Concordia University

Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Gas Turbine Design
Project Report
Winter 2009
1
2
Summary
1. Part A: Engine Design
1.1 LPC exit (2)
1.2 HPC exit (3)
1.3 Combustor exit (4)
1.4 HPT exit (5)
1.5 Inter-turbine duct (6)
1.6 LPT exit (7)
1.7 Inter-turbine duct (8)
1.8 Power turbine (8)
1.9 Engine horsepower and SFC
2. Part B: Turbine Design
2.1 Mean Line design of HPT
2.1.1 Rotational speed and gas path
2.1.2 Velocity triangles and nozzle & rotor loss coefficients
2.2 Hub and tip velocity triangles
2.3 Vane and Blade parameters
2.4 Nozzles and rotor loss coefficients
2.5 Off-design performance
2.5.1 Reduction of the speed by 20%
2.5.2 Reduction of the pressure ratio by 20%
3
Introduction
Blah blah blah
4
1. Part A: Engine Design
In this part we have to determine the cycle points, temperatures, pressures,
compressors and turbine work and the engine horsepower
General assumptions at intake:
Altitude= 4000 ft =1219.2m T
o1
= 100
o
F= 310.78
o
K P
01
=
88100,15 Pa
1.1 LPC exit (2)
Assumptions
m = 12 lb/sec
P.R=4.25 η=.86
Results
p0
2
374425,6
3 Pa
T0
2 497,02 K
W
2
186339,6
3 J.kg
-1
1.2 HPC exit (3)
Assumptions
cooling air = 10%
P.R=2.65 η=.84
Results
m
3 5,44 Kg/s
p0
3
992227,9
3 Pa
T0
3 686,99 K
5
m
3
= (1-10%) m
2
T03 = T02+
) 1 . (
1
02


γ
γ
η
R P
T
P03 = P.R * P02
W
3
= C
p
(T
02
– T
01
)
T02 = T01+
) 1 . (
1
01


γ
γ
η
R P
T
P02 = P.R * P01
W
2
= C
p
(T
02
– T
01
)
W
3
190870,4
3 J.kg
-1
1.3 Combustor exit (4)
Assumptions
Fuel ration=0.02 HV=16760
BTU/lb η=.99 ΔP/P=0.02
Results
m4 4,90 Kg/s
p04
972383,3
7 Pa
T04 1331,07
K
1.4 HPT exit (5)
Assumptions
η=.88
Results
m5 5,17 Kg/s
p05
505486,6
0 Pa
T05 1154,45 K
W5 -202945,7
0 J.kg
-1
1.5 Inter-turbine duct (6)
Assumptions
ΔP/P=0.02
6
m
5
= m
4
+ (1+0.5*cooling air)
P05 = P04
1
04
05
1
1
1

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
− +
γ
γ
η T
T
T05 = T04 -
( )
p
p i
C m
T T C m
5
02 03
( −
W
5
= C
p
(T
05
– T
04
)
m
6
= m
5
P06 = P05

,
`

.
| ∆
+
p
p
1
T06 = T05
m
4
= m
3
(1+Fuel air ration)
P04 = P03(1-ΔP/P)
T04 =
( )
) (
* * . . *
3
3 03 3
fuel p
p
m m C
HV m r a f T C m
+


Results
p06 495376,
87 Pa
T06 1154,45
K
1.6 LPT exit (7)
Assumptions
η=.90
Results
m7 5,44 Kg/s
p07 244768,5
1 Pa
T07 986,67
K
W7 -192798,4
1 J.kg
-1
1.7 Inter-turbine duct (8)
Assumptions ΔP/P=0.02

Results
p08 239873,1
4 Pa
T08 986,67
K
1.8 Power turbine (8)
Assumptions
η=.93
ΔP/P=0.02
7
m
7
= m
6
+ (1+0.5*cooling air)
P07 = P06
1
06
07
1
1
1

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
− +
γ
γ
η T
T
T07 = T06 -
( )
p
p i
C m
T T C m
7
01 02
( −
W
7
= C
p
(T
07
– T
06
)
m
8
= m
7
P08 = P07

,
`

.
| ∆
+
p
p
1
T08 = T07
m
9
= m
2
P
09
=

,
`

.
|


P
P
P
atm
1
T09 = T08 -

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|


γ
γ
η
1
08
09
08
1 *
p
p
T
W
9
= C
p
(T
09
– T
08
)

Results
m9 5,44 Kg/s
p09 89898,11 Pa
T09 787,16
K
W9 -229265,8
5 J.kg
-1
1.9 Engine horsepower and SFC
Engine
Horspower
1247912,3
8 W 1673,48 HP
SFC 0,314046
kg/Kw/
h
516290,
09
lb/hp/
h
8
HP= m
9
*W
9
SFC = m3*
HP
r a f . .
9
2. Part B: Turbine Design
2.1 Mean Line design of HPT
2.1.1 Rotational speed and gas path
Assumptions
AN2 4E+1
0 rpm.in²
Uh 1100
ft/sec
M1 0,1

M3 0,4

α1 10
deg
α3
10
deg
Results
Hub to tip ratio
rh/r
t 0.71
Hub radius rh
0.10 m
3.79 in
Tip radius rt
0.14 m
5.34 in
Rotational
speed N
30019.0
51
rp
m
The radius r
h
is calculated from the blade hub speed. The radius r
t
is calculated
from the area A
1
which is calculated from the formula
1 1
1 1
1
m
V P
RT
A ·
calculated later
in the report.
10
N =
) (
2 2
2
h t
r r
AN
− π
1
* 30
*
2 2
2
+ ·
h h
t
U
AN
r
r π
N
U r
h h
π 2
60
·
2.1.2 Velocity triangles and nozzle & rotor loss
coefficients
Results
at
1
at
2
at
3
V1
71.3
1
m/
s Vu2
511.
36
m/
s V3
262.
39
Vu
1
12.3
8
m/
s Va2
186.
12
m/
s
Vu
3
45.5
6
Va
1
70.2
3
m/
s V2
544.
18
m/
s
Va
3
258.
40
V
ru2
146.
95
m/
s Vr3
484.
61
Vr2
237.
14
m/
s
11
2
1
01
1
M
2
1
1
T

+
·
γ
T

2
3
03
3
M
2
1
1
T

+
·
γ
T
Cp
V V
T T
r r
2
2
2
2
3
3 2

+ ·
1
2
1
01
1
M
2
1
1
P

,
`

.
| −
+
·
γ
γ
γ
P
1
2
3
03
3
M
2
1
1
P

,
`

.
| −
+
·
γ
γ
γ
P
1
2
01
01
2
'
P

,
`

.
|
·
γ
γ
T
T
P
1 1 1
R.T . . γ M V ·
3 3 3
R.T . . γ M V ·
T’
2
=T
2

N
(T
02
-T
2
)
V
a1
= V
1
cos α
1
V
a3
= V
3
cos α
3
V
a2
=V
u2
/tanα
2
V
u1
= V
1
sin α
1
V
u3
= V
3
sin α
3
V
u2
=-
W
HPT
/U
m
–V
u3
1 1
1 1
1
m
V P
RT
A ·

,
`

.
| +
·

3
3 1
3
tan
a
u m
r
V
V U
α
V
r2
=V
u2
-U
m
V
r3
=V
a3
/cos α
r3
2
2
2
2 a ru r
V V V + ·
3 3
3 3
3
m
V P
RT
A ·
2
2
2
2 a u
V V V + ·
2
2
2
.T R
P
· ρ
12
The nozzle and rotor loss coefficients are:
YN 0,111
YR 0,166
Efficie
ncy
ξ
N
0,0768
ξ
R
0,1204
ηtt 0,87

These losses were verified by the efficiency calculated from the losses, which is
87% knowing that the efficiency should be 88%.
13
2 02
02 01
P - P
P - P
·
N
Y

3 0r3
0r3 0r2
P - P
P - P
·
R
Y
1
2
2 0
2 2 0

,
`

.
|
·
γ
γ
T
T
P P
r
r
1
3
3 0
3 3 0

,
`

.
|
·
γ
γ
T
T
P P
r
r

,
`

.
|
+ ·
p
r
r
C
V
T T
2
2
2
2 2 0

,
`

.
|
+ ·
p
r
r
C
V
T T
2
2
3
3 3 0
2.2 Hub and tip velocity triangles
The Results are:
r 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14
T2 1151.00 1180.15 1202.21 1219.31 1232.82
T3 1124.09 1124.32 1124.50 1124.63 1124.74
p2 597057.7 612182.9 623626.3 632492.5 639501.3
14
Free vortex : V
u1
= cste
1
/r V
u2
= cste
2
/r V
u3
= cste
3
/r U=N.r
2
1
2
1 1 a u
V V V + ·
2
2
2
2 2 a u
V V V + ·
2
3
2
3 3 a u
V V V + ·
U V V
u ru
− ·
2 2
2
2
2
2 2 a ru r
V V V + · 3 3 3
cos /
r a r
V V α ·

,
`

.
|
·

1
1 1
1
tan
a
u
V
V
α

,
`

.
|
·

2
2 1
2
cos
V
V
a
α

,
`

.
|
·

3
3 1
3
tan
a
u
V
V
α

,
`

.
|
·

2
2 1
2
tan
a
ru
r
V
V
α

,
`

.
| +
·

3
3 1
3
tan
a
u
r
V
V U
α

,
`

.
|
− ·
p
C
V
T T
2
2
1
01 1

,
`

.
|
− ·
p
C
V
T T
2
2
2
02 2

,
`

.
|

− ·
p
r r
C
V V
T T
2
(
2
2
2
3
2 3

,
`

.
|
+ ·
p
r
r
C
V
T T
2
2
2
2 2 0

,
`

.
|
+ ·
p
r
r
C
V
T T
2
2
3
3 3 0
2 2 2
. . T R P ρ ·
3 3 3
. . T R P ρ ·
1
2
02
2 02

,
`

.
|
·
γ
γ
T
T
P P
1
3
03
3 03

,
`

.
|
·
γ
γ
T
T
P P
3 1
3 2
T T
T T
R


·
T R V M . . / γ ·
6 7 0 9 1
p3
454826.2
9
454919.9
5
454990.8
2
455045.7
2
455089.1
3
p02
1068336.
66
991016.3
7
937404.7
0
898495.0
0
869247.2
0
p03
506035.9
1
505723.1
0
505486.6
0
505303.4
6
505158.7
6
α2
deg 73.18 71.58 70.00 68.45 66.94
α3
deg 11.99 10.91 10.00 9.23 8.57

V2 643.30 588.92 544.18 506.80 475.18
V3 264.16 263.15 262.39 261.79 261.32
Vu2 615.79 558.74 511.36 471.39 437.21
Vu3 54.87 49.78 45.56 42.00 38.96
Va2 186.12 186.12 186.12 186.12 186.12
Va3 258.40 258.40 258.40 258.40 258.40
Vr2 364.31 292.18 237.14 201.07 186.44
Vru2 313.18 225.23 146.95 76.08 11.00
Vr3 441.09 462.26 484.61 507.95 532.12
R 0.13 0.27 0.37 0.45 0.52
This table shows:
 A radial increase in temperature and pressure for the leading edge, this is
due to the change in the radius so a change in the speed. However for the
trailing edge, the radial conditions are almost the same, since we are at
the exit of the HPT,
 A temperature and a pressure drop between leading and trailing edge,
which is normal since we transfer energy from the flow to the blades in a
turbine,
 The turning is lower as the radius increases, in order to reduce the losses
on the tip (tip leakage, secondary…)
 The reaction increases with the radius since the temperature follows the
same pattern.
15
2.3 Vane and Blade parameters
Results
To be validated
Vane Blade
h/c 0,7 - h/c 1,3 -
Ψ 0,75 - Ψ 0,9 -
TAT 0,04 in TAT 0,02 in
C 0,056 m C 0,028 m
Ca 0,036 m Ca 0,022 m
γ 50 deg γ 38 deg
s 0,040 m s 0,018 m
Nv 18 vane Nb 44 blade
So the final design will be 18 vanes and 44 blades.
16
Stagger angle is calculated from Fig5
Chord
h/c
) r - (r
h t
· c
Axial chord c
a
=c*cos(γ)
Pitch of vanes
2
2
2 1
cos ) tan 2.(tan α α α
ψ
+
·
a
c s
Number of vanes/blades N
s
.r 2
m
π
·
2.4 Nozzles and rotor loss coefficients
Using AMDC loss system, the loss coefficients for the stator are:
prof ile losses
secondary
losses
T railing edge
losses
book page 330

tmax/c 0,2
assumption
fAR
1,02 t/s
0,02
6 ≠ 0,02
s/c 0,705
αm
-0,91 rad
correction
factor 1,05
from
graph

Yp (β1=0)
0,04 from graph -52,12 deg

Yp (β1=α2)
0,14 from graph
CL/(s/c)
3,59 YTET
0
,00
6

Yp AMDC
0,0387
Ys AMDC 0,08


Yshock
0
M1 is too
small K3 0,84

M1
0,10 Ks 0,99

M2
0,80

K1
0,25

K2
0,015
Ys 0,093


Kp
0,99

Re
1,38E+06 reynolds > 10^6

f(Re)
0,938

Yp 0,022

17
 YN = YP * fRE + YS + YTET +YTC
YP = 0.914
]
]
]

+
shock P AMDC P
Y K Y
,
3
2

YP, AMDC = [ ]
¹
'
¹
¹
'
¹

,
`

.
|

,
`

.
|
+
· · · ) 0 P( ) 1 P(
2
1
2
1
) 0 1 P(
1 2
Y - Y Y
β α β β
α
β
α
β

2
1
0.2
/c t
max
α
β

,
`

.
|
With Kp = 1 – K2 (1- K1), K1 = 1-1.25(M2-0.2), K2 = (M1/M2)
2
YS = 1.2 YS, AMDCKS
YS, AMDC = 0.0334 f(AR)

,
`

.
|
1
2
cos
cos
β
α
2
L
s/c
C

,
`

.
|

m
α
α
3
2
2
cos
cos
With
s/c
C
L
= 2(tanα1 + tanα2) cosαm αm = tan
1 −
]
]
]

− ) tan (tan
2
1
2 1
α α
f(AR) =
c h
c h − − 2 25 . 0 1
Total AMDC loss
Total Pressure
loss
YN
0,12 compared to 0,11
Assuming an unshrouded blade with a radial tip clearance of 2% of blade height,
the loss coefficients for the rotor are:
profile losses
secondary
losses
Tip clearance
losses


tmax/c 0,200 fAR
0,6083 book page 329
s/c 0,525
αm
-0,379 rad
assumption of unshrouded
blades

Yp (β2=0)
0,040
from
graph -21,73 deg
with radial tip clearance of
2% of blade height

Yp (β2=αr3)
0,100
from
graph
CL/(s/c)
4.4146

Yp AMDC
0,069
Ys AMDC 0,098
(cosβ3/cosβ2)
^2
/(1+rm/rt) 0,263

Δp/q1 hub
0,027 K3 0,5397 λ 0,008

Δp/q1 shock
0,019 Ks 0,92 B(k/h) 0,010

Yshock
0,005
βm
0,354 rad

Mr2
0,350
Ys 0,108
Ys+Yk 0,121

Mr3
0,739

K1
0,327
Trailing edge
losses YTC
0,01
3

K2
0,224

Kp
0,849 book page 330

Re
5,16E+05 t/s 0,032 ≠ 0,02

f(Re)
1
correctio
n factor 1,05
from
graph


Yp
0,04
1 YTET 0,009

Total AMDC loss
Total Pressure
loss
YR
0,17 compared to 0,17
We notice that the loss coefficients calculated with the AMDC method are very
close to those calculated with the pressure losses.
We also notice that the most predominant losses are the secondary.
18
Blade metal area ration

τ 300 h
K1 15
K2 55,6
K3 -5,2

K4 0,6 lb/in
3

ρ 0,315 -


Lm2 45,2 KSI
maximum
life
Lm1 45,2 KSI Actual life



σc
247,3 23,48 KSI

K5 175,7 16,68
AH/AT ≈1 2.3


Since the Lm1 equation is a second order equation, we have 2 solutions for σc
and so for K
5
, but only one of them seems to be reasonable. We chose 2.3 as
AH/AT.
19
2.5 Off-design performance
2.5.1 Reduction of the speed by 20%
Incidence on the rotor
Umean off 291.5
2

β2 40.29
metal angle is cst
αr2 off 0,88
rad
50.39
deg
i off 10,10
incidence on the rotor
Incident Loss on rotor
incident profile
losses
incident secondary
losses

d/c 0,044
assumed
χ'' 0,18


s/c 0.52

(Y/Ydes)S 2,08
0 < χ'' < ,3

d/s 0.08

YiS 0,225



β2
40.29 deg 0,70 rad

β3
57.78 deg 1,01 rad
αr2 38.29 deg
Assume same TET and Tip clearance
losses

Mr
3 0.75
χ' 312.23
∆φ²P
0,0093
0 0 < χ' < 800 Total loss
YiP
0,0117
3
YR
0,31
7

20


off
i
=
off r 2
α
- β2 with β2 is metal angle (unchanged)
 Y’=
1
2
3
1
2
2
3
2
1
1 1
1 1
1
2
1
1



,
`

.
| −
+ −

]
]
]

,
`

.
|



γ
γ
γ
γ
γ
φ
γ
r
r
M
M
x’=
6 . 1 −

,
`

.
|
s
d
*
2
3
2
cos
cos

,
`

.
|
β
β
* ( )
2 2 r off r
α α −


and
2 2
1
p
φ φ ∆ − ·
2
p
φ ∆
=0.778*10
-5
x’ + 0.56*10
-7
x’
2
+ 0.4*10
-10
x’
3
+ 2.054*10
-19
x’
6
 Y’’= Ys,des(exp(0.9 x ”) + 13 x ”
2
+ 400 x ”)
x” =
( )
3 2
2
off
2 r
180 β + β −
β − α
*
5 . 1
3
2
cos
cos

,
`

.
|
β
β
*
3 . 0 −

,
`

.
|
C
d
Efficiency
drop


ξ
N 0,0690

ξ
R
0,2298

ηtt 0,8256 Knowing that we originally had to
have 0,88

dηtt 6,19 %

Reducing the speed by 20% will lead to:
 an increase of αr2 and then generate a positive incidence of 10 degrees
 an increase of losses on the rotor
 a reduction of the efficiency by 6.19%
21


2
2
* * 5 . 0 1 M
Y
N
N
γ
ξ
+
·

2
3
* * 5 . 0 1
r
R
R
M
Y
γ
ξ
+
·

) 2.(h
) (V .V
1
1
03 01
2
r3
2
2
h
R N
off tt

+
+
·
ξ ξ
η
With (h
01
-h
03
)=U
2
V
u2
-U
3
V
u3
=U
m
(V
u2
-V
u3
)
2.5.2 Reduction of the pressure ratio by 20%
Design condition s 80% Pressure ratio



22


Design 80% PR
%
decrease
V1 71.31 70.12 1.67
Vu1 12.38 12.18 1.67
Va1 70.23 69.05 1.67

Vu2 471.32 369.81 21.53
Va2 171.55 134.60 21.54
V2 501.56 393.54 21.54
Vru2 78.68 5.40 93.13
Vr2 188.73 134.71 28.62

V3 262.39 262.47 -0.03
Vu3 45.56 45.58 -0.03
Va3 258.40 258.48 -0.03
23
Vr3 508.71 484.66 4.73
The effect of reducing the pressure ratio by 20% on the velocity triangle is:
 a reduction of the incidence (so a reduction of losses),
 a reduction of speeds at the stator and the rotor,
 a reduction of the component V
u
, which reduces the energy transfer.
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Conclusion
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