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# Gases

11.1 and 11.2 Kinetic theory of gases:      Move rapidly in straight lines. Have essentially no attractive (or repulsive) forces. Are very far apart. Have very small volumes compared to the volume of the container they occupy. Have kinetic energies that increase with an increase in temperature. Properties that describe a gas Property Description Pressure(P) The force exerted by gas against the walls of the container. Volume(V) The space occupied by the gas. Temperature(T) Determines the kinetic energy and rate of motion of the gas particles. Amount(n) The quantity of gas present in a container. Gas pressure  Is describing as force acting on specific area.  Pressure(P)= Force Area Units for measuring pressure Unit Atmosphere Milimiters of Hg Torr Inches of Hg Ponds per square inch Pascal Kilopascal Atmospheric pressure:  Abbreviation atm Mm Hg torr In. Hg Ib/in2(psi) Pa kPa Equivalent to 1 atm 1 atm (exact) 760 mm Hg 760 torr 29.9 in. 14.7 Ib/in2 101,325 Pa 101,325

Units of measurment Atmosphere (atm); mm Hg; torr; pascal Liter(L); milimiter(mL) Celsius(°C); Kelvin(°K) Required in calculations

Grams(g); moles(n) Required in calculations

Pressure exerted by a column of air from the top of the atmosphere to the surface of the Earth.

Is about 1 atmosphere or a little less at sea level.

Altitude and atmospheric pressure Atmospheric pressure    Depends on the altitude and the weather. Is lower at high altitudes where the density of air is less. Is higher on a rainy day than on a sunny day.

The Barometer   Measures the pressure exerted by the gases in the atmosphere. Indicates atmospheric pressure as the height in mm of the mercury column.

11.3 pressure and volume (Boyle´s law) Boyle´s law states that:   The pressure of a gas is inversely related to its volume when T and n are constant. If volume decreases, the pressure increases.

Boyle´s law equation: P1V1=P2V2 (Consist on “despeje”) 11.4: Temperature and volume (Charles’ Law) Charles’ Law:    The kelvin temperature of a gas is directly related to the volume. P and n are constant. When the temperature of a gas increases, its volume increases.

Charles’ law expression: V1/T1=V2/T2 (O°C = 273 K)

11.5: Temperature and pressure (Gay-Lussac’s Law) Gay-Lussac’s Law:    The pressure exerted by a gas is directly related to the kelvin temperature. V and n are constant. V and n are constant. P1/T1=P2/T2

Use the gas laws to complete with 1) A. B. C. D. Increase 2) Decrease Pressure____1_____, when V decreases. When T decreases, V___2___. Pressure decreases when V changes from 12L to 24L. Volume increases when T changes from 15° to 45°

Vapor pressure and Boiling point Vapor pressure is:  The pressure of gas molecules above the surface liquid.

At the boiling point:  Gas bubbles within the liquid pressure equal to the vapor pressure.

Boiling Point of water:    Depends on the vapor pressure. Is lower at higher altitudes. Is increased by using an auto clave to increase external pressure.