recurrenceorder (the last not always accurate) are here. perhaps her son in maturity.) 61 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.

for the alternating voices of the entire company and the carole leader. this seems a reasonably accurate depiction of a point in the single branle step pattern. a carole en ligne not actually sung by the turythan of the early thirteenth on two shawms and a bagpipe acting as surrogates participants but performed. which takes only the forthe first and second beats of each unit. It is.plays a mandora. formerfirst one who assumed curious or dangerous poses. But it mightdepict somethingperhaps more characteristicof the late fourteenth century.two young girls imitatesthe pose of a woman performer whisperand embrace. The copy fromwhich this illustrationwas taken was made a hundred years later still. The line is on a labyrinthine figuresof this second dancer have just broken fromit to formthe single-armedarch under which the rest will go. onlyorderlylabour.rose. performableby many more people than are shown in Lorenzetti'spicture and needing the kind of space available out of doors.2 Naturally. these were currentdance types. no is shown. McGee interprets and Plates 1 and 2 as 'dancers holding hands in small and also the figuresin the frontispiece groups.what is commonlyknown as Threading the Needle. withhair bunched up like the tumbler.168. a littlegirl.feetwide apart. A male figure. and Plates in the Garden of Mirth.72.' In fourteenth-century have been needed. It is significantthat ebullient dance manifestations. I In Fra Angelico's The Last Judgement. the dance of angels and the blessed is shown at exactly the same point. It can be as a conflationof some of the several activitiesmentionedin the texton the same interpreted cenpage. shows no social dancing at all. and theyare still identifiable. and the reversefor your left hand) are also clearly shown. But the dances in the other picof textbeneath the frontispiece Florence and Siena. these three depictions cover a considerable stretchof time. These innocent dances of young girls were obviously acceptable to civic authority.part before c. however. sometimeson the shouldersof a man. while a tornatrix.with the rightfootleading instead of the left(this is correctlyshown in the case of the other four participants). The text of Le Roman de la rose was created in the thirteenthcentury. The erect carriage and decorous balancing link between participants (right hand facing down over your neighbour's left hand facing up. were less so. the author identifiesthisperas a young girl and then as a youth.) Furtherrightis another kind of performer.whereas more such as those at Carnival. grasps two more young women by the wrists. nine well-dressedand well-coiffed hand. 1240 and part about 40 years later. Leaving aside forthe momentwhetheror not therewas any such thingas 'the carol'.namely. 2 This has a specific connotation in the physical balance and stability of a communal ring or line. The rightfoot. 15 Nov 2012 16:05:28 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . dance a branle en ligne to the singing of a somewhat older woman who also defines the dance metres with a large tambourine. there is greater detail in the big Italian frescoes. The frontispiecedepicts a dance copy of Le Roman de la rose.balances on the shouldersof a woman and who stands facing her. in the companion fresco. (and stilldoes) balances on her hands.while two mature musicians sit in the background. Apart from the leader's feetbeing shown in reverse. or overlooking it from within doors. To the right. one of the three trackand the leader and farandole typeof dance.a young man. (In a single paragraph.froma fourteenth-century 1 and 2 show details from moralistic frescoesby Andrea Bonaiuto (1365) and Ambrogio the group of fourin Plate 4 (winged figureincluded) Lorenzetti(1337-9).232 on Thu. making gracefulmovementswith theirfeetclose to the floor'. In the agriculturalcycle. midsummer and midwinter-were not necessarilyassociated with public order. Here. 62 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. linked by the littlefingersof each centre. McGee describes the formation as 'under the bridge'. He adds that 'the line speaks of dancing the carol. entitled The Effect of Good Government in the Country.textlessly. is exactly in place to take subsidiaryweightshifts the light backward shifton the thirdbeat. which have symbolic significance but are realistically painted. playing rebec and harp. no identificationwould ture are not identified. On the left. The scene in Lorenzetti's The Effects of Good Governmentin the City(Plate 1) is a large open space in Siena.apparently urging them towards a winged and coroneted figure. with a monkeytetheredat bunched up as her act required withhair tightly his feet. In the young women. the major ritual recreational activity occasions for dance-spring.3 This is essentiallya communal dance. with citizensof many kinds going about their own affairs in the street.

Transcribing medieval notations of dance music-or indeed notations of any unfamiliar dance music-meaningfully into twentieth-century symbolsneeds more than just crackingthe notational codes. Robert Falck & Timothy Rice. Maria Novella. Cross-Cultural Perspectives in Music.This is also the link between a man and two girlsat the right. on fifteenth-century etiquette when dancin1gwith two girls. namely.whether dance functionalor not. Dominican-orientated fresco depicting the Church Militant. too.6 None of McGee's distinguished writersreferredto in the extensivenotes faced squarely the crunch problem in retrospective investigationof Western medieval dance and dance music. c (1973-4). 'Eastern Influences in Medieval European Dance Music'. 15 Nov 2012 16:05:28 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .But appending to them a minuscule speculative studyon the vast subject of dance in westernEurope over more than three centuriesseems an unrealistic no communal carole of ancient lineage but a highlypersonal dance. His text is curiouslyorganized.232 on Thu. is little more than three pages long. There is also the matter of reasonably exact definitionof what is being discussed and of reasonably precise terminology. It is.72. Proceedings of the Royal Musical Association.and. Discussion of the notated items in the section entitled 'The Repertoryof Textless Dances' is sandwiched between the verybriefand generalized sections 'Dance in the Middle Ages' and 'Dancing'. the open-mouthed young man at the rightbeing the was operable short and plain or long and See Antonius Arena. a significantcomponent. and in some cases also decorating. rather. 5 Timothy J.168. 19-31. where there are also many choreographed examples of uneven-sex dances with their undertones of ritualized rivalry. a system of lego-building with several kinds of material simultaneously. byJohn Gtithrie& Marino Zorzi. and somethingof the behavioural codes of which dance habits were. Tail wagging dog? Or just the impossibilityof distilling anythingchoreographically concrete from a mass of largely musicological material? The author has already produced an original study of some musical aspects of one collection. Florence (Plate 2). Like most durable systems.the transcriptionsgiven here are a useful addition to any workinglibrary. with certain reservations. theyare linked by crooked littlefingers. Dance history is no armchair subject. one must also attempt to crack the choreometriccodes enshrined in music and/or texts. 'Parodies and Parameters'.4 Timothy McGee's interpretationof his five illustrations is simplistic to a degree unthinkable in any other academic field. and it has not yet begotten as large a corpus of literatureas has medieval music. appropriate units of music. This. Toronto. prosody and systemsof assembling. like the girls in Siena. While the latter. the relationship between dance metre. in the chapel of S.' and. presentedas a speculative summing up. Dance Research. 14. What is at issue here is not 'sophisticatedart music matching the theoretical descriptions of the formal design of the earlier dance compositions. iv/2 (Autumn 1986). the notes to the text up to that point fill six and a half pages in small type. and dilutionsor distortions of meaning or looser applications. particularlywhen the author has not only omitted some primary factors from his considerations but appears to be unaware of their relevance. 79. 63 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. a good many of them now mean differentthings to differentpeople. 'Leges Dansandi/Rules of Dancing'. 6 See Sir Jack Westrup. again like the girlsin Siena. 100. But even in the musical field. original text with trans. as Timothy McGee describes his later items. however. but. forthe two groups of dancers are engaged in verydifferent kinds of dance.It could no doubt be claimed that the concepts and terms employed have been hallowed by generations of use among literary scholars and musicologists. They have the same erect carriage as the group in the littleillustrationfromLe Roman de la rose. ed. is taken fromthe section depicting a number of earthlypleasures. McGee.The detail from the huge. McGee seems heavily dependent on previous writings. a group of four-two young men and two girls-are engaged in a carole en ronde. for general discussion of this in musical terminology. although rarelyexhibiting the kind of melodic and rhythmic patternsthat would suggest the dances described in the earlier literaryand theoretical accounts'. To the left. theyare dancing to the singingof a separate woman witha large tambourine. and still are. 1982. There is social and choreographic exactitude here. The dancers' demeanour has a hint of aiere as spelt out in Italian dance-masters' books of two generations later. pp. and it is not difficult to see why. But following the disappearance of some of the activitieswhich they once denoted clearly.

Dance Research.0 Ax/y Bx/y etc. Rondeau and Branle in Ireland 1300-1800.9 this was the difficultsocial dance. 25-26. 8 See idem. for one example. danced first forwardstowardsa personage or point then in reverseback to the starting-place. there seems to be no clear perception of the elements involved in dance or how they are analysed. can be plotted that way. the author tends to see similaritieswhere none exist and fails to see some that do exist. forwhich it was once the English equivalent.century. fromwhich most of the French itemsin McGee's book are taken. But the single fragment which is all that remains of the firstEstampie Royal can be plotted thus: Al G2 + + B3 B3 C8 H4 D4 D4 E4 J5 F. though in choreometricaltermsit is necessaryto refineit to ABx/y CDx/y etc. sometimesan exhibitionistsolo man's dance.Dance point of the authors quoted or referred typesare distinguishedas round. Brieflyput. it survivedwell into the seventeenthcentury. Dance Research. the significant how they hang together. When first lished. Part 1: The Walling of New Ross and Dance Texts in the Red Book of Ossory'. and earlier. Throughout the short discussions.168. including the peripheryof the British Isles.. simpler. 64 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Simply counting totals of units of measure is in itselfno more revealingof dance or point is music metrethan syllable or footcounting is revealingof versemetre.72. But withoutany real perception of what mightbe called the structuralmechanics of dance music and of the parameters of tempo outside which it makes no physical sense at all. a dance type which was always in mixed metres. needing personal concentration.. unchoreographed type' is not well founded. 'Dance Elements in Trouvere Repertory'. get. The English term'carol' no longer has the same meaning as carole. The eleven pages on 'The Repertory of Textless Dances' contain the only analytical discussion in the preliminarytext. certain step sequences in mixed dance metrescould fitwith various recurrence patterns of text-plus-music. Moreover. 0 The use of this term in connection with estampze and some other medieval dance forms is inappropriate. vii/I (Spring 1989). It is unhelpful to point out that 'The French estampies have units of measure and are in triple meter. and in any medieval contextit is prudent to stick to the old French must already have been well estabwrittendown in the twelfth fancy. the firstand fourthpuncta of the second Estampie Royal are: 7 See Joan Rimmer. carol and estampie.8In estampie. 30-31. from the fourteenthcenturypart of the manuscript and called simplyDanse. identical choreometricpatterns are veryrare. and in some conservativeregions of Europe. 15 Nov 2012 16:05:28 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . carole was the combination of particular kinds of spatial pattern and particular kinds of group-to-individualrelationshipsin music and text. The thirteendances in the Chansonnier du Roi. and no assessmentof the character and viewto or of the original functionof theirwritings. 9 McGee's suggestion that 'the French estampies were probably of the generic. was a specific dance type. since he has not recognized the nature of their choreometric changes. on the whole.a floorpattern exactly paralleled in the open and closed forms of each section of estampie-reiated music. 'Carole. on the other hand. And using 'w' to representa constant pre-cadential formula. In terms of design (and the author uses this in a purely musical sense) it is not true to say that the Italian estampies are more complex than the French: the author has merelyfailed to identifyvarious kinds of complexity.. while in relativelyshortpuncta of eight to twenty the Italian source theyvary in length fromtwentyto over a hundred units of measure and are all in duple subdivision'if you do not establishwhetherthose subdivisionsare primaryor secondary in relation to the dance metres.232 on Thu. F. It is the first recorded westernEuropean dance typewith what is known as a 'front'. even though these are not comparable categories. The formal principles of French estampie are presented as each punctum consisting of 'completely new melodic material followedby a common open and closed endingsthat act as itsrefrain'. but for a single couple or couples in sequence. 'Round' is a floorpattern..that is. it was not communal like carole. iii/2 (Summer 1985).or indeed how the chosen unit of measure relates to them.' Estampie.withparticular kinds of social function. The last of all. In some caroles.

.or even when copying fromexistingnotation.168.' Within the constraintsof general or local consensus. F1 +J5 x3/y5 (italics indicate changes of dance metre not specified in detail here) The lengths of the puncta in this estampie imply a long dance track. The performer may wish to elaborate on this by incorporatingit into a prelude. where some of the metrical changes can involvecomsimplicity plex footwork. and gradually increasing the speed of the single note until it reaches tempo. H2 . and a Danqa Amorosa with a followingtroto) are constructedon different patterns fromthe estampies. The threepaired dances (Lamento di Tristano and La Manfredina. it has a signal that the dancers are at a certain point from the end of the section. cit. 2. La Manfredina is in the same dance metre as Tristan's Lament.. people may indeed do as they please with almost any kind of music. Tristan's Lament and its rotta are followed in the manuscript by La Manfredina and its rotta.. It is literally a ground-plan... . Moreover. one lurkingpitfall is the indication of the recurrenceof modules which it is both laborious and unnecessaryto writeout in full everytime. A4 G6 B4 H5 w4 x6 /y7 The kind of ground-plan in the second Estampie Royal.72. and it has similar rhythmicpatterns and even bits of Tristan's melodic line. But thissuggestionseems to followfromnon-appreciation of the choreometricstructure of thisparticular dance music and of the parameters of tempo which are implied. as do the editions of some of his predecessors. the second goes straightfrom L to F +J and the fourthstraightfrom Q to F +J." In notating any kind of music. thus making nonsense of this superbly craftedchoreo-musical structure. 4. . In McGee's edition of thisitem. 3. 65 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. For example. . the ground-plan of Isabella is: 1. was followed in some of the Italian estampies. 21. A4 B5 K1+2+2 M9 07 + 2 C1 +D2 L3+12 N7 P7 Q14 w3+2 . whetherfrom live performanceor partly or whollyfrom memory. played at decreasing durations.. both witha following rotta. for it definestime -and therefore space -for thFe advancing section and forthe returning section. a constant pre-cadential formula and open and closed formsof a cadential unit. whose origins seem to be far distant from fourteenth-century Italy. Its " See Arena. 4.and the afterdance is in a different one. but thereare hints of acculturation. but the music has built-insignals. with greater possibilitiesforspatial miscalculation than a shorterone.. F1 +G2 . The first dance in each pair is in one dance metre throughout.232 on Thu. and if they have miscalculated the size of their steps in relation to the available dance track. The changing initial modules are through-composed. while the long cadential unit has balanced repetitions. for etiquette in the case of miscalculation in dancing basses danses.The note to this estampie reads: 'The opening bars of this dance consistonly of a single note. . C1 +E3 . though the melodic languages of the Italian pieces are very different from the older French ones. played at decreasing durations' is the firmlyrhythmicstart of the firmly rhythmicfirstmodule. they can still adjust them to ensure turning and finishingat appropriate spots. This degree of is the antithesisof estampie.One would need cloth ears and two leftfeet to miss this. in the constant pre-cadential formula. 15 Nov 2012 16:05:28 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .All threedances are in manuscriptsof Italian provenance. consistingof changing initial modules.. and it could perhaps be surmised that the Italian piece was a local essay somewhat after the manner of the previous one. extending the phrase. the pre-cadential module and the first threemodules of the long cadential unit itselfare omitted fromthe second and fourthpuncta.1. op. p.. Both the Italian notations and Timothy McGee's edition contain a sprinklingof mishits. That 'single note.. They are rhythmically much simpler and do not necessarilyimply performance by single couples on a forwardand back dance track. which is cast in the principal dance metre of this estampie and of many others. .

The second is made fromrepetitionsof only two tinymodules. But the second time round. finishingwith the closed By. It suggeststhat the complete dance routine was perhaps not just the foursections as numbered. with the added part now below. a parallel. together. theyhave no choreometricalchanges (this might make them ductia inJohanof the threefollowsthe overall nes de Grocheo's sense).C. 15 Nov 2012 16:05:28 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. At a reasonable performing this would mean many alterations of AABx/y and AABx/z. the actual end at the closed formof the second module. B x/z 2. At this degree of simplicity. All consist of a constant unit followed by open and closed cadential units. (in McGee's edition. Of the fourfragments motets(Chose Tassin 1. dances in the Channsonnier du Roi. It was still a viable method of construction in the Gaelic regions of Scotland and Ireland until the end of the seventeenth century. the pieces do not seem to possess the regularityof rhythmusually associated with the other dance melodies or dance tenors included in this publication'. . with a da capo. 66 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. the first pattern for a single punctum of estampie. Cx/yclCX/ZOP CX/yC V II The numbers 1-6 merelydefine successive modules. . only two have much connection with estampie in the French like that in the other two. to the present-dayhabit of shifting popular song or dance tune up by a tone or semitone. Lamento di Tristano B Ci) Aii) Ai) . 2 and 3 and Chose Loyset).theymake a single dance routine..'2 Like the sense. This is pitched a fifth higher in the last three. The third dance is made from only one module. and the three separate puncta which bear his name are each on a difand one more complicated. and all have choreometricchanges. One could 2 There are traces of this in some archaic modules incorporated into English dance tunes first notated in the seventeenthcenturyand in a fewWelsh pieces notated in the eighteenthcentury. open where it had previouslybeen closed. played five times. But of the fourthirteenth-century English pieces in this volume. and the spatial implication of communal dance on a round floor pattern: 'Ai) FINE :11 2Bxi)/yCIl 11 'Aii) :11 4Bxii)/z0P 11 D. and even theyare assembled on a micro-system simpler. But in practice. McGee as tenorsfor thirteenth-century remarksthat 'They were probably not dances in the formwe find them here .however. the same higher length as in the previous item. . is made from repeated smaller units which themselvesconsistof not convoluted and it lacks the flowingmelodic arches of the previous piece: 1. with a constantunit having open and closed endings. however. This is the reverse of the pattern of a punctum of estampie. That unit. the three in Harley 978 are progressively Unlike them. firstopen and then closed. ABC in the second punctum of Tristan's Lament is omitted) used There are hintsof regional acculturationsin other items also..internal structure.. The second and third dances also have an additional part throughout. each lasting less than ten seconds at dancing tempo.. and length.232 on Thu. . . the shiftgives a differenttonal end to its section. . but a minimum of six.processional seems the most likely floor pattern.. they are pitched a fifth than before. one punctum at a slowed-downtempo providingsufficient learnedly to contrive a motet. Ciii) x/y . this may have been no more than a device for making listeningmusic from small dance music (whose effectin its original contextand dancing lengthwould have been physical and successive versesof a cumulative). . In the lower of the two parts. But all these are single puncta of material around which estampie. Tassin was apparently a notable dancer of long estampies. 2.but the functionhere may have been more than merelydecorative. C y/z 3.. Loyset'sis a miniature straightforward ferentpattern. . La Manfredina & Rotta A w/z 1. Since the added parts are learnedly contrived.firstopen and then closed: 'As/t :11 2Bu/w :11 I 4 :11 S :11 6.72... 3.168. Cii) .. Rotta A x/y D C . again with the added part now below.two fairly on the same kind of choreometricplan as one of Tassin's. perhaps.

The medieval tale was that Raimbaut de Vaqueiras made a text to it afterhearing it played by two jongleurs.were those of Tassin and Loyset) here safelywithinthe formal confinesof courtoisie. The third section consistsof a single module played three times. The third comes closer. could not. and in the coda thereseems to be somethinglike a fiddler's postlude. It was at the court at Montferratthat Raimbaut heard the prototype(and no doubt saw it danced). which the musical notation. The second section has two modules. not by a substitution. rather than according to formulas which may be validly applicable to quite other musical constructs. and if the notation is interpreted literally and in choreometric terms.168. and this is the first item in McGee's notations. At the end of the final stanza.surmisethat thissequence of itemsmightrepresentthe actual dancing order. of the verykind Timothy McGee speculates about in his remarkson performance practices. The single dance fromDouce 139 seems a more hybridaffair.those patterns are complex in a rather different way frommost estampzes. and finallya processional or promenade off. which may itselfhave been only one punctum of a longer estampida.that he has now 'constructedand finishedthe estampida'. perhaps with intermittent figures.the pre-cadential unit is different in each half. CXoP /wi0)C1. the only differencebetween the three statementsis in the first note. it is actually in threesections. slightly expanded. the poet reminds his patron. the Marquis of Montferrat. There are. Putting text and music togetherdoes not constitutewhat the author calls 'vocal estampie' any more than putting the text 'Land of Hope and Glory' to part of one of Elgar's exercises in Pomp and Circumstance constitutesa 'vocal march'. albeit in a simplifiedform. The first is simplythreestatementsof one module open and closed. This was one of the spring dances. The music is in three sections. First. a male exhibitionistsolo (as.the more difficult foreigndance. 1. altogether in keeping with the character of a solo dance with intricate footwork: ABwi)c' /wii)c'DEycl /zcl.its structureobscured by the scribe's arbitrary numbering and possibly a small omission in the notation of the penultimate module. Had the marquis or one of his courtiersmade a wager that the poet would not be able to make an extended poem on such a complex pattern? The textconsistently reveals rhythmic subtleties(no doubt manifestin the original performance). with slightly different figurationeach time. Raimbaut's text consistsof fivestanzas. to which parts are added above and below in the repeat: 2. Though numbered 1 to 10. The context is clear from the veryfirstline. All these are slightly longer than in the dances in the other manuscript.72. and a new module with a closed cadential unit. while the cadential unit is identicallyclosed each time. presumably. The whole routine is rounded offwith a repeated coda. but the constant unit has uneven implies changing choreographic patterns. then the previousmodule. each open and closed. assemblages of tinyopen and closed motifslike the dance tunes in Harley 978. The earliest music to which an estampie-typename has been attached is Kalenda Maya. successivelyA.touches of mixed dance metreat the same points as in some French estampies. then a communal round dance. These text details also make choreometricsense. (diacrusis in B and C) 67 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. but the firsttwo. each of which is made on the complete threesection dance routine. are not on an estampie kind of pattern. but the only known notation of the music dates from nearly a hundred years after Raimbaut's death in the first decade of the thirteenth century. 3. There are threedistinctpuncta. the closed formbeing made by an addition to the open form. However interpreted rhythmically. played twice. C and F. incapable of signalling metacrusis in tinymodules. however.followedby another new module but with the same cadential unit.232 on Thu. 'As/s+t I I I/ I I-/ 4Bu/w I 5Cx/y 11 6D D 7D SEzcI 11 9D+ D + I F*zCI11 IG :11 (*two notes seem to be omitted here) This looks like an insular acculturation of estampze. 15 Nov 2012 16:05:28 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

This would deform the structureand the dramatic shape of both items. If technical evidence about dance from the twelfthcentury onwards is taken into account. which he calls a refrain.should be repeated. There is little chance of knowing why these two centuries. and a different tonal plan: Ac' :11 Bc1:11 C B C D0P 11 Timothy McGee suggeststhat in both cases the last two lines.Jerome of Moravia. theywroteof particular timesand in particular circumstances. is generallythoughtto be on a similar pattern.Souvent Souspire.168. It is not a focused study. particularly wedding dances. cit.But bearand earlyfifteenth in the late fourteenth itemswere committedto writing ing in mind the ritual and conservativecharacter of music for rites of passage. it seems clear that. but theymay not have been unusual in central Europe: ABx0P' AAyCl 11 Cy* Dy (*defective notation) Cy 11 The other is a more boisterous it not time that authors refrainedfromusing the historicpresent in print? While it may have some use in classroom discussion on specific points or viewpoints. Its modular plan and rhythmicpattern seem unusual compared with western European notated dances. followed by the livelyone for all the company.but it is not always easy to separate the two'.in print it conflates centuries and dissipates all sense of chronology. and that relevant tools of analysis are essential. one could imagine the elegant one as the ritual dance of a newly married couple. p. he has speculated in areas where at least some facts are known and failed to speculate conin others where they are not. Where physical techniques of any kind are involved. which followsKalenda Maya in thisedition.. in any historicalfield. Timothy McGee's book is indeed speculative.72. Johannes de Grocheo and othersdo not 'tell us'. but it was the latter who were more likely to put their opinions into written form. besides being literate and 'noterate' it is necessaryalso to be 'canterate' and 'moterate'. weddings among them. In the field of research into the historyof dance. Most fundamentally. 'thus conforming format of the basse danse'. SirJack Westrup remarked that 'elegant descriptionis not the same as definition. Its motor impulse and rhythmic some of the quick duple-time dances which have lasted into this century in parts of Bohemia.232 on Thu. 68 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. I Westrup. while some highlylearned and literate people were personally and intimatelyacquainted with contemporarysocial dances.he structively has failed to recognize that social dance and its music (however the lattermay be executed) are Siamese twins. He questions whetherthe two Czech items (Czaldy Waldy) were in fact dance music. but to the basic states that theyhave twopartes and are writtenin black notes. only the simplest change in dance metre. some degree of realistic acquaintance with them is equally essential. 30. One is smooth and elegantly balanced. It has. some attempt to define the nature of past describersis desirable. through-composedin four modules with identical patterns recall dance metre in each except for the third. op. In termsof presentation. 15 Nov 2012 16:05:28 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . however. 3 One may add that. The only thing these two Czech dances have in common is that their firstmodule is open and all the others are closed. others were less so. a much simpler text.