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# MODELING OF ROAD VEHICLE LATERAL DYNAMICS

by
Joseph R. Kiefer A Thesis Submitted
in

Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the MASTER OF SCIENCE m Mechanical Engineering Approved by: Professor - - - - - - - - Dr. Kevin Kochersberger Thesis Advisor Dr. Alan Nye

Professor - - - - - - - - Professor
Dr. Michael Hennessey

_ _

Professor

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AUGUST 1996

Disclosure Statement

Pennission Granted

I, Joseph R. Kiefer, hereby grant pennission to the Wallace Memorial Library of the Rochester Institute of Technology to reproduce my thesis entitled Modeling of Road Vehicle Lateral Dynamics in whole or in part. Any reproduction will not be for commercial use or profit.

## August 16, 1996 Joseph R. Kiefer

ii

Abstract
The lateral dynamics
mathematical model.

is

development

of a

The

vehicle

is

represented with

yaw.

Equations

of motion are

vehicle model

from basic

principles of

Newtonian

mechanics.

Both linear

developed.

In the linear
relationship.

model

## tire lateral forces are

are written

represented

by an approximate linear
for
various control and

Transfer functions

for the

vehicle system

response are

frequency

## studied, and numerical simulation of the

non-linear model a

model

is

performed.

In the

detailed

representation of tire

## lateral forces known

as tire

data nondimensionalization is

utilized.

Simulation is

the

linear model

simulation

assumptions.

Table

of

Contents

of

ii iii

Contents

iv
vi

of

of

vii

of

Chapter 1

Chapter 2
Chapter 3

5
10 10 11 14
14

3.1 Introduction

## 3.2 Lateral Force Mechanics

3.3 Linear Tire Model 3.4 Non-Linear Tire Model Chapter 4 Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

24
24 25 26 27 28

4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Description of Model 4.2. 1 Assumptions 4.2.2 Vehicle Parameters 4.2.3 Free-Body Diagram

4.3 Derivation
4.4 Derivation

of of

Equations Tire

of Motion

29 31
33 34 35 35 36 37 39 41 42 42 43 43

Slip Angles

4.5 Linear Model 4.5. 1 Additional Assumptions 4.5.2 Vehicle Sideslip Angle 4.5.3 Tire Slip Angles 4.5.4 External Forces and Moments 4.5.5 Equations of Motion 4.5.6 Transfer Functions 4.5.7 Vehicle Sideslip Angle Gain 4.5.8 Yaw Velocity Gain 4.5.9 Front Tire Slip Angle Gain 4.5.10 Rear Tire Slip Angle Gain 4.5.11 Path Curvature Gain

iv

Table

of

Contents

4.5. 12 Lateral Acceleration Steady-State 4.5.13 Steady-State Steer Angle 4.5.14 Understeer Gradient 4.5.15 Stability Factor 4.5. 16 Neutral Steer Point 4.5.17 Static Margin 4.5.18 Tangent Speed 4.5.19 Critical Speed 4.5.20 Characteristic Speed 4.5.21 Characteristic Equation 4.5.22 Undamped Natural Frequency 4.5.23 Damping Ratio 4.5.24 System Poles 4.5.25 System Zeros 4.5.26 Frequency Response 4.5.27 Simulation 4.6 Non-Linear Model 4.6. 1 Model Equations 4.6.2 Simulation
Chapter 5

## Step Response Gain

44 45 46 48 48 49

50 51
51 52 53 53

55 55 58 65 89 89 90
100 102

Conclusion

## 105 105 106

107 108 123 123 124

## A. 1 MagicFit.m A.2 MagicError.m

A.3 NLTire.m
Appendix B Appendix C Two DOF Model Mathematica Session Two DOF Model MATLAB Programs

## C.l DOF2Control.m C.2 DOF2Param.m C.3 DOF2DependParam.m

C.4 SteerAngle.m C5 DOF2LFreq.m

## 126 127 129

130 132 133 135 136

C.6 DOF2LSim.m
C7DOF2LDE.m

C.8 DOF2NLSim.m

C.9 DOF2NLDE.m
Appendix D Relevant Literature

List

of Tables

Table 3.1: Non-Linear Tire Model Parameters Table 3.2: Experimental Tire Data Table 4.1: Vehicle Parameters
Table 4.2: Linear Tire Model Parameters

17 21 28
36

## Table 4.3: Steady-State Response Gains Table 4.4: System Zeros

45 56

vi

List

of Figures

Figure 3. 1 : Tire

Slip Angle

11

Figure 3.2: Tire Lateral Force Versus Slip Angle Figure 3.3: Experimental Tire Data Figure 3.4: Tire

12

21 22 22 23
23 26

Cornering Coefficient

## Figure 3.5: Tire Lateral Friction Coefficient

Figure 3.6: Tire Normalized Lateral Force Figure 3. 7: Reconstructed Tire Lateral Force

## Figure 4.1: Vehicle Model

Figure 4.2:

Free-Body Diagram

29
32

Figure 4.3: Kinematic Diagram Figure 4.4: Gravitational Side Force Figure 4.5: Natural Frequency Figure 4.6: Poles Figure 4. 7: Figure 4.8:
and vs.

37

Vehicle

Velocity

54 57 V
=

Zeros

## Sideslip Angle / Steer Angle Frequency Response,

100 km/hr
V
=

61
61

Sideslip Angle /Aero Side Force Frequency Response, Sideslip Angle /Road Side Slope Frequency Response,
Velocity / Steer Angle Frequency Response,

Figure 4.9:

62 62 63 63
64

Figure 4.11: Yaw

V'= lOOkm/hr

V=100 km/hr V
=

## Figure 4. 12: Yaw

Figure 4. 13: Figure 4. 14:

V
=

100 km/hr

## Sideslip Angle / Steer Angle Frequency Response,

Sideslip Angle / Steer Angle Frequency Response,

30 km/hr

49.84 km/hr

64 67
71

## Figure 4.15: Simulation Steer Angle Inputs

Figure 4.16: Linear Step Steer Lateral

Velocity Response

vn

List

of Figures

## Figure 4.17: Linear Step Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

71 72

## Figure 4.18: Linear Step Steer Sideslip Angle Response

Figure 4. 19: Linear Step Steer Front Tire Figure 4.20: Linear Step Steer Rear Tire

72
73 73
74

## Figure 4.22: Linear Ramp Step Steer Lateral

Figure 4.23: Linear Ramp Figure 4.24: Linear Ramp Figure 4.25: Linear Ramp Figure 4.26: Linear Ramp Figure 4.27: Linear Ramp

Velocity Response

Step Steer Yaw Velocity Response Step Steer Sideslip Angle Response
Step Steer Front Tire Slip Angle Response Step Steer Rear Tire Slip Angle Response

74

75
75 76 76

## Step Steer Lateral Acceleration Response

Velocity Response

Figure 4.28: Linear Ramp Square Steer Lateral Figure 4.29: Linear Ramp Square Steer Yaw

77
77

Velocity Response

Figure 4.30: Linear Ramp Square Steer Sideslip Angle Response Figure 4.31: Linear Ramp Square Steer Front Tire Figure 4.32: Linear Ramp Square Steer Rear Tire

78
78

## Slip Angle Response

79 79 80 80
81 81 82 82 83

Figure 4.33: Linear Ramp Square Steer Lateral Acceleration Response Figure 4.34: Linear I Hz Sine Steer Lateral Figure 4.35: Linear 1 Hz Sine Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

Velocity Response

Figure 4. 36: Linear I Hz Sine Steer Sideslip Angle Response Figure 4.37: Linear I Hz Sine Steer Front Tire Figure 4.38: Linear I Hz Sine Steer Rear Tire

## Figure 4.39: Linear 1 Hz Sine Steer Lateral Acceleration Response

Figure 4.40: Linear Step Aero Side Force Lateral Figure 4.41: Linear Step Aero Side Force Yaw

Velocity Response

Velocity Response

83

vui

List

of

Figures

## Sideslip Angle Response Slip Angle Response

84
84 85

Figure 4.43: Linear Step Aero Side Force Front Tire Figure 4.44: Linear Step Aero Side Force Rear Tire

## Slip Angle Response

Figure 4.45: Linear Step Aero Side Force Lateral Acceleration Response Figure 4.46: Linear Step Road Side Slope Lateral Figure 4.47: Linear

85 86 86 87
87

Velocity Response

Yaw

Velocity Response

## Sideslip Angle Response Slip Angle Response

Figure 4.49: Linear Step Road Side Slope Front Tire Figure 4.50: Linear Step Road Side Slope Rear Tire

## Slip Angle Response

88 88
94 94

Figure 4.51: Linear Step Road Side Slope Lateral Acceleration Response Figure 4.52: Non-Linear Step Steer Lateral

Velocity Response

## Figure 4.53: Non-Linear Step Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

95 95 96
96 97

## Figure 4.55: Non-Linear Step Steer Front Tire

Figure 4.56: Non-Linear

## Step Steer Rear Tire Slip Angle Response

Figure 4.57: Non-Linear Step Steer Lateral Acceleration Response Figure 4.58: Non-Linear Ramp Square Steer Lateral Figure 4.59: Non-Linear Ramp Square Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

Velocity Response

97 98 98

Figure 4.60: Non-Linear Ramp Square Steer Sideslip Angle Response Figure 4.61: Non-Linear Ramp Square Steer Front Tire Figure 4.62: Non-Linear Ramp Square Steer Rear Tire

99
99

IX

List
l/R
a

of

Symbolst

Path

curvature

(1/m)
center

Acceleration
of

to front axle

(m)
(m/s2)

a0

## vehicle-fixed coordinate system

ay

Acceleration Acceleration

)
"g"

Ay
b

units of

(g)

Distance from

mass center

to rear axle

(m)

Bj

coefficient

B3 B5
c

coefficient

C} C3

## Magic Formula curve fit parameter

Tire cornering
coefficient slope

(N/deg/N2)

C5
Ca

## Tire lateral friction Tire cornering

coefficient slope

stiffness

-

Cf
Cr
Cc
d

stiffness

two tires

stiffness

two tires

coefficient

(N/deg)

axle

## to neutral steer point

(m)

D} Ej
/
F

Magic Formula curve fit parameter Magic Formula curve fit parameter
Front
axle weight

fraction

External force

(N)

By convention,

italicized

boldfaced.

List

of

Symbols

F^

## Fictitious lateral force for finding neutral

Tire lateral force (N) Normalized tire lateral force

steer point

(N)

Fy Fy
Fya

Aerodynamic

side

-

F^

side

two tires

(N)

Fyg
F

-

vertical

two tires

(N)

Fz
g

Linear
momentum

G
H

(kg-m/s)
mass

Angular Unit

momentum

center)

(kg-m2/s)

vector

in x-direction

Izz
j
k K

inertia (kg-m2)

vector

in y-direction
in

vector

Understeer
Wheelbase Total

Kus
L
m

(m) (kg)
mass

vehicle mass

External Yaw

moment

center)

(N-m)

Nr

/Vp
Ns
r

Control

moment

## Yaw velocity Path

(m)

XI

List

of

Symbols

Rf Rr
s

Position Position

vector

from vehicle
from

mass center to

rear

vector

## vehicle mass center

to

tire

(m)

Laplace-domain variable
Static
margin

SM
u

## Forward velocity (m/s)

Lateral velocity (m/s) Magnitude
of vehicle

velocity

(m/s)

Vchar

Characteristic
Critical
speed

speed

(m/s)

VcHt Vf V0 Vr
V[an Vx

(m/s)

## Velocity of rear tire (m/s)

Tangent
speed

(m/s)
velocity in x-direction velocity in y-direction

Component Component

of

Vy
Yr

of

## Lateral force/yaw coupling derivative

Tp
Y6
a

Control force derivative
Tire slip Tire
angle

slip
angle

normalized

af
ar

Rear tire slip

angle

angle

(3

Vehicle sideslip

angle

5
^Acker

Front

steer angle

Ackerman

steer angle

xn

List

of

Symbols

8/
8r

Front
Rear

steer angle

steer angle

for

8M
yr

steer angle

side slope

variable

Damping ratio
liy
oo
Q.

natural

coefficient

Qz

xin

Introduction

Daimler.1

automobiles were

only

and

The top

fifteen

miles per

much of

## the automotive industry's early engineering

effort

devoted to

developing faster
and

miles per

top

speeds reached

forty-five

miles per

hour by 1900

eighty

speed of sound

## faster than the

in

a ground vehicle.

concern with

speeds of the

first

automobiles were

as cars

was

initially

vehicle

However,
an

quickly became
concern

capable of

## achieving higher speeds,

dynamics became

important

for

automotive engineers.

## Of primary importance from a safety

standpoint was

the behavior of
since

vehicles

in

maneuvers such as

turning
quality

and

braking as top

speeds

increased. Also,

early

very

poor

by today's

## standards, isolation of the driver

and

passengers

of vehicle

increasingly important.
three basic modes of vehicle
refers to the vertical response

The field
performance.

dynamics

encompasses

Vertical dynamics,

or ride

dynamics, basically

of

the

vehicle

involves the

straight-line

acceleration and

## braking of the vehicle. Lateral dynamics is concerned with the vehicle's

acceptable performance

order

in

each of

for

a vehicle

to

meet

## the requirements of the consumer, and the government, with

and safety.

regards

to comfort, controllability,

Vehicle dynamics

needs to

be

considered

## throughout the entire design and development process

from initial

conceptualization

through

production

if performance

goals are to

be

met.

Mathematical modeling is

an

excellent

## develop vehicles that meet performance

goals.

Chapter 1

Introduction

Traditionally there has been a relatively long cycle in the design and development
process

concept

for

a vehicle

to its
can

production.

With

such a

initial

concept to

production,

vehicle

designs

be

## out of style and obsolete

by the time

they reach production. Increasing competition from a globally expanding industry has
driven
automobile manufacturers to reduce the

in
market

cycle.

This

allows

quickly to

changes

new vehicle.

possible

design

cycle

length is
of

prototypes are

and

## analysis, computational fluid

dynamics,

and

multibody dynamics

simulation

have greatly
software

facilitated this
becomes
more

effort.

As

computer speeds

continually increase
can

and

engineering

powerful, better

vehicle

designs

be

obtained

before

prototypes are

built,

resulting in fewer

## development time dynamics helps

and cost.

Mathematical modeling
to achieve a design

of vehicle

engineers reduce

## which will meet performance requirements

for the

consumer and

for

government regulations.

A proposed design

can

be

studied to

determine if it
be

## can meet goals

before any

prototypes are

built. The

effects of

design

changes can

evaluated without

with

Development

the

tuning

of prototypes

## by identifying the changes which should be made to produce

desired ride

and

handling characteristics.
simulation offers a

Computer
of

without

individual

parameters can

be isolated

environment.

Simulation

can remove

isolate the
maneuvers

performance of

the

vehicle.

simulation can

be

used to

study

that

could result

vehicle or

Chapter 1

Introduction

example would

be

a maneuver

resulting in

roll over.

Real time

## driving simulators can be

used to train

drivers

and to evaluate

driver performance in

## crash avoidance maneuvers or

when

drowsy or under the influence of alcohol. Many of the new safety and comfort
technologies
such anti-lock

related

brakes,

traction control,

stability control,

and variable

damping would be very difficult, if not impossible, to develop without the use of
simulation.

Computer

simulation

has many

useful applications

in the field

of vehicle

dynamics.
Vehicle dynamics
models can

have

Models

can

include

or a combination

of modes.

## Depending upon its purpose,

the
vehicle.

a model must

representations of

appropriate systems of

Effects
or

of

powertrain

system,

braking system,

accuracy

required.

Control

of

driver is

available.

The

be

suitable

for the

maneuvers

it

will simulate.

The

subject of

it is

concerned with

the

and

as

simple

the bicycle

model

is

used

in this

study.

degree-

be very

useful

in

## demonstrating the interaction of major parameters

location,
wheelbase, and forward

such as

## tire properties, inertia properties, mass center

speed.

Chapter 2 is

a review of vehicle

of

of

by the tires,

an overview

## tire lateral force

mechanics

is

provided

in Chapter 3 along

with a

description

of the

two

Chapter 1

Introduction

in this

study.

The

non-linear model

is based on

## a method called tire

data

nondimensionalization.

Chapter 4
of the

focus

of this

## research, the development and application

two degree-of-freedom vehicle model. Equations of motion are derived from basic

principles of

Newtonian

mechanics.

The

model

used

and

non-linear.

In the linear

model

## transfer functions are written and

to derive various

## measures of steady-state and transient response and to examine the

frequency response of

the vehicle to control and disturbance inputs. In addition, the response of the linear model
to various inputs is simulated

## by integrating the differential equations of motion. Also,

is
performed and the results are compared with those of

## simulation of the non-linear model

the linear model. Conclusions are drawn regarding the range of applicability of the linear
model.

Literature Review

As early

mentioned

in Chapter 1
vehicle

as the

top speeds

of automobiles

## increased rapidly in the

to
engineers.

part of

this century

dynamics became

an

important

consideration

A large

body of vehicle dynamics literature cunently exists covering all aspects of vertical,
and

longitudinal,

## lateral performance. Fundamental to understanding lateral vehicle

of the mechanism of

dynamics is knowledge
been
written on

this topic.

One William

of

first

concerning
work

lateral dynamics

was written

in 1908

by

Lanchester.2

In this

of

of

automobiles.

However,

complete

understanding

## turning behavior was hampered in the

In 1925 George Broulhiet

early

years

## by a lack of understanding of tire mechanics.

published a paper

generation

Steering

Mechanism"

which

in terms

of

which

is

still used

today

and

all

lateral

vehicle

dynamics

models.

Following this

## development tire dynamometers

tire
under various conditions.

were

built

by a

These

develop

detailed

## explanations and models of

turning behavior.

One
responsible

of

the early pioneers in vehicle dynamics research was Maurice Olley. He was
of

## for the introduction described the

the independent front suspension in the United States for the system in the 1934 SAE paper "Independent

and

operation of

## Wheel Suspension: Its Whys

"Suspension
Handling"

Whererfores."

and

report written

in 1937 titled

and

reviewed

the

research

in lateral dynamics

is

today.3

understood

in 1955.

retirement

## During the period of the

Chapter 2

Literature Review

early 1960's he
summarized

published a series of

"Olley'

Notes"4'5

as

which

his

extensive

knowledge

## of suspension systems and

handling. dynamics
was written

One

## of the most significant works

Segal.6

concerning lateral

vehicle

in 1956 by Leonard

Segal,

who worked at

which

many

of

the

analytical

techniques

Experimental

aircraft

## dynamics. In this work,

of

entitled

'Theoretical Prediction

and

Substantiation

## the Response of the Automobile to

Control,"

Steering

Segal developed
roll)
model of

equations of motion

for

available

and

vehicle

a

## for his research, it

was

necessary to have

linear

model

for

which

closed-

form

solutions

found. Segal

used

concepts of

## equations of motion and

described the

stability factor,

neutral steer

point, and

static margin.

was

concluded

## that a linear model

sufficiently

accurate

for lateral

motions of a reasonable

magnitude.

A
and

second paper

"Design Implications

of a

General

Control"

written

was presented at

Aeronautical
paper series

Laboratory,

## the same time as Segal's paper as part of a five

Performance."7

"Research in Automobile

This

paper studied

## the vehicle as a linear two degree-of-freedom system. This enabled the

authors

to utilize a large
systems.

for the

dynamic

These

## papers preceded a great

deal

of research

in lateral

vehicle

dynamics

which

has

provided engineers

today

with a comprehensive

understanding

of the subject.

Several

dynamics.

Suspension

and

1993),8

## Elementary Vehicle Dynamics

Chapter 2

Literature Review

(Cole,

1972),9

Tyres, Suspension

and

Handling (Dixon,
1989),12

199

1),10

1969),11

1992),1

and

(Gillespie,

1969),14

Milliken,

1995),13

and

Engineering
and

Stall,

1996),15

n

1957),16

Theory of Ground
freedom vehicle
Another
Leffert.18

Most

of

model when

literature

in 1976

by Bundorf and

In this

work

concept

to
understeer are

characteristics

determined

This

allows engineers

to see the

effects of

steering

and suspension

and

camber

## stiffnesses, tire aligning torque,

on understeer without

developing the detailed vehicle models that would be necessary to simulate these effects
directly. Since the computing hardware
models was not and software needed

available at

vehicle models

Since the
expand on

work of

which

his

model.

The dynamics

## been integrated into the

vehicle models.

Lateral dynamics
of

models

have been

expanded to

include longitudinal

and vertical

degrees

models.

## force generation, have been included in the

found in
works

Some

examples

in the literature

can

be

by

Allen,19

Heydinger,20

Xunmao.21

and

came

dynamics

codes.

These

individually
individually

and connected

using joints.

be
obtained.

very

accurate

kinematic

## representation of a complete vehicle can

Chapter 2

Literature Review

Examples

of the application of

multibody

codes to vehicle

dynamics

can

be found in the

literature.22'23

As

computer

processing

speeds

increase,

with

vehicle

dynamics

simulations

becomes

more practical.

the

use of

## these codes is the large amount

of

information that is in

models.

The dimensions,

## some cases stiffnesses of each relevant

component must

be known to build
simulation

an accurate model.

Commercial multibody
and

codes used

for

vehicle

dynamics

Mechanica Motion.
models

## Paramount to the development

of successful vehicle

dynamics

## has been the

development

of accurate representations of

## tire behavior. Much effort has been devoted to

this task and the results can be found in the literature. One the first attempts at a theoretical
model of tire

## by von Schlippe and Dietrich in

1941.

They represented

the tire

by a massless taut string on an elastic foundation and predicted forces based on the
and material properties of the tire.

geometry have

in tire

models

as

computers

available.

1981.24

contract

by Clarke in

In 1990

model was

developed by

Gim

and

Nikravesh.25

However,

most of

curve

today

are

based primarily
measured

upon empirical

## data. These models involve

fitting of experimentally

tire data. One of the most popular empirical tire models known as the "Magic
was published

Formula"

by Bakker, Nyborg,
and
Allen.28

and

Pacejka in

1987.26

## Other useful tire

tire models has

models

include those

by

The development
modeling.

of accurate

been

critical

to the success

of vehicle

dynamics

There
years

exists a

large

body

literature regarding
significant

vehicle

## dynamics. The last forty

the topic. Models of

in

particular

have

seen

many

developments

on

vehicles and

tires have been developed to the point where very accurate simulations of
response can

lateral dynamic

be

performed.

The

digital

computer

has greatly

Chapter 2

Literature Review

enhanced the

ability

of engineers

to

## develop and utilize these models for practical gains. A

dynamics literature reviewed during this
research

list of relevant
provided

sources

from the

vehicle

is

in Appendix D.

Tire Behavior

3.1 Introduction
With the
exception of gravitational and aerodynamic

forces,

all of

vehicle

to the

vehicle

## through its tires. In supporting the

vehicle changes speed or

the

## forces to the tires. When the

direction

as a

result of control

inputs,

accelerations

are, in

vehicle

## by the ground through the tires. Thus, to model the

a suitable representation of tire

dynamics
Two tire widely

it is necessary to have
a simple

behavior.

in this thesis:

linear model

and a more

accurate, more

## applicable non-linear model.

The

requirements of a

tire

model

vary

## depending upon the aspects of vehicle

In general, there
are

three

force

components and

## the ground. In a complete model of vehicle dynamics where the

vertical motions of the vehicle are

longitudinal, lateral,
be

and

being studied,

effect of the

tires

on

## the dynamics of the

vehicle.

However,

this thesis is concerned only with the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The simple

is

studied

and rotational

degrees

of

freedom in the
the vertical

horizontal
axis of

plane.

the

vehicle need

moment.

vertical axis

is

called

of

The

effect of the

aligning

moments of the

tires on the

overall

dynamics

## the vehicle is generally small compared to the effect of the

vehicle model which

lateral forces
moments of

of the tires.

In the

is

presented

modeled

neglected.

## Thus the only

aspect of tire

behavior which is

is lateral force

generation.

10

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

The
complete

mechanics of the

lateral force

generation of a

## tire is a complex process. A this thesis.

discussion

of

this

process

is beyond the

scope of

Many thorough
The lateral

discussions
force

of the mechanics of

force

generation exist

in the

literature.1'1317

Fy generated by a pneumatic tire depends upon many variables including road surface
carcass

conditions, tire

design,

rubber

## compound, size, pressure,

temperature, speed,
given tire on

vertical

## slip, inclination angle, and slip angle. For a

vertical

unchanging,

and

slip

angle are

the

variables

having the largest effect and are the variables considered for the tire models used

in this thesis.
The tire slip
angle angle

is

represented

of the center of

"the This

between the

X'

axis and

## the direction of travel

tire

contact."29

X'

Figure 3. 1: Tire

Slip Angle

11

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

definition

references the

S AE tire
X'

system.29

axis

The

origin of

## the tire contact patch. The

of

axis

is the intersection

Z'

axis

is

perpendicular

to the

is

positive

Y'

axis

is in the

plane of

system.

angle and

lateral force,

## and tire axis system are shown

in Figure 3.1. A

positive

slip

lateral

force

are shown.

Simply stated, the slip angle is the angle between the direction the wheel
direction it is traveling
produced at a given

is pointing

and the

other

versus

single vertical

slip

angle curve

for

shown

is approximately

## linear. Here the lateral force

generated

depends primarily

on

and ground

design,
within

## and tire pressure.

There is little sliding occurring between the tire Lateral force is developed
as a result of

the contact

patch.

deformation

of

the tire.

\.<h.j...\....^r.

v>r
<D o

2
0)
CO

10

12

14

16

## Slip Anlge (deg)

Figure 3.2: Tire Lateral Force Versus

Slip Angle

12

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

The initial
tire. The

slope of lateral

force
is

versus

slip

angle curve

is the cornering

stiffness

Ca of the

cornering

stiffness

often used as a

linear

approximation

to the relationship
stiffness can

normalized

and

slip

angle

be

coefficient

both vary

with

the vertical
while

on

coefficient

vertical

the

cornering

decreases. Both

of

this thesis.

As the slip

angle

increases the

slope of

a maximum.

At this

maximum the

coefficient

vertical

as

coefficient \iy.

## The lateral friction

usually decreases

the vertical load on the tire increases. Beyond the slip angle at which the peak lateral
angles a

contact patch

larger portion

of

the

is sliding than

at

low slip

angles.

produced

depends

The
curve shown

in Figure 3.2

characteristics.

Because

of

a change

actually

dynamic

system within

itself. When

in slip

angle

modeled

effects of tire

dynamics
for
are

can

be

by including
are

of

vehicle model

each

generally

small

Hz.6

Tire dynamics

## typically modeled when

lane
change.

simulating emergency

Tire

dynamics

are neglected

in the

13

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

## 3.3 Linear Tire Model

As
mentioned above the

initial

slope of the

lateral force

versus

slip

angle curve

for

single vertical

be

stiffness

Under

certain

tire behavior.

Inspection

of Figure

3.2

reveals

linear. Thus

at

sufficiently

small

## slip angles, the lateral force

produced

by a tire can be

approximated

by the expression

Fy
where

Caa

(3.1)

c.-Z
a

da

(3.1)
a=0

system.

of

of

the

versus

slip

angle

relationship
variety
of

permits

Since there is

a wide

linear systems,

much can

be learned

of a

## linear model. The

of simulations of

range of

applicability

of

by comparison

linear

## and non-linear models

in Section 4.6.2.

When tire slip
angles

## become high the linear tire

model

does

not

accurately predict

tire lateral force. At a high slip angle the linear model predicts a force which is higher than the actual tire force. A non-linear tire model is necessary to accurately determine tire lateral

force

at

high slip

angles.

## As discussed in Chapter 2, found in the literature. Some

experimentally
measured

several approaches

upon curve

models are

fitting of

## tire data. Other models are

primarily theoretical,

with some

14

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

parameters

determined experimentally,

such as

the

stiffness of

has

of

tire model

used

because
of its

based entirely

on empirical

of

tire

model

is

used

limited

complexity

and

model chosen

available

to the

researcher.

The tire
was originated

## for this study is

called

tire data

nondimensionalization and

by

Hugo

combined

## able to predict tire

aligning
and

moment, longitudinal

force,

and

of

## longitudinal slip, only the lateral force due to lateral slip is

effects of camber on

assumes a

lateral force
so

are

## being ignored, and the vehicle model

necessary to
to have
consider

constant

forward velocity,

it is

not

the
overall

## moments are considered

a negligible effect on

dynamics

of

the vehicle.

There

are

two

main steps

## in using the tire data

nondimensionalization

technique.

model.

experimental

The

second

angle.

a given

vertical

and

slip

In

a vehicle

second

would

typically

simulation.

The

step

would

be done

at each

time step

during the

simulation

based

on

instantaneous

values of

manufacturer

used

on experimental

shown

for

in tabular form
versus

at

section

and

is

plotted

slip

vertical

of

## 2793 N, 4190 N, 5587 N, 6984 N,

each of the vertical

and

at
0

angle varies

from 0 to 15. At

and/or

slip

angle

is

be

expected.

while

ply

steer

in

the tire.
errors

Conicity

arises

## from asymmetries in tire construction,

ply

steer results

from

in the

angles of

the belt cords in the tire. Both conicity and ply steer depend upon

15

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

quality
to tire.

control

effects are not

and can

be

random

Since these

## vehicle models under consideration

here, these effects have been eliminated from the experimental data by shifting each of the
lateral force
used curves to the

origin of

zeroed

data is

in

## all subsequent analysis.

Preprocessing the experimental data is done by normalizing the data and then curve
fitting the normalized data. The first step in normalizing the data is to determine the tire
cornering
coefficient

angle

stiffness

is the initial

slope of the

lateral force
stiffness

versus

slip

divided

1

## by dividing the lateral force at

data the cornering

slip

angle

## by the vertical load. Thus, from the

experimental

coefficient at a single

Cc=^==%1

(3-2)
in Figure 3.4. As
and vertical

The cornering

coefficients at each

are plotted

can

be

seen

can

be
represented as

coefficient as a

function

of vertical

CC=B,
Values
used of

C3FZ
This
expression can

(3.3)
be

the constants

an

## to predict the cornering coefficient for

during a simulation.

coefficient

## \yy at each load must be found. This is done by

Thus

dividing the maximum lateral force for a given vertical load by the vertical load itself.
for a
single vertical

16

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

## Table 3.1: Non-Linear Tire Model Parameters

Parameter
Tire cornering coefficient intercept Tire cornering coefficient
Tire lateral friction Tire lateral friction
slope

Symbol

Value
0.333

coefficient

intercept

coefficient slope

## Magic Formula curve fit parameter

Magic Formula curve fit parameter Magic Formula curve fit parameter

B3 C3 B5 c5 B, c, D, E,

1.173

## 0.5835 1.7166 1.0005 0.2517

Py-

..

'

imax

(3.4)
in Figure 3.5. As
the

## The lateral friction

coefficients at each

are plotted

with

cornering coefficients, the relationship between lateral friction is approximately linear for this tire. The lateral friction

coefficient can

be

expressed as

fly=B5
Values
of

C5Fz
This
expression

(3.5)
is
used

the constants

## B5 and C5 are provided in Table 3.1.

during simulation to predict the lateral friction coefficient for an arbitrary vertical load.
With the cornering
the
experimental coefficient and

lateral friction
angle a can

coefficient

known

at each

data,

the

normalized

slip

be

calculated at each

the

expression

_=Cctan(q)

(3.6)

Similarly,

the

normalized

lateral force F

at each

data point is

F.=-F'

(3.7)

HyZ

17

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

When the
data point, the
then curve fit.

normalized

lateral force is

plotted against

normalized

results

lie

to fit this
here.26

data

are

While

various

functions

could

be

used

data,

a popular

function for
a

## fitting tire data known as the "magic

combination of trigonometric
of various shapes such as

formula"

is

used

The

magic

formula is

functions

and

and

aligning

moment.

The

normalized

Fy
where

Dx sin(0)

(3.8)

6
and

Cx atan(fl^)

(3.9)

. _

y/

(l-El)a+

,_

(3.10)
provide the

The

parameters

B}, C,, Dn
data. The

and

Ej

must

be determined to

## best fit to the

script

normalized experimental

curve

## fitting is implemented in the MATLAB

MagicFit.m. This
and uses

the normalized lateral force versus slip angle data from a file

## leastsq to do a non-linear least

squares

fit. The
each

leastsq function calls the function MagicError.m which computes the enors
and

between

data point

Bp C7, D,,

and

Et

are

found to
are

minimize

## the sum of the squares of these enors. MagicFit.m and MagicError.m

and

listed in Appendix A. 1

Appendix A.2
and the

respectively.

curve

fit
with

in Table 3. 1,

function is

plotted

the

normalized

data. It
a

can

be

seen

from the

plot

## that a good fit to the data has been obtained.

of normalized angle

With
now

normalized

slip

## available, the tire lateral

force

can

be

calculated

for any

combination of vertical

18

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

and

slip

angle.

First, the cornering coefficient and lateral friction coefficient are calculated
and

from the

vertical

and the

normalized

slip

angle

is

calculated

normalized

lateral friction

coefficient

angle

lateral force is

calculated

from the

normalized

slip

normalized

and

and

can

then be found

from the

Fy=FyHyFz
This
procedure

(3.11)
which

vertical

is listed

outputs the

and

slip

angle as

inputs

and

of

of

lateral force

versus

slip
and

angle

are shown

vertical

with

8380 N

in Figure 3.7

as solid

lines along
The

points.

## non-linear tire model

implemented in this
versus

section

accurately
of

reproduces the

study.

slip

angle

relationship
produced

This

model

is

capable of

for inclusion in

lateral dynamics

angles.

## Thus the tire

model

is

suitable

a model of vehicle

where

model

and

can

be

extended

and

slip.

aligning
should

moment

due to camber,

## longitudinal force due to longitudinal

It

be

noted

that due to sign conventions in the SAE tire axis system and in

lateral force is

produced

by a negative

slip

angle.

The description

of

## the models in this chapter assumed that a positive slip angle

convenience.

produced a positive

However,

when

ensure

## vehicle model appropriate care must

be taken to

compatibility

with

19

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

the sign convention required by the vehicle model. In the linear tire model the cornering
stiffness must

be

20

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

0
1 2 3 4 5

(N)
6984
-334

2793
-89

4190
-156

5587
-245

8380
-378

737

1357

1458
3025 4404

1388 1935
2358 2647

2869
4115

5026 5649
6005

## 5449 6183 6672

6950 7110 7166 7180 7153 7111 7050

## 3803 4026 4175

4241 4258 4246 4222 4168

4849
5182

6
7

2950 2930 2890

5350
5470

8 9
10 11 12 13 14

5490
5450

5400 5350
5282

4099
4037

5200 5121

6978 6900

15

3977

10

## Slip Angle (deg)

Figure 3.3: Experimental Tire Data

21

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

0.35

0.30

TO

0)
TJ

0.25

s^-

c o

0.20

*= CD o

O
O) c
k-

0.15

0)
^

0.10

0.05

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

(N)

## Figure 3.4: Tire

Cornering Coefficient

1.2

1.0

g>

0.8

'o it=
a) o

O
c

0.6

o
o

it
to

0.4

a
a>

0.2

6000

8000

10000

(N)

22

Chapter 3

Tire Behavior

1.2

1.0
CD

|
CD

0-8

5
CD N

0.6

15

0.4
o

2793 N
4190N

A
0.2 X
ill

5587 N

6984 N 8380 N
i II

0.0

II

....

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0 Normalized

Slip

3.5

4.0

4.5

10

12

14

16

## Slip Angle (N)

Figure 3. 7: Reconstructed Tire Lateral Force

23

4.1 Introduction
Under
The driver
normal

inputs to
produce

the

desired lateral

motion.

concerned

primarily

with

## response of a road vehicle to control and

disturbance inputs.
used

The

realistically be

to

examine

the lateral

response

model used

"bicycle"

model.

As

noted

in
lateral

Chapter 2, this
response.

model

simplifies

## Although this lateral

greatly

the

vehicle

system, much

can

be learned

response

through its use. The model demonstrates the effects of major tire properties, inertia properties, mass center
of practical significance

design

location,

## wheelbase, and forward speed. Conclusions

regarding
model.17

lateral directional
chapter

control and

stability

can

simple

In this

vehicle model

relationships

principles of

dynamics. Next,

for

vehicle

model

is

the

and non-linear.

linear form

of

the model,

## simplify the linear

kinematic

relationships and

tire

mechanics.

This

systems analysis

response of

measures of

aerodynamic side

force,

## and road side slope are

developed. Several

state and

transient

response are

is
simulated

examined

using bode

plots.

Finally,

vehicle response

for

variety

of

steering

24

Chapter 4

inputs

and

respect to time.

In the

non-linear

as

non-linear

kinematics
accounts

and a non-linear

tire

versus

## for the non-linear,

of the model

vertical

steering inputs is

slip

angle relationship.

Simulation

response to

performed and

simulation.

4.2 Description

of

Model
used

vehicle

in this

chapter

is

shown

## in Figure 4.1. The

v and yaw

is
r

modeled as a single

lumped

mass

rigid body
u

and

velocity

degrees

of

## freedom. The forward velocity

the vehicle is represented

is

assumed

Ia,
with

The

vehicle

has

a wheel

base L,
a

a mass

axle and a

its

mass center

located
of

distance

rear axle.

Rotation

The

is

measured

is the only
control control

front

steer angle

as

## work position control

is

assumed.

Position

is defined by SAE

"that

inputs

in the steering

system

contrast

independent

of

the force

required."29

This is in

independent

of

displacement.
x-y-z

The
motion of

standard

SAE

is

used

to describe the

z-axis

x-axis

is

positive

in the forward
origin

## direction, the y-axis is positive

coordinate system

is

positive

down. The

for the

is

at

the

25

Chapter 4

## Figure 4. 1 : Vehicle Model

vehicle mass

center, and the coordinate system translates and rotates with the vehicle.
permitted

Motion is only

in the x-y

plane.

4.2. 1 Assumptions
Several simplifying
model:

Constant vehicle

parameters

Motion in x-y
mass)
plane

and

pitching

motions of

sprung

Vehicle is rigid

26

Chapter 4

Vehicle is

surface

is

smooth

Ignore

effects of

Ignore
all

effects

direction)

## driving/braking forces, tire roiling resistance,

aerodynamic

drag)
kinematics
and

Ignore

suspension system

dynamics

system

kinematics

and

dynamics

control

roll of

## Ignore tire Ignore tire

steer

sprung

mass

steer

chassis compliance

Tire

angles

scrub

and

## longitudinal load transfer (vertical tire forces independent of time

and

remain

constant)

properties are

forward velocity
and

Ignore tire lateral forces due to camber, conicity, Ignore tire aligning Ignore
effect of

ply

steer.

moments

on

## 4.2.2 Vehicle Parameters

The
model

nominal values of

of metric units

in this study

are given

(SI) is

27

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

used

for

all calculations.

The base

and second

(s).

Force is
on

measured

in the derived

unit newton

of weight

mass center

## position of the mass center

along the

wheelbase.

The

location parameters

a and

from/ and L.

These

## Table 4.1: Vehicle Parameters

Parameter Vehicle
Yaw
mass

Symbol
m

Value
1775

kg
kg-m2

moment of

inertia
fraction

'
f
L
to front axle
a

Front

axle weight

Wheelbase
Distance from
mass center
center

m m m m

1.139
1.233 1.25

## Distance from mass

Distance from front

to

rear axle

b
force
c

4.2.3

Free-Body
There
are

Diagram

aerodynamic side

lateral forces,

force,

a

occur

c

angles.

The

aerodynamic side

force F a is

vehicle when

at a

distance

## behind the front

The

axle.

This type

of

force
a

acts on a

it

encounters a crosswind.

gravitational side

force F is

disturbance

input acting

at

the

## vehicle mass center and

resulting from

a side slope

in the

All forces
are

are considered

to be the

positive when

acting in the

positive y-direction.

These forces

shown

acting

on

vehicle

in Figure 4.2.

28

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

Figure 4.2:

Free-Body Diagram
Motion
vehicle are

4.3 Derivation
The

of

Equations

of

equations of motion

derived using

basic

## principles of Newtonian mechanics

motion relative to

translating and
acting

systems.31

rotating
on a

coordinate

The basic

equations

and moments

rigid

## body to the acceleration of the body are

If
=g

Xmg=hg
where

(4.1)

and

Mg are external forces and moments about the mass center (in vector form)
body,
and

acting
vector

on

the

and

## HG are the linear and angular momenta of the body (also in

form) measured relative to an inertia! reference frame. Since in this model only

29

Chapter 4

motion

plane

is

## considered and all

longitudinal

(x-direction) forces

are

being

ignored,

(4.1) become
ma

(4.2)

## Since the x-y-z

mass

coordinate system

is fixed to the

vehicle with

its

origin at

the vehicle
of

of

## the vehicle mass center and

rotational

velocity

the vehicle are identical to those of the x-y-z system. From Figure 4. 1, the velocity the origin of the x-y-z system is

V0 of

V0=wi + vj
and the angular

(4.3)

velocity Q. is Q
=

rk

(4.4)
changing
with

Since the

x-y-z system

is rotating, the

acceleration

a0

of

## the origin expressed in

an

inertial

reference

frame

coincident with

the

x-y-z system

is

dV.
a
=

+ ilxV

dt
=

(4.5)
(v + ur)j
to the inertial frame is

(u- vr)i +

## Similarly, the angular acceleration of the x-y-z

system relative

+ Q.XQ.

dt
=

(4.6)

rk

Thus the

acceleration values of

interest

are

=v

+ ur

(4.7)
Qz=r
These
values

vehicle-fixed

mass center.

30

Chapter 4

The

external

forces acting

on

positive sense

in

Figure 4.2. A

in

positive

free-body

diagram, it is

seen that

Fv

=Fyf cost
=

-

(4.8)
ya

X Mz
Substitution
of

aF^
Eq.

cos 8

(c

a)Fy

Eq.

(4.7)

and

yields

## F^ cos 8 + Fyr + Fya +Fyg=m(v + ur)

aF^ cos 8
Here
u
-

(4.9)

bFyr

(c

a)Fya is

Ia r
The
state variables are

is the
v and

vehicle

forward velocity
r.

and

a constant.

the

lateral velocity

## the yaw velocity

F^ and Fyr are the front and rear tire lateral forces.
and gravitational side

Fya and F
while

are

8.

4.4 Derivation

of

Tire

Slip

Angles
produced

## As discussed in Chapter 3, the lateral force among

the
other

by a tire

depends upon,

things, the

vertical

on

the tire and the slip angle of the tire. In this model
and rear

vertical

yaw

tire slip

angles

vary

as

functions

of

velocity r,

which are

## the system state variables. Thus it is

necessary to

develop expressions

and rear

## af and ar, in terms

of v and r.

Figure 4.3 is
and

kinematic diagram

of

the vehicle

## showing the tire velocity

vectors

tire slip angles. Each slip angle is shown in its positive sense as the angle between the
vector.

## tire and the tire velocity tire to its velocity

positive

slip

angle

implies

a clockwise rotation

from the

vector.

steer

input

as shown

31

Chapter 4

## Figure 4.3: Kinematic Diagram velocity

vector

is actually

a counter-clockwise rotation

so

slip

angles are

negative.

In summary,

a positive steer

input

results

in

negative tire

slip

angles.

## The first step in

the translational and

## determining the tire slip angles is finding the tire velocities.

Since

rotational velocities of

convenient

motion

(4.3)

and

to

use

the principle

of relative

are

velocities.31

velocities

## Vf and Vr of the front and rear tires

respectively

Vf=V0+QxRf
V=V+fixR

(4.10)

where

R, and Rr are position vectors from the vehicle mass center to the front and rear tires:

32

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

Rf
R,
Thus the tire
velocities are

=a\

(4.11)
=-b\

V. f

u\

ar)\ + (v V + '

Vr
In general, if the velocity

u\ +

(v

(4.12)
-

br)j
ith tire
are

known,

fvA
a,
=

atan

-8,.

(4.13)

\Y*j
where

## Vx and Vy are the

x-

and y-components of

## the velocity of the tire. Since steer of the

rear

tire is not permitted in this model, the tire slip angles are, in their general non-linear

form,
^

a/=atan(

(v + ar\

j-S
(4'14)

ar

atan

fv-bA
V
u

## 4.5 Linear Model

Thus far the
general non-linear equations of motion and

tire slip

angle relationships

## have been derived for the two degree-of-freedom vehicle. If additional

assumptions are

to linearize the model, analysis techniques for linear systems may be used to gain

more

insight into

angles and

lateral

forces

are assumed

are valid

for

vehicle

lateral

accelerations

up to

0.35 g,

linear

range of the

## tire lateral force versus slip angle

relationship.13

Most

automobile

driving is

done

within

this range, so results from the linear model are applicable over a wide range of

driving

situations.

33

Chapter 4

It is
models, to

common

in modeling

of vehicle

with

linear

use

angle

sideslip
angle

lateral

The

vehicle

is the

angle

between the

vehicle-

fixed x-axis
Eq.

and

vector

Vn

as shown

(4.14)

## for tire slip angles, the

vehicle

sideslip

angle

is

p
A
positive vehicle

= atari-

(;)
may be
positive or

(4.15)
from the x-axis to the velocity
negative,

sideslip

angle

implies

clockwise rotation

vector.

For

a given steer

angle

depending
lateral

upon

the forward
when

speed.+

vehicle

sideslip

angle

is

used

in

place of

velocity

response

measures, and

## frequency response. However,

lateral velocity

since simulation of

the non-linear
of the

model

is

## more straightforward with

as a state

variable, simulation

linear model is

## also performed with

lateral velocity

as a state variable to

facilitate parallel

development

of

of motion are

variables

in terms

of

functions,
response

frequency

is

examined.

Simulation

of

## the model is performed for various steering and

disturbance inputs.

The

following assumptions are made for the linear two degree-of-freedom model in

more

information.

34

Chapter 4

Small
steer

angle

relationship

vehicle

sideslip angle,

4.5.2 Vehicle
With the

Sideslip Angle
small angle

assumption, Eq.

angle

becomes

Pu

(4.16)

small then

cos(P)

i^l
(4.17)

or u~V

where

Vis the

## velocity V0. Now Eq. (4.16) becomes

P~"
4.5.3 Tire

(4-18)

Slip

Angles
assumption, the tire slip
v + ar

With the

small angle

angles

become

af
a

-8

u v
=

br
u

(4.19)

angles can

of

be

expressed as

af K f =P

r-8

b
r=P--r

(4.20)

35

Chapter 4

From the
seen

and

Moments

on

the

vehicle are

F^ the

rear tire

aerodynamic side

force Fya,
are

force Fyg.

lateral forces
employed.

linear functions

of

model of

Section 3.3

can

be

From Eq.

(3.1)

Fyf *
Fyr
where

^rr
effective

(4.21)

_ ~

## C/and Crare the front

stiffnesses of both

and rear

cornering

tires

on an axle.

## twice the cornering

stiffness of a single

front tire. As

result,

## F^ and Fyr are the sums of the tire lateral forces

angles are negative

of

both tires

on an axle.

for

a positive steer

angle, the

cornering
required

be

negative

in

order

forces

by the

sign convention.

For further

explanation of

application of

stiffnesses

for the

Eq.

(3.3)

in Table 4.2.

stiffness

Symbol
(two tires)

Value
-2461

C~f
Cr

N/deg N/deg

stiffness

(two tires)

-23

11

The

aerodynamic side

force

area.32

and a reference

side

force itself is

used as

## the disturbance input to the system. The aerodynamic side force is

on

positive when

acting

the

vehicle

in the

positive y-direction.

36

Chapter 4

## Figure 4.4: Gravitational Side Force The

shown

gravitational side

force

force is
positive when

## in Figure 4.4. The

gravitational side

acting

on

the vehicle in

the positive y-direction. Thus the gravitational side force can be expressed as

Fyg
where

=mg sinQ
and

(4.22)

g is the

acceleration

due to gravity
on

9 is the

is sloping down

## is used, then Eq.

=

(4.22)

simplifies to

F
With the
can now gravitational side

mgQ

(4.23)
of

force

expressed

in terms

be

considered

4.5.5 Equations
With Eq. (4.21),

of

Motion
the tire slip
angles

substitution of

## (4.23) into Eq. (4.9),

the linearized

equations of motion

become

37

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

(Cr+Cr)p + ^
C*

r-r-Cf5 + Fya+mgQ
hi
r
-

mV\$ + mVr

rt

-U

(aCf
The

bCr )p

f-

aCf8

(c

a)Fya =1J
been
to the

is

small

has

also

applied

reduce

## equations to the above

form. This

assumption

is generally

valid

for maneuvers

at moderate

to high speeds. For very low speed maneuvers, such as parking, large
often required.

To simplify

manipulation of

of

external

force

and moment

such as

and

equations of

William

Milliken.6,7,13

In

to

simplifying the
which can give

physical

meaning

## further insight into

lateral dynamics.

moments

are

to

acting

on

the

p,

with yaw moment.

associated with

lateral force

and

three associated
are

The

equations of

motion

## Fpp + Yrr + Ys8 + Fya

+ mgQ

mV\$ + mVr

(4'25)

Nfi
where

Nrr + N6S-(c-a)Fja=I,tr

38

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

V cf+cr
=
-

Damping

in

Sideslip Coupling
(4.26)

Yr

aCf
V
=

bCr

Lateral Force/Yaw

Y5

~Cf

Control Force
Directional

NP

aCf-bCr a2Cf+b2Cr
V

Stability

Nr-

Yaw

Damping

Ns-=

-aCf

Control Moment
model under consideration the

## In the two degree-of-freedom

all constants.

stability derivatives

are

As such, the

## equations of motion can

be

manipulated

in stability derivative

of generality.

definition,

always negative

by

## the signs of the stability derivatives can be obtained. The

and yaw

damping-in-sideslip

## damping derivative Nr are always negative. The control force

derivative Ns
are always positive.

## The lateral force/yaw

coupling derivative
negative

If

derivatives
are positive and

aCf is

bCr,

then the

then the

derivatives

derivatives

more

Understeer,

oversteer,

discussed in

## 4.5.6 Transfer Functions

Now that the
equations of motion are available

in

simple, compact

form,
and

transfer

functions

can

outputs

From
can

used to examine

functions

can

response,

be

many

frequency

39

Chapter 4

expressions

and zeros.

The derivation

of

## the transfer functions and all analytical

for measures

of system response

## is done using Mathematica. The Mathematica

session

for the two degree-of-freedom vehicle is included in Appendix B. To find the transfer functions the
equations of motion are

first

written

in the Laplace

s--

1
mV
s--

( Y \
mV

1
mV
a c

> (g\

mV

Na

N.

m+

As);
equations of

Fjs)

W
yOj

(4.27)

## motion, the transfer functions for vehicle

sideslip

angle are

found to be

75

NrYs+N8(mV-Yr)
i*v

!-

mV

N~

Y\ + !W+N9(mV-Yr)
LmV
s+
-

(4.28)

\^+'mVj 1

(c-a)(mV-Y)-Nr ^ T-i-

P
ya

mV

(')

I^mV
I

s2-

Y\{N^+N*(mV-Yr)
mV

(4.29)

I,mV

8S
Ya \
s2-

8Nr

(4.30)
^NrY^N^mV-Yr)

mV

IzjnV
are

Similarly,

the transfer

N
I
s-

8j|

Va-^P
I,mV
"i

s2-

N.
i

N^ + N^mV-Y,)
IumV

(4.31)

v'

mV

40

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

a-c

s+

+ yp(c-fl) iVp p
-

J-(S)

I*

^mV
,

(4.32)

\*zz

ntV

ImV zz

gN L(s)
r

IV
=

is-l
2

BK)

(4 33) IjnV
of

(Nr

-H

Y,]5-1 NrY,+N,{mV-Yr)
mVj
the two degree-of-freedom

U
The
vehicle can

above transfer

be

used

yaw

## velocity, tire slip

angles,

path

curvature, and lateral acceleration are found. The steer angle required to
vehicle

produce a given

behavior

such as understeer

factor,

neutral steer

## point, static margin,

tangent speed, critical speed, and characteristic speed are defined and expressed in terms of the stability derivatives.

## The found for

step

response of vehicle

sideslip

velocity

can

be

each of

## by applying the Final Value Theorem to the transfer

however,
the stability of the

functions.33

verified.

system must

The

system

is

stable

if none

of

4.5.7 Vehicle

Sideslip Angle
of the

Gain
vehicle

Application

aerodynamic side

sideslip

angle transfer

functions for
Eq. (4.29),

steer

angle,

force,
the

(Eq. (4.28),

and

Eq.

(4.30)

respectively)

gives

41

Chapter 4

P
8

## NrY&+N&(mV-Yr) NrYA+N9(mV-Yr) (c-a)(mV-Yr)-Nr NrY+NJmV-Yr)

mgNr

(4.34)

P
ya

(4.35)

(4.36)

NrYf N9{mV-Yr)
Results for the sideslip
are given

for the

response gains

that follow

and

for the

in

Table 4. 1

Table 4.2,

and

4.5.8 Yaw

Velocity

Gain

Similarly,

"&-*&
NrY9+N,(mV-Yr)
rp(c-a) + JVp
ya

(4.37)

NrYf+N,{mV-Yr)
mgN?

(4.38)

NrYf+N9{mV-Yr)

(4.39)

## 4.5.9 Front Tire

Once

Slip

Angle Gain
sideslip
angle and yaw

velocity

are

known the

tire slip angles can be found using Eq. (4.20). The front tire

slip

angle gains

are

oc<
=

a(N9Ys-NJA)-V(mV-Yrpt+Nh)-VNr(YR +

Yh)

(4.40)

v(ivryp+ivp(mv-yr))

42

Chapter 4

a,
ya

V(c

a)(mV

-Yr)

a(c-

a)7p

aiVp

VNr

(4.41)

v{NrY^N^mV-Yr))
a,
e

mg{aN[,-VNr)

(4.42)

v(NrY^N9{mV-Yr))

Slip

Angle Gain
are

## Similarly, the steady-state rear tire slip angle gains

(4.43)

v(ivryp+ivp(mv-yr))
V(c
_ ~ -

a)(mV

-Yr)-b(c-

a)Y&

WVp VNr
-

Fya
O^
e

(4.44)

v(ivrrp+;vp(mv-yr))
-mg^+VN^
~v(NrYB +

(4-45)

NB{mv-Yr))

Another response
measure of

interest is the

follows

when subject

## to one of the inputs. The path curvature 1/R

is the

reciprocal of the

be found

## by dividing the yaw velocity by the vehicle velocity.

r

1/R

V The
path curvature gains

(4.46)

for

each of the

inputs

are

1/R

N Y

-N

(4.47)

v(ivryp+;vp(mv-yr))
yp(c-a) + iVp
(4.48)

1/R
ya

v(NrY{i+N{i(mV-Yr))

43

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

1/R

mgN,

(4.49)

v(Arryp+ivp(mV-yr))
Step Response
Gain
performance.

Lateral
Lateral
acceleration

is

an

important

measure of vehicle

cornering

acceleration

is typically

expressed

in

units of

## "g". The linear

vehicle model

being

considered

here is

valid

for lateral

accelerations

up to approximately 0.35

g.

Beyond that

level,

significant.

Most
able

passenger car

of

although a

typical

passenger car

may be

## to attain maximum lateral accelerations

approximately 0.7-0.8 g

## tires. Race cars without the aid of aerodynamic downforce

reach over

1.2 g

with special

tires designed specifically for racing, while race cars with aerodynamic downforce have

been known to
expressed

exceed

4 g lateral

acceleration.

The

lateral

acceleration

Ay

in

"g"

units of

is
rV

Ay
The lateral
acceleration gains

(4.50)
8

for each

of

V(^YS-N&YP)
8

(4.51)

## g(ivryp+ivp(mv-yr)) v(Y[i(c-a) + Nfi)

A,
ya

(4.52)

g(ivryp+ivp(mv-yr))
=

mVJVp

NY+NJmV-Yr)

(4.53)

44

Chapter 4

V=

100 km/hr

Response
Vehicle sideslip
Yaw velocity
angle

Steer Angle

(6) (P)
/

0.0615/

-1.52

(r)
angle

0.197

1

/N

## Front tire slip

Rear tire slip Path

(af)

-2.05

2.66xlO"4/N
1

0.0620 0.0609

angle

(ar)

-2.02

3.00xl0'4o/N
-2.54xlO-7l/m/N

curvature

(1/R) (Ay)

7.10xl0-3l/m/

7.76xl0-6l/m/

Lateral

acceleration

0.559

g/

6.11xl0-4g/
-2.00xl05g/N

The
R
can

for the

vehicle

## to turn at a constant path radius

be found

by solving the yaw velocity gain for steer angle input expression of
steer angle

Eq.

## (4.37) for the

8. After

some

manipulation, the
mV2Na

steer angle

is

=- +

(4.54)

/?(/vpy5-/v8yp)

Substitution

of

## the stability derivative definitions into this expression yields

f
"

b
C

nYL
L R

(4.55)
steer angle can also

Examination
expressed

of

the

kinematics
of

of a

turning

vehicle

be

in terms

## the tire slip angles

as17

8
From Eq.
angle

ar +ar

(4.56)
velocity
approaches zero the steer

(4.55) it can be

seen

becomes
L
Ac ker

(4.57)

45

Chapter 4

This

steer angle

is known

as the

Ackerman
at

is the

to

## negotiate a turn of path radius

low

vehicle velocity.

At low

speeds

the lateral

governed

and

## tire lateral forces are

negligible and

turning behavior is

solely

by geometry considerations.
in this study the Ackerman
steer angle

vehicle used

for

50

turn is

## to negotiate the turn at 100 km/hr is 2.82 .

A
common measure of vehicle

turning behavior is

the

understeer

understeer

understeer

acceleration.1

turn, is
of the

The definition

be

seen

in the

for

a constant

L
V2

Sss=- + Kus

(4.58)

gR

Thus the

understeer

units of

K
"*

mgNa ^N Y ivp-i5
-

N Y

(4.59)

JV6-p

or

a

mg

(4.60)

The
vehicle

is

has. If to

## the steer angle must increase as vehicle

forward velocity,
positive and

and

is

the

vehicle

is

said

to be

understeer.

If the

decrease, the
does
not

is

negative and

the

vehicle

is

oversteer.

If the

steer angle

46

Chapter 4

is

zero and

the vehicle is

neutral steer.

The

understeer of a

be

obtained

greater

and rear

tire slip

angles.

If If

the magnitude

of

vehicle

is

understeer.

vehicle

vehicle

is

oversteer.

If the slip

angles are

equal, the

is

neutral steer.

For this

is

function

of tire

## stiffnesses and the weight

distribution. Other

roll

system

force

compliance

forces, steering

The

## understeer gradient of a vehicle can

be

measured experimentally.

The two
test.17

most

common methods of

testing

are

## the constant radius test and the constant speed

of

In the

forward velocity
steer angle

the vehicle is varied as the car is driven on a to maintain the constant radius. The

The

is
as

varied

is then calculated

acceleration:

K.=
y

d8

(4.61)

In the

constant speed

is

varied and

## the steer angle required to attain the radius is measured. The

constant speed

from the

test is

d8

gL

K~
Most
designed into
conditions.

M,-^ between 1
and

(462)
10 deg. Understeer is

passenger cars

have

passenger cars

The

vehicle used

for this

example

has

0.0626 deg,

47

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

indicating that the vehicle has a very small amount of understeer in the linear response
range.

4.5.15

Stability
A

Factor
cornering behavior is the stability
factor.6

## second measure of vehicle

The

definition

of

the stability factor comes from the yaw velocity gain for steer angle input

expression of

## Eq. (4.37). This

expression can

be

rewritten as

VIL l+
where
KV2

(4.63)
for K and substituting Eq. (4.37),

mN

K=

(4.64)

l(n,y5-nsy?)
or

L2

(4.65)

If K is

positive

the

vehicle

is understeer,
4.69xl0"5

while

if K is

negative

it is

oversteer.

The

sample vehicle

has

stability factor

of

s2/m2.

the vehicle is

understeer.

## 4.5.16 Neutral Steer Point

The
force
can neutral steer point

is "the

point

along the

lateral
there

be

velocity."13

On

a real vehicle

is actually

a neutral steer

does

not account

for body

## roll and roll steer effects

there is only a neutral steer point. To find the neutral steer point a

written

relating the

yaw

velocity to
axle.

applied

to the

vehicle at a

48

Chapter 4

can

be

used

to find the

velocity

gain

## for the fictitious

Y^d-a) + N^

(4.66)

NrY^N,{mV-Yr)
Setting this yaw
velocity
gain equal

to

zero and

solving for d,

= a-^

(4.67)

Yt
Substituting the stability derivative definitions, the neutral steer point is located at a distance
behind the front
axle of

-^-

(4.68)
is understeer, has if

Cf + Cr
If the
neutral steer point

is behind the
vehicle

mass

center, the

vehicle

while

it is in front
steer point

of

at a

is

oversteer.

The

sample vehicle

a neutral

located
m

distance

of

1.149

axle.

Since the

mass center

is

located 1.139
the vehicle is

is behind the

understeer.

Another way
of

mass center and

margin.

The

static margin

wheelbase.13

## the neutral steer point, normalized

by the

SM

--

^p

(4.69)

Lip
or, substituting the stability derivative

definitions,
aCf
=
7-i

SM

bCr

r-r

(4.70)

L(Cf+Cr)

49

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

If the

static margin

is positive, the
has

vehicle

is

understeer.

If it is

negative

the

vehicle

is

oversteer.

The

sample vehicle

a static margin of

is understeer.

At low front
that
axle.
speed

in

As

speed

is increased the

## radius of travel of the rear axle

increases

and surpasses

of

the front. Thus at high speed the rear axle travels on a larger circle than the front in a

The

front

angle

is

called the

sideslip

is

zero.

For

a right

sideslip

angle

is positive,

while

above the

## tangent speed it is negative. The tangent speed can be found

by multiplying the

sideslip

angle gain

for

steer angle of

Eq.

(4.34) by the

for

solving for

Vtan=

&r

rS

mNs

(4.71)

However,
of

## Yr and Nr are both functions

velocity, it is necessary to substitute the stability derivative definitions and solve for V.
speed

## When this is done the tangent

is

vm=4 V
The
sample vehicle used

bLCr
am

(4-72)

## tangent speed of 49.8 km/hr. Below

this speed the vehicle sideslip angle is positive for a right turn. Above this speed it is
negative.

50

Chapter 4

## 4.5.19 Critical Speed

Consideration
reveals that the yaw
of

Eq.

(4.37) for steady-state yaw velocity gain for steer angle input
gain could

velocity

were zero.

The

happens is
of

called

be found by
of

Eq.

V. In terms

the

derivatives,

## the critical speed is

NaYr-NY

Vcril
However,
the stability derivatives
substitute the

"

"

(4-73)

mNp

## Yr and Nr are functions

of velocity.

Therefore, it is
critical speed

necessary to is then

and solve

for V. The

CfCL2

v'-=-l^K^)
At this infinite
yaw

(4'74)

speed

the

vehicle

is

unstable.

small

theoretically

velocity

response.

## stiffnesses are negative

by

definition, it can be
than

seen

a critical speed

only

exists

if bCr is is

greater

a vehicle

oversteer.

Thus

has

a critical speed

only if it is

oversteer.

When

its

critical speed

it becomes
The

critical speed

lower its

critical speed.

for

## a neutral speed vehicle

is infinite,

and the

critical speed

does

not exist

for

an understeer vehicle.

Since the

sample vehicle

is understeer, it does

not

have

a critical speed.

## 4.5.20 Characteristic Speed

While
an understeer vehicle

has

no critical

in

a similar manner

51

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

characteristic speed

is the

any

## is twice the Ackerman

steer angle.

The characteristic

speed can

be found

by setting the steady-state steer angle of Eq. (4.54) equal to twice the Ackerman steer angle
of

Eq.

(4.57)
of

and

## solving for the velocity V. Since the

which

solution

to this

equation

is

function

stability derivatives
must

resulting
equation solved

definitions
speed

be

## substituted and the

for V. The

characteristic

is then
L CfC f
r

2
,

ychar=

'vmiaCf-bCA The

(4.75)

characteristic speed

is

seen

to have the

same

form

as

the

critical

## speed, but with

the sign of the denominator reversed. A characteristic speed only exists if aC/is greater than

## bCr. Since, from Section 4.5.5, this is the

understeer vehicles

condition

for

an understeer

vehicle, only
an

have

a characteristic speed.

Neutral

steer vehicles

have

infinite

## characteristic speed and oversteer vehicles

have

no characteristic speed.

The

more

understeer a vehicle

has,

## the lower its characteristic speed.

The
speed

sample vehicle

has

a characteristic speed of

characteristic

vehicle

has

## 4.5.21 Characteristic Equation

The
measures of system response

## derived in Section 4.5.7 through Section 4.5.20 The lateral transient

response of the two

## are all measures of steady-state system response.

degree-of-freedom

is

now examined.

## From the Laplace-domain

equation

equations of motion of

## Eq. (4.27), the

characteristic

for the

system

is

(N
s1-*-

Y)s+ NrYf+Nf(mV-Yr)
H

V7*

mVJ

L,rnV

/\7

(4.76)

52

Chapter 4

From this

characteristic

equation, the

undamped natural

be found.

## 4.5.22 Undamped Natural

From the

Frequency
Eq.

characteristic equation of

of

the system is

NY+NJmV-Y)
*
=
"

A V

r v ImV

(4-77)

Substituting the

>,.=,

I^f +
ImV2

\L2CfCr
zz

aCf-bC '.""'

(4-78)

With the
natural

expression

frequency,

and

can

be

seen.

and the square

the
of

natural

of

the

vehicle.

wheelbase.

with

negative

cornering

The

numerator of

## term is the directional stability iVp. This term is

positive

if the

vehicle

is understeer,
all else

if it is oversteer,

and zero

if it is
a

neutral steer.

## Thus from this model,

being equal,

an understeer vehicle

has

higher

natural

## frequency and lower response time than an

oversteer vehicle.

The
speed of

sample vehicle

has

an undamped natural

frequency of 1.01

Hz

at a

forward

natural

## frequency decreases as vehicle velocity increases as

shown

in Figure 4.5.

4.5.23

Damping
The

Ratio

damping ratio of the system can also be obtained from the characteristic
of

equation.

In terms

damping ratio is

53

Chapter 4

50

100
V

150

200

(km/hr)
vs.

## Figure 4.5: Natural Frequency

Vehicle

Velocity
(4.79)

IJi+mVNr

2^mV(iVryp+/Vp(mV-yr))
If the stability derivatives
are substituted

the

## damping ratio becomes

(4.80)

Izz(Cf+Cr) + m(a2Cf+b2Cr)
2^Iam{l}CfCr +
mV2

(aCf

bCr ))

## Depending on the values of the parameters, the vehicle may be underdamped,

critically damped,
or overdamped.

Neutral

steer vehicles

damped, tending

tending

toward

overdamped.13

As

with other

disturbance

of

inputs. At
a

forward

speed of

sample vehicle

has

## damping ratio of 0.990,

indicating that the vehicle is very slightly underdamped. Damping ratio decreases as vehicle
velocity increases. This
vehicle

is

overdamped

below

a speed of

54

Chapter 4

## 4.5.24 System Poles

The Eq.
poles of the system can

be found

by

solving the

characteristic equation of

(4.76)

for

s.

mVNr +/ay

Pi2=

J(mVNr

Ijrf -Alumv\NTY^
H^mV

+N?{mV-

Yr))

(4.81)

The location

of

## the poles in the

s-plane provides an

indication

of system response.

During the design stage the vehicle parameters may be manipulated to place the poles
that the desired system response is obtained. The pole locations also provide
of system stability.
an

such

indication

If there

are

any

poles

5-plane

positive real

components), the

system

is

unstable.

At Since the

forward

speed of

sample vehicle

has

poles of

-6.301

0.918/.
since

conjugates, the

vehicle

is

underdamped.

Furthermore,

## the real part

move

of

the poles is negative, the system is stable. As speed decreases the poles

together until

they

meet on

the

real axis at

-9.897

at a vehicle speed of

63.7 km/hr. At
poles

## this speed the

move

vehicle

is critically damped. As
the

speed

farther

stable

poles remain

## indicating that the vehicle remains

for

reasonable speeds.

## 4.5.25 System Zeros

Further insight into the
system zeros.
nature of system response can

be

obtained

by examining the

The

be found for

each

input

## and state variable combination

by setting the numerator of the corresponding transfer function equal to zero and solving
for
s.

The
zero

are given

## in Eq. (4.28) through Eq. (4.33).

to steer angle input is

for sideslip

angle response

55

Chapter 4

zp/s
The

NrY&+N&{mV-Yr)

(4.82)
force input is

zero

for sideslip

angle response

to

aerodynamic side

hipya
The
zero

'

Nr-(c-a)(mV-Yr)

(4.83)
input is

for sideslip

Nr
p/e
The for
j

(4.84)
input is

zero

yaw

velocity

Zr/6
The

(4.85)
mVNx

zero

force is

+
_;vp

yp(c-a)
-

zr IF
mV(c

(4.86)
does
not

a)

There is
appear

no zero

for

yaw

velocity

## response to road side slope since s

in

numerator of

this transfer function. This is due to the fact that the gravitational

side

force

in

the

vehicle.

The
given

system zeros

for the

forward

speed of

100 km/hr

are

## in Table 4.4. Table 4.4: System Zeros V=100km/hr

Response
Vehicle sideslip Yaw velocity
angle

-5.59

Aerodynamic
Side Force
-9.86

-7.06

-5.04

56

Chapter 4

The
poles.33

have
a

on response

depends

upon

their location

relative

to the

The

closer a zero

is to

effect.

zero

the 5-plane

(i.e., is

positive

in sign) is

The

nonminimum-

## initially start in the opposite direction.

sideslip
angle response to steer angle

This

response

can

be

seen

and

input which is

simulated

for

each

input

and output

## sample vehicle with a

forward

speed of

100

km/hr.
The
angle zero values of all of

the

zeros

increase

The sideslip

angle

steer

is

negative at

low

high

speed.

This

when

for

0.5

m CO

/\

a*

E
-0.5

?
-10

10

15

20

25

Re(s)
?Pole

## Sideslip Angle / Steer Angle Zero

xSideslip Angle / Road Side Slope Zero
Yaw

ASideslip Angle /Aero Side Force Zero XYaw Velocity /Steer Angle Zero Figure 4.6: Poles

Force Zero

and

Zeros

57

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

4.5.26

Frequency Response
It is
also

event where

spaced cones

vehicle

## by means of a sinusoidal steering input.

The
and

frequency of the input required to negotiate the slalom depends upon the vehicle speed
the cone spacing. The performance
of

the

vehicle

in the

slalom

may be influenced

by

also

## Sinusoidal steering inputs may

change.

be

used

in emergency

maneuvers such as a

double lane

Examining the frequency response of the vehicle may provide an indication of its
in
such a maneuver.

performance

slope,

minimize

the response of

a vehicle

to

disturbances
be
used

## such as side winds and road side

frequency response

techniques

can

obtain

response to

## steering input require the driver to

his input to

the desired response, making the vehicle more difficult to drive. Smaller phase lags

tend to
a

improve

controllability.21

vehicle

The

## frequency response of the sample vehicle with

using the bode plotting capability
of

forward velocity

of

100 km/hr is

examined

the

yaw

sideslip

angle and

velocity to

steer

force,

in

script

DOF2LFreq.m,

which

is listed in

C.5, is

used

## to facilitate plotting of the

frequency response.

The

script generates

input

## frequency for the two degree-of-freedom model.

DOF2Control.m,
input
which sets program execution

DOF2LFreq.m

parameters;

DOF2Param.m,

magnitude

parameters;

and

58

Chapter 4

parameters.

These

scripts are

The
most of

magnitude of

the

the

general shape of

the

curves remain

approximately

constant.

There is little

change

in the

phase plot

for

most of

## the responses. The sideslip angle / steer angle

experiences significant change

response

is the only

response which

in the

forward velocity

changes.

The sideslip

angle

steer angle

This is
a result

magnitude of the

forward

## speed relative to the tangent speed of the vehicle.

of

the sideslip angle / steer angle zero changing sign at the tangent speed. The sideslip angle

steer angle

and

and

## Figure 4. 14 for forward

speeds of

30 km/hr

49.84 km/hr
gain

respectively.

At 30 km/hr the
goes

is flat up to approximately 1 Hz
at

at

0.33

## deg/deg and the phase

of a second order

from

at

0. 1 Hz to

phase response

is typical

as

the

## frequency approaches zero as expected from the definition of tangent speed.

there is a significant
peak

However,

in the

gain at

approximately 2 Hz,
90

which

is

the

undamped natural

the undamped
natural

at

0. 1 Hz to

at

## 100 Hz, crossing

km/hr is There is
shown

zero at

frequency. The
from
180

frequency response at
at

100

at

phase goes

at

0.1 Hz to

100 Hz.

180

phase

low

sideslip
angle as shown

## steady-state steer angle produces a negative

in Section 4.5.18.
The
phase

Also
goes

of

interest is the
0.1 Hz to
others

yaw

100 Hz. The
of a zero.

## side slope phase response.

from

at

at

phase response of

59

Chapter 4

gains

gains shown

forward

velocity V

100 km/hr.

60

Chapter 4

1.6
O)

1.2
o>

-i^^^

-i--iT-i-i-i-r_

~i~

"

\-

~i

i~

i-

CD

0.8
CO

0.4
0.0 0.1
1 10

100

Frequency (Hz)
180
D)

CD

2.
CD
CO

90

----!---

_i

_-|_

|-

+^^J

--

--

co

'

-90

'

'

'

'

IT

0.1

10

100
V=

Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.7:

100 km/hr

3.0E-04

"& 2.0E-04
CD

"I
CD

1.0E-04

Frequency (Hz)

CD

2_
CD
CO
-45

CO

-90

0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.8:

100 km/hr

61

Chapter 4

CD

CD

2.
C co

0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)

CD
CD
CO
-

-45

CO

-90

0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.9:

100 km/hr

0.20
CD

0.15
-52

co

## 0.10 0.05 0.00

0.1

CO

10

100

Frequency (Hz)

CD

2,
CD
CO
__ _ _ _ _,_ _ _ --,-

-45

-, -r

-i

-i "I -i

-^c

-i

i-i-|------|---|---i-T-i-r-TT

CO

-90

0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.10: Yaw

100 km/hr

62

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

8.0E-06

6.0E-06

---,---,-

rT^~

----n---i~~T-T-i-rTTr~___in

2. 4.0E-06
O 2.0E-06

0.0E+00
0.1 10 100

Frequency (Hz)
180
O)

CD

135 90

2.
CD
CO CO

45 0

\-

0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.11: Yaw

V-100 km/hr

2.5E-04
.g

r

CO

O 5.0E-05

0.0E+00
0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
0

CD TO CD
CO

-45

-90

CO
-135

-180

0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.12: Yaw

100 km/hr

63

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

0.4
^m^

O)

CD T3
O)

0.3
0.2

-\

-\

\~

tt

-i_

~^^t

~i-n-i-rTTr

-i

-i

i~

CD

2,
C co

._____,__

_r

__!

-r

~r

-----|---r

-|

i^W"

ttt

-,--

-i

-j

|-

0.1
0.0 0.1 10
100

Frequency (Hz)

CD TO CD
CO
-45
i

t--i--|-|-t-]-it-----|----|--i ^ci

-i

-i -}

CO

-90

0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.13:

30 km/hr

0.3
,,

O)

CD

0.2
CD D
-H^

--

----I---

__l__l_l_

_l_l

,_

-f^l^I-

-I

-I

-I

-I

--t----f__l__l_H

"co

0.1

0.0 0.1
1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
90 45

CD

2,
CD
CO

CO
-45

-90

0.1

10

100

Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.14:

49.84 km/hr

64

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

4.5.27 Simulation
Another tool that is very
simulation.
useful

in analyzing

vehicle

lateral dynamics is

numerical

Simulation is done by
be
used

response of

to predict the

the

vehicle

to arbitrary

control and

are

generally

much easier

to handle
point

with numerical

up to this

in this

chapter.

To

maintain

consistency

with

the

follows in
simulation

of

is

were

## the sideslip angle (3. Since the equations of motion

and

originally derived in

and

non-linear more

## sideslip angle, the

The

model

has been

returned

general, form.

equations of motion

in their general,

form

are given

by Eq.

(4.9).

With the

model

## the equations become

Fyf+Fyr+Fya+Fyg=m(v + ur)
~

aFyf

bFyr

(c

a^Fya

IJ
and gravitational side

are

force

and

repeated

convenience.

v + ar

af

u
,

v-br
ar=

(4.19)

Fyf=Cfaf

Fy=mgQ

(4.23)

65

Chapter 4

vehicle

simulation are

and

lateral

acceleration.

Inputs

can

be

side slope.

step

aerodynamic side

force,

or

The

simulation

of

script

DOF2LSim.m,

which

is

## listed in Appendix C.6. Integration

built-in MATLAB function ode23,
formulas.34

the differential

equations of motion

r over

The function

ode23 returns

specified

for the
each

simulation.

At

ode23

function

calls

which

derivatives

v and r

## values of the state

variables v and r.

First,

upon

by the function
time,
the type of

SteerAngle.m,

which

the current

magnitude of the

input,

and

## the values of the input duration parameters.

Any arbitrary steer input, including steer inputs measured experimentally during vehicle
testing,
could

## easily be implemented in this function. Use

the model.

of measured steer

input data

facilitates

experimental validation of

After the
values of

steer angle

from the

current

## into DOF2LDE.m. The

tire lateral forces are then calculated from the slip angles using Eq. (4.21).

Finally, the

state

derivatives

are calculated as

Fyf+Fyr+Fya+Fyg
m

ur

aFyf-bFyr-(c-a)Fya
=

(4-88>

66

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

Eq.

(4.88)

are obtained

by

solving Eq.

(4.87) for

v and r.

listing of DOF2LDE.m is

provided

in Appendix C.7.
effect of

To illustrate the
at

forward velocity

on

response,

low

speed

(49.84

km/hr),

at normal

is

km/hr),

and at

speed

reached.

Initial

conditions

## simulations are zero.

Lateral velocity,

yaw

velocity,

for
each

rear

input

studied.

The inputs

used

for the
1

simulation are a

step steer,

ramp step

steer with a

ramp time
of

of

0.2 sec,

ramp

ramp time

of

0.2

sec and a

dwell time

1.0 sec,
1

1 sec,

10000 N step
square

aerodynamic side

force,
inputs

and a

step

steer

steer,

are shown

input is

a positive steer

angle,

Ramp Step
CD ;o

Steer Input
CD

S 1.0

1.0

<
CD CD
I

0.5

<
CD CD

0.5

CO

0.0
1

55 0.0
Time

El
1 2

(s)

Time

(s)

O)

CD

1.0

2,
<D
D) c

0.0

<
CD CD

OT

-1-0

Time

(s)

67

Chapter 4

The aerodynamic
slope

side

force input is

applied

in the

positive

is positive,

Simulation
Figure 4.21. The
velocity
and

results

## for the step

steer

input

are plotted

in Figure 4. 16 through
The

response times

increase

with

forward

speed.

lateral

sideslip

agrees with the

zero at

This

definition

of

presented

## in Section 4.5.18. Above the tangent

speed the

lateral velocity

and

sideslip

angle

also

initially begin to increase from zero becoming positive and then decrease to negative
This is
a result of

values.

explained

## being positive when the forward speed is greater

a system with a positive zero

## than the tangent speed. As

in Section 4.5.25

is

## typically exhibits the type

of

step

response shown

here,

initially in the opposite direction to the steady-state value. The front tire slip angles show
response similar

due to the

step lateral

steer.

The lateral

acceleration

has

a non-zero

initial

value

## due to the rate

of change of

velocity

when

the step steer occurs. The steady-state values of yaw velocity, sideslip angle,
rear

with

angles and yaw

sideslip

## frequency in the frequency response

Figure 4.14.
in Figure 4.22 through Figure 4.27.

plots of

and

Ramp
The ramp step
expected.

steer response

is

similar

## to the step steer response and

of

lags it slightly

as

The

identical to those

velocity

and

sideslip

magnitude of

acceleration are

steer.

Unlike

with

the step

input,

lateral

initially zero

68

Chapter 4

## for the ramp step input. At 30 km/hr

angle response at

and

are peaks

0.2

sec which

is

when

The

responses to the

ramp

square steer

input

are plotted

response

zero.

up

until

At the lower

has been
reached.

at

occurs

before

As

with

as the

30 km/hr

and

49.84 km/hr

ramp up is

completed.

state yaw a

sine steer

frequency of 1
and

Hz. From

visual

inspection

of

velocity

sideslip

## those obtained for 1 Hz

and

from the
The

frequency response

## in Figure 4.7, Figure 4.10, Figure 4.13,

with

Figure 4.14.

response amplitude

increases As

forward velocity in

lateral

velocity

and

sideslip

angle.

expected

of

at

and

sideslip

30 km/hr. in

aerodynamic side

velocity.

magnitude of

neutral steer

Since the

point,

force

## produces a negative yaw velocity.

The

velocity, sideslip angle, front tire slip angle, rear tire slip angle, and lateral acceleration
responses at

100 km/hr

## in Table 4.3. In addition, the

agree with

velocity
and

and

sideslip
as

angle at

100 km/hr

the

frequency response
The sideslip

gains of Figure

4.8

Figure 4. 1 1
rear

the input

frequency

approaches zero.

slopes at

have higher

lower

speeds

69

Chapter 4

side slope

are plotted

increase
angle with

velocity,
while the

yaw

## velocity, and lateral

acceleration responses

forward

## sideslip angle, front tire slip angle,

yaw

and rear

tire slip

decrease.

Again,
and

velocity, sideslip angle, front tire slip angle, rear tire slip angle,
obtained with

lateral

acceleration at

100 km/hr

the

gains of

Table 4.3,

velocity

and

sideslip

## angle agree with

frequency response gains of Figure 4.9 and Figure 4.12 as the input frequency approaches
zero.

## The linear two degree-of-freedom model is

useful

for characterizing

and

predicting

the response of the automobile to control and disturbance inputs. Although this model
simplifies the vehicle
much can

greatly

system,

be learned

lateral

response can

study.

The

effects of

changing

vehicle and

## tire parameters on system

quickly be
can

studied.

Powerful linear
applied

analysis techniques

based

on system

transfer

functions

results

insight into

system

behavior. The

are

generally

valid

for lateral

accelerations

up to 0.35 g,

driving.

is

required

high slip

angles.

70

Chapter 4

0.5 V 0.0 V
= =

-0.5
_

I
-1.0

V=

100 km/hr

o CD
co

CD
CO J
-2.0

-2.5

V= 150 km/hr

-3.0

0.5

1 Time

1.5

(s)

## Figure 4.16: Linear Step Steer Lateral

0.30
'

Velocity Response

>
0.25

150 km/hr

0.20
f0

/i

8
CD

-15

/^

100 km/hr

>

o.io

'/ /^
ifs^~

49.84 km/hr

0.05

30 km/hr

0.00

J
0.5
1

1.5

Time

(s)

## Figure 4.17: Linear Step Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

71

Chapter 4

0.5
,
,

30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr

0.0
V
-0.5
=

C7> CD T7

-1.0

CD TO C

-1.5

V
-2.0

100 km/hr

<
Q.
CO

CD
Tl

CO

-2.5

-3.0

-3.5

V
1

150 km/hr

-4.0

0.5

1.5

Time

(s)

0.0 V
-0.5
=

V
-1.0
^-s.

O)

CD

2.
CD TO

-1.S

<
Q.

-2.0

V=
-?.5

100 km/hr

CO
a)

H
H-*

r o

-3.0

LL
-3.5

-4.0

V= 150 km/hr
-4.5

0.5

1.5

Time

(s)

72

Chapter 4

0.0

V
-0.5

30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr

V
-1.0
^^

TO 0)

2,
CD TO C

-l.b

<
Q.

-2.0

V
-?.S

100 km/hr

CO
CD
1-

m CD

-3.0

DC
-3.5

-4.0

V
-4.5

150 km/hr

0.5

1.5

Time

(s)

1.4

V
1.2

150 km/hr

1.0
c

o ffl
OJ CD O O

0.

<

0.

V= 100 km/hr

s
CD
CO
-i

0.4

0.2

V V

49.84

km/hr"

"

30 km/hr

0.0
0.5

1.5

Time

(s)

73

Chapter 4

0.5 V 0.0
V
= =

"-5
_

""V

E,
&
o o
-1.0

V= 100 km/hr

CD

i
CD
I

"1-5

co J
-2.0

-2.5

V
..

150 km/hr

-3.0

0.5

1.5

Time

(s)

0.30
,

s^

V= 150

km/hr

0.25

0.20
T3

/f
l/^
V= 100 km/hr

8
CD

0.15

>

0.10

If
r

49.84 km/hr

0.05

30 km/hr

0.00

!
0.5

1.5 Time

(s)

74

Chapter 4

TO CD

TO

<
Q.
W

CD

g
CO

-3.0

0.5

1.5

Time

(s)

0.0

V
-0.5

V
-1.0
^-H^

TO CD

2,
CD TO C

-1.S

X
-2.0

^^^^

<
a.

V= 100 km/hr
-?.S

CO
CD
i

1-

C O

-3.0

-3.5

-4.0

V
1
-4.5

150 km/hr
'

0.5

1.5

Time

(s)

75

Chapter 4

0.0
V
-0.5
=

V
-1.0
^-^

TO

a)

2,
CD
TO

-l.b

<
a.

-2.0

V
-2.5

100 km/hr

CO
a>

H
-3.0

CD

oc
-3.5

-4.0

.;

>s
V= 150 km/hr

-4.5

0.5

1.5

Time

(s)

1.4

V= 150 km/hr

1.2

1.0
c

]3
CD O U

0. 8

<

0.

V= 100

km/hr

B
"5 0.4

0.2

V V
^^^

"

0.0

0.5

1 Time

1.5

(s)

76

Chapter 4

0.5
>

V V

30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr

0.0

"^V

i
-1.0

\ ^Ss*^^

]/

\
\

V= 100 km/hr

o CD

I"'-5
CD
CO

J
-2.0

\V

150 km/hr

-2.5

-3.0

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time

(s)

## Figure 4.28: Linear Ramp Square Steer Lateral

0.30
.

Velocity Response

>^V

150 km/hr

0.25

0.20

7
l/?
V
=

\
100 km/hr

\
A \
\

0.15

o o

2
co
>-

0.10

\/
^*

49.84 km/hr

V \
\

0.05

Wf

"^Nk

/]:*"'

0.00

.1

>^

.>

-0.05

0.5

2.5

## Figure 4.29: Linear Ramp Square Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

77

Chapter 4

0.5
'

'

0.0

^Z-~~^__ "^l

30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr

N^

'

-0.5

W.
TO CD
-1.0

!
100 km/hr

\ ^v^V
-1.5

CD TO
c

<
Q.
CO
-2.0

V
'

\
\

rn

-2.5

-3.0

\. V
-

150 km/hr

-3.5

-4.0

1
0 0.5
1

1.5

2.5

Time

(s)

0.5 0.0
-0.5

oU

Km/nr

\^

x^~~
r*"~

'

'

/
;
V
=

V
\\.

49.84 km/hr

TO
-1.0

"to TO
<
9.

-1-5

\ ^SV
V

100 km/hr

-2.0

CO

-2.5

\
P
-3.0 -3.5

;
:

150 km/hr

\,

I
1.5 Time (s) 2

-4.0

-4.5

0.5

2.5

78

Chapter 4

0.5
0.0

Ys^:
-0.5

' ^S

/^

49.84 km/hr

TO
-1.0

/
/

T3

TO C

-1.5

<
a.
-2.0

\
-2.5

:^vV=

100 km/hr

CO

2
H
i

CO
-3.0

rr
-3.5

v-

ibUKm/nr

~/~

-4.0

l -4.5

....

i 1

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time

(s)

1.2

js^~\.
1.0

/
~

150 km/hr

0.8

/
0.6

\ \
=

j
o

Sv
0.4

100 km/hr

<

2
co

0.2

J/

49.84 km/nr

; \^;

X^

0.0

-0.2

0.5

2.5

79

Chapter 4

1.0

y\
0.5 V
=

30 km/hn

r~\

\
>^-

0.0

-jf-<5

\\
-0.5

)V

49.84 km/hr

V \

>

2
CO

;V=

100 km/hr

-1.0

>^V
-1.5

150 km/hr

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time

(s)

## Figure 4.34: Linear 1 Hz Sine Steer Lateral

Velocity Response

0.25 0.20
0.15
I"

v^\/

\
/nA

1/^sN
//SV

0.10

'

\
==
-

49.84 km/hr

w
30 km/hr
-

\\ r\\\
Is-^
^dr^^sAW

T
u

T^x \\

fss\

r\\\
i^r\\\\

0.05
o

0.00

-0.05

-0.10

-0.15

i -0.20

0.5

2.5

## Figure 4.35: Linear 1 Hz Sine Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

80

Chapter 4

1.5

f\.

1.0

1
0.5
TO

'

30 km/hr

fl

VV

0.0
TO
C

<
a-0.5

\\
-1.0

49.84 km/hr

CO

g
CO

W/
\
i

V= 100 km/hr

W
\ /
i i

-1.5

V= 150
-2.0

km/hr
i

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time

(s)

1.0

0.5

V v

49.84

km/hr^y/

\V

sT*l

30

TO

km/h|>7/v\

\\
" "

yy/h\

0.0
TO C

<
-0.5

-Vs

'/

CO

~^\\

'/ /

<
LL

-1.0

Yv

100 km/hr

-1.5

V
j
-2.0

150 km/hr
1

0.5

1.5

2.5

Time

(s)

81

Chapter 4

1.5
1
__

1.0

0.5
TO

V 0.0
TO C

30 km/hr^^-f

\ \\
\\

<
-0.5

==

49.84 km/nr

CO

2 F
CO

-1.0

//
\
\

\
\

DC

100 km/hr

-1.5

-2.0

V= 150

km/hr

-2.5

0.5

2.5

0.5

f\
0.4

\v

150 km/hr

0.3

0.2

'

1
o

o.i

"^^\v

f^
= =

//

L
'/its.'

49,84 km/hr

"

~/Tr<~

\-\

o.o

30

km/hr^^VVy;
\
1

//
/

co

"0.1

N\l^-

-0.2

VI
-0.3

.1

-0.4

0.5

2.5

82

Chapter 4

3.0 V 2.5
=

150 km/hr
,

',
-52

2.0

E
o
-2

CD

1 5 J
"

"

100 km/hr
i
i i

>

2
*

1.0

V
0.5

49.84 km/hr

:
V
*
=

30 km/hr

0.0 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

## Figure 4.40: Linear Step Aero Side Force Lateral

0.00

Velocity Response

-0.02

JO

-0.04

T3 co

'o
o

-0.06

>

>

-0.08

-0.10

-0.12

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

## Figure 4.41: Linear Step Aero Side Force Yaw

Velocity Response

83

Chapter 4

4.0

V
r

150 km/hr

3.5
i

3.0
TO

100 km/hr

2.5
TO C

Jr

V V

49.84, km/hr
30 km/hr

< Jo

2.0

1.5
CO

1.0

i i

0.5
i

0.0

1
0.6

0.2

0.4

1.2

1.4

1.6

3.5

V= 150 km/hr

3.0

V
CD
<-D

100 km/hr

49.84 km/hr
|

1?
<

2.0
V 1.5
=

30 km/hr

f
p

1.0

0.5

0.0

V
0

i
1.4

0.2

0.4

0.6

1.2

1.6

84

Chapter 4

4.0
i

,V

150 km/hr
i

3.5
i

!V
^

100 km/hr

3.0

TO

2.5
TO C

!V
iV

49.84 km/hr

<
J2-

30 km/hr

2.0

--

-/-/-

co

2 F
CO

1.5

DC

1.0

0.5
i
i

0.0
0
0.2

0.4

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

0.6

0.4

0.2
o

\
o o

V
0.0

30 krrl/hr

<

V
-o-2

49.84 km/hr

CO

V= 100 km/hr

-0.4

V= 150 km/hr

1
-0.6

0.2

0.4

0.6

## 0.8 Time (s)

1.2

1.4

1.6

Figure 4.45: Linear Step Aero Side Force Lateral Acceleration Response

85

Chapter 4

0.05

;
V
150 km/hr

0.04

jo
~

0.03
V= 100 km/hr
i

+-*

'a
o

>

0.02

/j

V
0.01

49.84 km/hr

l~r
V
=

30 km/hr

0.00 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

## Figure 4.46: Linear Step Road Side Slope Lateral

3.5E-04

Velocity Response

3.0E-04
V= 150 km/hr

2.5E-04
T3
~

V= 100 km/hr

2.0E-04

+-*

"o
o

S
co
>-

1.5E-04

V
1
.0E-04

49.84\ km/hr

V
5.0E-05

30 km/hr
1

0.0E+00

i 0
0.2 0.4

i_.
1

i
1.4 1.6

0.6

1.2

## Figure 4.47: Linear Step Road Side Slope Yaw

Velocity Response

86

Chapter 4

0.07

V 0.06

30 km/hr
j/0^

;
t
.

;
ii
.

;
I

100

km/hr-

/ Ai
0.05
TO
-

150 km/hr

49.84

knrvhr^-'

0.04
TO c

<

0.03
CO

T3

CO

0.02

0.01

0.00

i
0.2

0.4

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

0.07

V= 150 km/hr

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

87

Chapter 4

0.07

0.06

V
TO

100 km/hr

150 km/hr

0.05

TO C

0.04

<
Q.

(f)
(1>

0.03

H
\

CC

CD

0.02

0.01

0.00
0
0.2 0.4

0.6

1.2

1.4

1.6

0.018
0.016

0.014

S 0.012
c

0.010

|
2

0.008

% CO

0.006

-"

0.004

\\v
h
~V

"

"

vVcV
0.002
^W

100lcm/hr
-i

!
V
'
=

'"^*H^^

150 km/hr

V^

'

^^^.
0.4

## 0.000 0 0.2 0.6 0.8 Time (s) 1 1.2

1.4

1.6

Figure 4.51: Linear Step Road Side Slope Lateral Acceleration Response

88

Chapter 4

As previously
noted

## the linear vehicle model is valid for lateral

a result of tire

accelerations

up to
respect

approximately 0.35

g.

This is primarily

accelerations.

Beyond 0.35 g

when

angles are

lateral forces.
models of tire

predict tire

chosen

model

for this

work

is

called

originated

by Hugo

model

the equations

section

of

## vehicle model are presented.

Simulation

the model is

performed

for

selected

steering

inputs

and

the results are compared with the simulation of the linear model.

## 4.6.1 Model Equations

The
equations of motion

for the

non-linear

## and are repeated

here.
+
-

F^ cos 8 + F
aF^ cos 5
Expressions for the tire slip
-

F
-

m(v +

ur)

bFyr

(c

a)Fya

I^r

(4.9)

angles are

## derived in Section 4.4.

tf=^f)-i atan 8 a ,
-

(4'14>
a,
=atan

v-M
u

j
as

Section 3.4
can

given

From these

described in
lateral force F

and repeated

here for

convenience.

be

calculated

based

upon

the tire

vertical

89

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

CC=B3
Hy=B5

C3FZ C5Fz

(3.3) (3.5)

_=Qtan(a)

(3

6)

y/

(l-E1)a+-

x_

FatanfB.a) ^-^i

^x

(3.10)

C, atan(fl^)

(3.9)

Fy=DlSin(tJ)
Fy=FuFz
4.6.2 Simulation
Simulation in the MATLAB
similar of

(3.8) (3.11)

## the non-linear two degree-of-freedom vehicle model is implemented

script

DOF2NLSim.m. This

script

## is listed in Appendix C.8

the linear model. As
and

and

is very

to DOF2LSim.m

with

the linear
are

## simulation, the scripts

called at

DOF2Control.m, DOF2Param.m,
set

DOF2DependParam.m

the

beginning of DOF2NLSim.m to
ode23

to integrate the

## The built-in MATLAB function

motion which are contained

is

used again

differential

equations of

upon

calculates the

state

derivatives

v and r

based

## the instantaneous values of the state variables

v and r

and

the current steer angle. DOFTNLDE.m is listed in Appendix C.9. The state

derivatives

are calculated as

-

(c

(4'89)
a)Fya

90

Chapter 4

These

v and r

The

most significant

## difference between the

non-linear and

linear model

simulations

is in the

calculation of tire

which

are calculated

by the

vertical

script

the

and

slip

with

non-linear

are

simplification

get the

are multiplied

by the

time step

called at each

## by DOF2NLDE.m, which also calls the function SteerAngle.m to calculate the

steer angle.

instantaneous For
performed

comparison with

and

is

steer

input

steer

input. As

with

the linear

velocities of

km/hr,
used

and

## 150 km/hr. The step

steer and

ramp

square steer

inputs

are

identical to those
non-linear

## for the linear model,

having a magnitude of 1.

Tire

parameters

for the

tire

## parameters are a result of

the curve

fitting of empirical

values of

## the linear tire cornering stiffnesses used in

throughout Section 4.5 are derived from these parameters, so the linear tire model and non

linear tire
the linear

## model agree at small

slip

angles.

Vehicle

parameters are

identical to those

used

in

simulation.

on

## Figure 4.63. Included

comparison.

these plots as dashed lines are the linear simulation results for

Lateral velocity,
angle, and
presented

yaw

## front tire slip angle, linear

rear

tire slip

lateral

acceleration results

non-linear and

simulations are

steer

and

non-

91

Chapter 4

linear lateral
simulation

1%

over

the

complete

duration

of

the

for forward

velocities of

30 km/hr

and

## 49.84 km/hr. These

respectively.

speeds correspond

produces a

At 100 km/hr,

which

0.55 g

acceleration

slip
angles reach

1.0%

once

state

is

reached.

At this

slightly

more

than

angles

and vehicle the

still

very nearly

a straight

linear tire
g.

model

is reasonably

for lateral

accelerations

in

excess of

0.5
of

However,

at

## 150 km/hr the linear

model

lateral
the
non

accelerations exceed

those

by over 27%.
0.95 g

At this

speed

linear model
predicts

lateral have

acceleration of

while

1.20

g.

angles

exceeded

where

## the lateral force versus slip

angle curve

is approaching its
angles of

peak.

approximation

is

not

sufficiently

accurate at

slip

this magnitude.

that the

speeds the

linear model

predicts

## that the magnitudes of lateral velocities,

and

tire slip angles are below those that the non-linear model predicts and

lateral

linear
linear

## faster response than the in

all of

non-linear model.

non

the

quantities

examined,

while

## the linear model

predicts no overshoot.

Non-linear

and

linear

simulation results

square steer

input

are plotted

models

non-linear and

linear

## for this input

are similar

to those of the step steer input. The two models agree very
and

well

for forward

velocities of

30 km/hr

49.84 km/hr. As

with

input,

at

angle magnitudes

and tire

slip

below those

of

the

92

Chapter 4

lateral

## Differences in peak lateral

acceleration reach

25%. Again,
at

the

linear model

predicts

faster response

than the

non-linear

model.

In particular,

## lags the linear

zero.

model

by approximately 0.5

input is

ramped

back down to

## Here differences between the linear

and non-linear

lateral

accelerations reach

Comparison
angles and

of

## the linear and non-linear model simulations

shows

that at

lateral

accelerations the

linear

vehicle and

tire models

comparable

## to the non-linear model. Even for the 100 km/hr case

acceleration reaches

where

slip

angles exceed

and the

lateral

that are

acceptable

a non-linear

angles and

lateral

accelerations

## become high it is necessary to have

tire

model

to obtain

accurate results.

However,

since most

slip

angles and

## lateral accelerations, the linear

model and

the linear analysis techniques presented in Section 4.5.6 through Section 4.5.26

can

be

used

both to study

vehicle

behavior

and

of conditions.

variety

operating

93

Chapter 4

## Two Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model

0.5

V
0.0 V
-0.5

30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr

'

-1.0

CO

[
Linear Norl-Linear

100 km/hr

E
-1.5

o o

-2.0

>

2
To

-2.5

\s
\
*s

Linear

-3.0

V= 150 km/hr
-3.5
.

Non-Linear
-4.0

>

-4.5

12

3 Time

(s)

## Figure 4.52: Non-Linear Step Steer Lateral

Velocity Response

0.30

/
0.25

\ Linear
.

\/

1 <^n km/hr

ij
;

If

^^^

! Non-Linear

0.20

co

;
0.15

V= 100

km/hr

>

V
>

49.84 km/hr

-10

0.05

0.00

Time

(s)

## Figure 4.53: Non-Linear Step Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

94

Chapter 4

1.0

V
1

=
*

30 km/hr

0.0 V
-1.0
-

49.84 km/hr

TO

\
-

^^^

' ^
_

V
,

100 km/hr

-2.0

TO C

'

<
-3.0

V.j
i
Linear

CO

CO
-4.0

V= 150 km/hr
t

-5.0
'

^-'

; Non-Linear

-6.0

12

Time

(s)

1.0 V
1
,

=
'

0.0

30 km/hr

V
-1.0

49.84 km/hr

TO o
-2.0

'

TO C

V
-3.0

100 km/hr

<
Q.

CO
-4.0

r-

4_d

*"*
*_

Linear

u-

-5.0

-,

150 km/hr

---

-6.0

^
1 1

Non-Linear

-7.0

12

3 Time

(s)

95

Chapter 4

1.0

0.0
v"^

V
i
!

30 km/hr

'.
-.

-1-0

=
i

49.84 km/hr

TO

CD TO
C

-2.0

'

**"'

"~"

"

~~

<
j?-3.0

100 km/hr

co

2 p
CO

-4.0

V^*-^
x.
1

Linear

-5.0

v.

-v
,
"~

=
i

i50km/nr

_^

Non-Linear

-6.0

-7.0

12

Time

(s)

1.4

Linear
1.2
/
V= 150
,
'

/ 1.0
C
-

km/hr

/
o
nS

;
0.8
. . .

Non-Linear

J-j/-

//
o

<

0.6

-If
--i__,

'

.
'

S
0.4 0.2

V= 100 km/hr

"

'

i^
0.0 12 3

Time

(s)

96

Chapter 4

0.5
;V
=

30 km/hr

0.0

"^vV
y.

49.84 km/hr
.

-0.5

^^

/
"co"

-1.0

'*~^r

100 km/hr

f
/

-1.5

o o

7
\n
--

/ : / ; /
:

>
m
co

-2.0

-2.5

; Linear \_V,H /
,

-3.0

;
-3.5

\^

150 km/hr

Non-Linear
1.5

i.

-4.0

0.5

2 Time

2.5

3.5

(s)

## Figure 4.58: Non-Linear Ramp Square Steer Lateral

Velocity Response

0.30

0.25

0.20

co

0.15
o

g
co

0.10

0.05

0.00

-0.05

0.5

1.5

2 Time

2.5

3.5

(s)

## Figure 4.59: Non-Linear Ramp Square Steer Yaw

Velocity Response

97

Chapter 4

1.0

V 0.0

30 km/hr

^VvV

<S

^
'
"""

49.84 km/hr

^'"*^

'-

-1.0

TO
'
-

-2.0

'

TO

<
-3.0

CO

V \\

/
Linear

g
CO
-4.0

Nv
-5.0
' 1

/
Non-Linear

v= 150 km/hr

1
-6.0
^__^j

0.5

1.5

2 Time

2.5

3.5

(s)

1.0

0.0

\/

3D

jh<V-.

:_^_

to

y V
-i.o
-2.0

'/
V
=

^r^~\ ^
>"

49.84 km/hr
=

.^

\Xv
c

100 km/hr

/^

<
Q.

CO
-3.0

:\

j
Y_ Linear

: 2

/ / 1 ;
:

-4.0

V \

/ s^/

/ /

/ ;
:
150 km/hr

Nw
-5.0

r^\j=

Non-Linear
i
-6.0

i 1

i
1.5

i
2 Time

i
2.5

1l

0.5

3.5

(s)

98

Chapter 4

1.0

0.0

^-_-

30 km/hr

^^sj_'

"^y
=

TO

1.0

\
-

49.84 km/hr
=

\\v
?
<
Q.
-2.0

100 km/hr

ffr
/

/-/

\^<^\

X
.,

CO
-3.0

\ \

^
_,

*/
:

/
/
/

:
,/

:/

1
CO
-4-0

\\

Linear

/
/
V

f
/
=

\N'

150 km/hr

-5.0

;
-6.0

Non-Lin ear
1 1

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Time

(s)

1.2

1.0

0.8

3
c

S
o o

0.6

<

0.4

2
15
0.2

0.0

-0.2

0.5

1.5

2 Time

2.5

3.5

(s)

## Figure 4.63: Non-Linear Ramp Square Steer Lateral Acceleration Response

99

5
In
the

Conclusion
top
speeds of automobiles

early

part of

consideration

increased

vehicle

dynamics became
higher
and

an

important

areas of

meet

higher

standards of

## performance, particularly in the

safety

and comfort.

Mathematical modeling

of vehicle

an excellent

way for

engineers

to

study

vehicle

behavior and to
There is

## develop vehicles which meet

performance goals.

a great

deal

of literature on

Lateral

vehicle

dynamics in

particular

has been

of

relationship

with safety.

Two

areas of

an

## extremely important role in the lateral dynamics

representation of tire mechanics

models.

is

essential

for vehicle

In Chapter 3

an overview of

## tire lateral force mechanics was given. Two

representations of tire

lateral forces

were used.

model

considered

of

## the tire slip angle. The non-linear tire model utilized a to

predict

method called

nondimensionalization

## lateral force. In this

method

experimentally

measured

tire lateral force versus slip angle curves for several vertical loads

angle.

can

## then be predicted as a non-linear

function

of

both

vertical

and

slip

In Chapter 4 the
were

equations of motion

for

## derived from basic

principles of

Newtonian

mechanics.

The

model was

then

developed in two
tire
model.

forms, linear and non-linear. The linear vehicle model utilized the linear
were written

Transfer functions

relating both

yaw

velocity

and

sideslip

angle to

aerodynamic side

force,

Expressions for

100

Chapter 5

Conclusion

step input

stability

were

derived

natural

## tangent speed. Expressions for transient response characteristics such as

frequency,

damping ratio, and poles and zeros were developed. Numerical simulation of the response
of

the model to step steer, ramp-step steer, ramp-square steer, sine steer, step

aerodynamic

side

force,

and

step

inputs

was performed.

It

was seen

that the

and

transient response characteristics of the vehicle were very dependent upon its forward

speed.

In particular,

when

the

forward

of

steer

input became

positive.

The

effect

was seen

the linear model
predicted

For

## some combinations of speed and

magnitude

lateral

accelerations

higher than

were

actually

possible

due to the

assumption of linear

tire
and

behavior. In

all cases

## tested the steady-state response gains,

frequency response,

in

agreement.

The

the

non-linear

tire

model

lateral forces

during

simulation.

This

high slip
the

angles and

lateral

accelerations.

## Comparison with the linear

model showed

that for

vehicle studied

the linear model was reasonably accurate for most engineering purposes
2

up to slip modeling

angles of

and

lateral

accelerations of 0.5g.

It

was seen

## that for accurate

of vehicle response at

high slip

angles and

lateral

accelerations a non-linear

representation of

necessary.

101

References

Gillespie,
1992.

## Warrendale, PA: SAE,

Automobile."

Lanchester, F. William. "Some Reflections Peculiar to the Design of an Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 2, 1908, p. 187-257.

## Olley, Maurice. "Suspension Center, 1937.

Olley, Maurice. "Notes
1961.
on

Handling."

and

4.

Suspensions."

1966.

n."

## Detroit, MI: Chevrolet Engineering Center,

Segal, Leonard. "Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Substantiation of the Response of the Automobile to Steering Proceedings of the Automobile Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1956-1957.
Control."

Whitcomb, David W.

William F. Milliken. "Design Implications of a General Proceedings of the Automobile Division and of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 1956-1957.
and

8

Control."

Bastow, D.
1993.

and

and

## Handling. Warrendale, PA: SAE,

9.

Cole, D.E. Elementary Vehicle Dynamics. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan,
1972.

and

## Handling, Cambridge, England: Cambridge

University Press,
11.

1991.

## Ellis, John R. Vehicle Dynamics. London: Business Books, 1969.

12. Ellis, John R. Road Vehicle Dynamics, Akron, OH: J.R. Ellis, 1989. 13. Milliken, William F. PA: SAE, 1995.
and

Doug L.

## Milliken. Race Car Vehicle Dynamics.

Warrendale,

14. Mola, Simone. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, Detroit, MI: General Motors Institute, 1969. 15. Reimpell, Jornsen and Helmut Stall. The Automotive Chassis: Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1996.
16.

Engineering Principles.

102

References

## 17. Wong, Jo Yung. 1993.

18.

Theory

of Ground Vehicles

Wiley

Bundorf, R.T.
of

Properties."

## Cornering Compliance Concept for Description

SAE Paper No. 760713, Oct. 1976.
and

19. Allen, R. Wade, Theodore J. Rosenthal, Transient Analysis of Ground Vehicle 20. Heydinger,

Handling."

Henry T.

## Szostak. "Steady State and SAE Paper No. 870495, 1987.

of

Dynamics."

Gary J.
Ph.D.

"Improved Simulation

and

Validation

## Dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio,

Control."

21

Xia, Xunmao. "A Nonlinear Analysis of Closed Loop Driver/Vehicle Performance with Four Wheel Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Steering Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Dec. 1990.
Program."

22. Trom, J.D., J.L. Lopex, and M.J. Vanderploeg. "Modeling of a Mid-Size Passenger Car Using a Multibody Dynamics Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol. 109, Dec. 1987. 23. Kortum, W. and W. Schiehlen. "General Purpose Vehicle System Dynamics Software Based on Multibody Vehicle System Dynamics, No. 14, 1985, p. 229263.
Formalisms."

24. Clarke, S.K. (Ed.). Mechanics of Pneumatic Tires, DOT HS-805952, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.
25. Gim, Gwanghun and Parviz E. Nikravesh. "An Analytical Model of Pneumatic Tyres for Vehicle Dynamic Simulations. Part 1: Pure International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 11, No. 6, 1990.
Slips."

26. Bakker, Egbert, Lars Nyborg, and Hans B. Pacejka. "Tyre Modelling for Use in SAE Paper No. 870421, 1987. Vehicle Dynamics
Studies."

27. Radt, Hugo S. and D.A. Glemming. "Normalization of Tire Force Tire Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr.-June 1993.

and

Moment

Data."

28. Allen, R. Wade, Raymond E. Magdaleno, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David H. Klyde, and Jeffrey R. Hogue. 'Tire Modeling Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics SAE Paper No. 950312, Feb. 1995.
Simulation."

29.

## Society of Automotive Engineers.

1976.

"Vehicle Dynamics

Terminology."

SAE J670e,

30. Radt, Hugo S. "An Efficient Method for Treating Race Tire Force-Moment SAE Paper No. 942536, Dec. 1994.
31
.

Data."

Meriam, James L.
York: John

and

Wiley

## Engineering Mechanics: Dynamics.

New

103

References

32. Katz, Joseph. Race Car Aerodynamics: Designing for Speed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Robert Bentley, Inc., 1995. 33. Franklin, Gene F., J. David Powell, and Abbas Emami-Naeini. Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1994. 34. MATLAB Reference Guide. The MathWorks, Inc., 1994.

104

Appendix A

## Tire Model MATLAB Programs

A.l MagicFit.m
%MagicFit % % % % % Created 4/21/96 % J. Kiefer
% Initialization
clear all

Curve

Fitting

of

Finds

parameters

slip
angle

curve

fit

of

or

aligning

moment vs.

data

## from file TireSlip.dat

ele;

t y
=

TireSlip(:,l) TireSlip(:,2)

; ;

xO x
=

-0.5];
,

leastsq (

'MagicError'

xO,

[]

[], t,

y)

## % Construct Fit Function

tl
psi
=

linspace(0/max(t)
=

,10)

(l-x(4))*tl
=

x(4)/x(l)*atan(x(l)*tl);

theta

x(2)*atan(x(l)*psi);

x(3)*sin(theta) ;

% Plot Data
plot(tl, title
(['

and

Fit Function

F,
',

t, y,
D=-

'o')
(B='

num2str(x(3))

num2str(x(l)

',

C='

num2str(x(2)

',

E='

num2str

(x(4) )

')'])

xlabel

'

'

ylabeK'y')
grid

105

Appendix

ATire

## Model MATLAB Programs

A. 2 MagicError.m
function e %MagicError
%
=

MagicError(x,

t,

y)

## Error in Magic Formula Curve Fit

%e

MagicError(x, t,
Calculates
x and

y)

vector of errors

of

Magic Formula

curve

fit

given parameters

data

(t,

y)

% %
Inputs:

Vector
% x(l) x(2) x(3) x(4)

of

curve

fit

parameters

B c
D E

% %

% %
% % % % % %
t y

Vector Vector

of of

independent data
dependent data
between data
and

Outputs:
e

Vector

of errors

fit function

Created 4/21/96
J.

Kiefer

psi

(l-x(4))*t
=

x(4)/x(l)*atan(x(l)*t);

theta
F
=

x(2)*atan(x(l)*psi);

x(3)*sin(theta);

F;

106

## Appendix ATire Model MATLAB Programs

A. 3 NLTire.m
function Fy %NLTire %
=

NLTire(Fz,

alpha)

## Nbn Linear Tire Model Lateral Force

%Fy
%

NLTire(Fz,

alpha)

%
% % % % % % % % % % % %

## Calculates tire lateral force from inputs

angle.

of

tire

vertical

and

slip

Based

on

nondimensionalization model

and

the

model.

Force is for

one

tire.

Called

by

the function

Inputs:
alpha

angle

Fz Outputs:

vertical

Fy
Created 2/18/96
J. Kiefer

## Tire lateral force

(N)

global

Bl CI Dl El B3 C3 B5

C5;

% Normalization Parameters
Cc
mu
=

B3 B5

+ +

C3*Fz; C5*Fz;

% N/deg/N % N/N

Cornering
Friction

coefficient

coefficient

alphaN
=

Cc.*tan (alpha)

./mu*180/pi;

## % Normalized Lateral Force

psiFN
=

(l-El)*alphaN
=

El/Bl*atan(Bl*alphaN)
;

thetaFN

Cl*atan(Bl*psiFN)
;

FyN

Dl*sin( thetaFN)

% Lateral Force

Fy

-FyN.*mu.*Fz;

107

Appendix B

## Two DOF Model Mathematica Session

Stability Derivatives
SDRules
=

{Yb
Yd

->

Cf
-Cf,

Cr,
Nb
Nd
->

Yr
a
-a

->

(a
-

Cf

b
Nr

Cr)/V#
->

->

Cf

Cr,

(aA2

Cf

bA2

Cr)/V,

->

Cf}

Cf

b Cr
,

{Yb

->

Cf

Cr,

Yr

->

Yd

->

-Cf,

Nb

->

Cf

b Cr,

2
a

2
Cf
+

Cr
,

Nr

->

Nd

->

-(a

Cf)}

Transformed Equations
A
=

of Motion

{{s-Yb/(m

V),

l-Yr/(m

V)},

{-Nb/Izz,
MatrixForm Yb
s
-

s-Nr/Izz}};

[A]
Yr

1
m

Nb
-(-

Nr

-(

)
Izz

Izz
Bl
=

{Yd/(m

V),

Nd/Izz};

MatrixForm

[Bl]

Yd

Nd

Izz
B2
=

{l/(m

V),

(a-c)/Izz};

MatrixForm

[B2]

Izz

108

Appendix B

=

B4

{l/(m

V),

(a-d)/Izz>;

MatrixForm

[B4]

Izz

Ds
=

Collect [Det

[A]

,s]

Nb
+

2
s
+

Nr

Yb
+

Nr
s

Yb

Nb Yr

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V

Izz

Izz

Izz

Nbd
=

Nd Nr Yd
s

Nd Yr

Yd

Izz

Izz

Izz

Nba

Transpose
a c

[A],B2,l]]],s]
Nr
s a

Yr

Yr

Izz Nbt
=

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

## Collect [Det [Transpose [ReplacePart

Transpose [A],B3,l]]],s]

g Nr
-(

)
Izz

109

Appendix B

Nrd

,

Transpose [A] Nd
s

Bl, 2 ] ] ]
Nb Yd

s]

Nd Yb
+

Izz Nra
=

Izz

Izz

Transpose
a
c

[A],B2,2]]],s]
Nb
a

Yb

Yb

Izz Nrt
=

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

,

Transpose [A]
g Nb

B3

2] ] ]

s]

Izz Nrn
=

## Collect [Det [Transpose [ReplacePart [

,B4,2]

Transpose [A]

] ]

s]

Nb

Yb

d Yb

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

Transfer Functions

Sideslip Angle
Gbd
=

Nbd/Ds Nd
Nr

Yd

Yd

Nd Yr

Izz

Izz

Izz

Nb
+ s

2
+

Nr

Yb
+ s

Nr

Yb

Nb

Yr

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V Izz
m

Izz Gba
=

Izz Nba/Ds
a c

Nr

Yr

Yr

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

Nb
+ s

2
+

Nr

Yb
+

Nr
s

Yb

Nb Yr

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V Izz
m

Izz

Izz

110

Appendix B

Gbt

Nbt/Ds g Nr g
s

(
Izz V

Nb
+

2
s
+

Nr

Yb
+

Nr
s

Yb

Nb Yr

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V
Izz
m

Izz

Izz

Yaw
Grd

Velocity
=

Nrd/Ds
Nd
s

Nd Yb
+

Nb Yd

Izz

Izz

Izz

Nb
+

2
s
+

Nr

Yb
+

Nr
s

Yb

Nb Yr

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V
Izz
m

Izz

Izz Nra/Ds

Gra

Nb

Yb

Yb

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

Nb
+

2
s
+

Nr

Yb
+ s

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V Izz
m

Izz

Izz

Grt

Nrt/Ds g Nb

Nb
Izz V

2
+ s +

Nr

Yb
+ s

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr

(
Izz

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V Izz
m

)
V

Izz

Grn

Nrn/Ds

Nb

Yb

d Yb

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

Izz

Nb
+ s

2
+

Nr

Yb
+

Nr
s

Yb

Nb Yr

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V
Izz
m

Izz

Izz

111

Appendix B

Sideslip Angle
Sbd
=

Nd V)
-

s->0]

-(m

Nr

Yd

Nd Yr

Nb V
=

Nr Yb

Nb Yr
s->0]

Sba

-Nr

-amV+cmV+aYr-cYr

Nb V

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr s->0]]

Sbt

g
m

Nr

_(

)
m

Nb V

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr

Yaw
Srd

Velocity
=

Yb)
+
+

s->0]]

-(Nd

Nb Yd

Nb V
=

Nr Yb

Nb Yr
s->0]

Sra

-

Nb

Yb

Yb

Nb V
=

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr
s->0]

Srt

g
m

Nb

Nb V
=

Nr Yb

Nb Yr
s->0]

Srn

-

Nb

Yb

d Yb

Nb V

Nr Yb

Nb

Yr

Front Tire
Safd
=

Slip

Angle
+ a/V

Simplify [Sbd
2

Srd

1]

2
+

(m Nb V

Nd V

Nd Yb

Nr V Yb

Nb Yd

Nr V Yd

Nb V Yr

Nd V

Yr)

(V

(-(m Nb V)

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr)

112

Appendix B

Safa

Simplify [Sba

a/V

Sra]
2 2
+a Yb-acYb-aVYr+

2
(-

(a Nb)

+NrV+amV

-cmV

V Yr)

(V

(-(m Nb V)
+ a/V

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr)

Saft

Simplify [Sbt
g
m

Srt]

(a Nb

Nr

V)
Nb Yr)

(m Nb V

Nr Yb

Rear Tire
Sard

Slip Angle
Simplify [Sbd
2
-

b/V

Srd]

Nd V

b Nd Yb

b Nb Yd

Nr V Yd

Nd V Yr

V Sara
=

(-(m Nb V)
-

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr)

Simplify [Sba

b/V

Sra]
2

2 (bNb
+

NrV

amV

-cmV

-abYb

bcYb-aVYr

V Yr)

(V

(-(m Nb V)
-

Nr

Yb

Nb

Yr) )

Sart

Simplify [Sbt
g
m

b/V

Srt]

(b Nb

Nr

V)
+

(-(m Nb V)

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr)

Path Curvature
Scd
=

Simplify[l/V

Srd]

(Nd Yb)

Nb Yd

V Sea

(m Nb V
=

Nr Yb

Nb Yr)

Simplify [1/V
Nb
-

Sra]
Yb

Yb

V Set

(m Nb V
=

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr)

Simplify[l/V

Srt]

Nb

(m Nb V

Nr Yb

Nb

Yr)

113

Appendix

BTwo

## DOF Model Mathematica Session

Lateral Acceleration
=

Simplify [V/g
(-(Nd Yb)
+

Srd]

Nb Yd)

g
SAa

(m Nb V
=

Nr Yb

Nb Yr)

Simplify [V/g
(Nb
-

Sra]
c

Yb

Yb)
Nb Yr)

g SAt

(m Nb V
=

Nr Yb

Simplify [V/g
m

Srt]

Nb V

Nb V

Nr Yb

Nb Yr

deltaR
=

delta
2

/.

Solve[Scd

==

1/R

## delta, delta] [ [1, 1] ]

(m Nb V

Nr V Yb

Nb V Yr

_(
-(Nd

)
R Yb)
+

Nb

R Yd

Terml

Coefficient [Expand

[deltaR]

,V,

2]

VA2

2
m

Nb V

-(Nd

R Yb)
=

Nb

R Yd

TermlS

Simplify [Terml
2

/.

SDRules]

(a Cf

b Cr)

Cf

Cr
=

b Cf Cr R

TermlSa

Numerator

[TermlS]
a->L-b]

Simplify [Denominator [

TermlS]
2 (a Cf
-

/.

b Cr)

Cf

Cr

114

Appendix B

## Two DOF Model Mathematica Session

Terms 2 3

ExpandNumerator

[Simplify [Coefficient

[Expand

deltaR], V]
-(Nr

V]]

Yb)
-

Nb V Yr

Nd

R Yb

Nb

R Yd

Terms23S

Simplify [Terms23

/.

SDRules

/.

a->L-b]

deltaRl

Terml

Terms23S

2
L
-

m
+
-

Nb V

(Nd R Yb)
=

Nb

R Yd Terms23S

deltaR2

TermlSa

2
L
-

(a Cf
+

b Cr)

Cf

Cr

Kus
=

Coefficient

[Simplify [deltaRl

g]

,VA2]

Nb

-(Nd

Yb)

Nb Yd

Kusl

Simplify [Kus
-

/.

SDRules]

(a Cf

b Cr)

(a

b)

Cf

Cr

Stability
Kl
=

Factor

Simplify [K
2

/.

Solve [Srd

==

V/(L

(1+K

VA2)),

K][[l]]]

Nb V

L Nd Yb

Nr V Yb

L Nb Yd

Nb V Yr

2
L V

(-(Nd Yb)

Nb Yd)

115

Appendix B

K2

VA2]
VA2

+

/.

SDRules
,

/. VA2

a->L-b]

Coef f icient [

Numerator

[Kl]

VA2]

Denominator [Kl]

Nb

L K3

(-(Nd Yb)

Nb Yd) /.
m

Simplify [K2
(a Cf
-

SDRules]

b Cr)

Cf
=

Cr

b Cf Cr L

K4

Numerator [K3]
a
->

/,

b)]
m

(a Cf

b Cr) 2

Cf

Cr

dl
=

Simplify [d
Nb

/.

Solve [Numerator

[Srn]

==

0,

d] [  ] ]

--

Yb

d2

Simplify [dl
+

/,

SDRules]

(a

b)
+

Cr

Cf

Cr

d3

Simplify [d2
L

/.

>

b]

Cr

Cf

Cr

Static Margin
SM
=

(dl
Nb

a)/L

-(

)
L Yb

SMI

Simplify [SM
Cf)
L
+ +

/.

SDRules]

-(a

b Cr

Cf

Cr

116

Appendix B

## Two DOF Model Mathematica Session

Tangent Speed
Vtan
=

/.
-

Solve[Sbd

deltaR

==

0,V][[2,1]]

Nr Yd
-(

Nd Yr

)
m

Nd Sqrt

Vtanl

[Simplify [Expand[
/.

(V

/.

Solve [V

==

Simplify [

Vtan

SDRules]

,V]

[ [2,1] ]) A2] ] ]

(a

b)
m

Cr

Sqrt[-(
a

)]

Vtan2

Sqrt

## [Simplify [Numerator [VtanlA2]

A

/.

->

L-b] /

Denominator [Vtanl b Cr
L

2 ] ]

Sqrt[-(
a m

)]

Critical Speed
Vcrit
=

/.

Solve [Denominator

[Srd]

==

0,V][]

Nr Yb
-(

Nb Yr

)
m

Vcritl

[V

==

Vcrit

2 (a
Sqrt
+

b)
+

Cf

Cr

[
-

]
(a Cf m)
=

b Cr

Vcrit2

Sqrt

/.

->

L-b]/

## Denominator [Vcritl A2] ]

2
Cf Cr L

Sqrt

[
-

]
(a Cf m)
+

b Cr

Characteristic Speed
Vchar
=

/.
+

Solve[deltaR

==

L/R, V] [ [2, 1] ]
(2 Nd Yb
-

(-(Nr Yb)

Nb Yr

Sqrt [-4

LmNb

Nb Yd)

2
(Nr Yb
-

Nb Yr)

])

(2

Nb)

117

Appendix B

## Two DOF Model Mathematica Session

Vcharl

Sqrt

[Simplify [ (V

/.

Solve [V

==

Vchar

/-

SDRules, V] [[2,1]])A2]]
(a
+

b)

Cf

Cr

(a

L)

Sqrt[
-(a

]
Cf m)
+

b Cr

Vchar2

Sqrt

/.

->

L-b]/

2
Cf Cr L

Sqrt[-(
-(a

)]
Cf
m)
+

b Cr

kz
=

of

Gyration

Sqrt[Izz/m]
Izz

Sqrt[
m

## Geometry to Inertia Ratio

GIR
=

LA2/kzA2

2
L
m

Izz

Total
TCF

Cornering Factor
=

Cf Cr

Cr/mA2

Cf

2
m

Characteristic Equation
Ds
==

0 2
+

Nb
s

Nr Yb
+ + s

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr

(-(
Izz

)
m

)
V
Izz
m

==

Izz

Izz

a2

Coef f icient

[Ds,

sA2]

118

Appendix B

al

Yb

Nr
-(

)
Izz
m

V
sA2
-

aO

Ds

a2

al

Nb
+

Nr

Yb
_

Nb Yr

Izz

Izz

Izz

wn
=

in

Nb V

Nr Yb

Nb Yr

Sqrt[
Izz
wnl
=

]
m

Simplify [wn
2
a

/.

SDRules]
2 2
Cf Cr
+

2
-

Cf

Cr

b Cf Cr

Cf

b Cr

Sqrt[
2
Izz
m

]
V

Damping
zeta

Ratio

Simplify [al
-

Izz
+

V/(2

Sqrt[wnA2

(Izz

V)A2])]

(m Nr V

Izz

Yb)
Nb Yr)

Sqrt [Izz
=

mV

(hi Nb V

Nr Yb

zetal

Simplify [zeta
2

/.

SDRules]
2

-(Cf

Izz

Cr

Izz

Cf

Cr m)

/
2

2 (2
Sqrt [Izz
m

2
Cf Cr
+

(a

Cf Cr

b Cf Cr

Cf

2 b Cr
m

) ] )

119

Appendix B

## Two DOF Model Mathematica Session

Poles
poles
=

Solve [Ds==0, s] ;
/poles

si

[[1,1]]
2

(m Nr V

Izz

Yb

Sqrt[(-(m Nr V)
+

Izz

Yb)

4
sla
=

Izz

(m Nb V
/.

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr)

] )

(2

Izz

V)

Simplify [si

SDRules]
2
Cf
+

( (Cf

Cr)

Izz

(a

Cr)
2

2
Cf
m
-

2
Cr m)
-

Sqrt[(-(Cf

Izz)
2

Cr

Izz

2
Cf Cr
+

2
Cf Cr
+

Izz

(a

b Cf Cr

Cf

b Cr
s2
=

) ] )

(2

Izz

V)

/.

poles

[[2,1]]
2

(m Nr V

Izz

Yb

Sqrt[(-(m Nr V)

Izz

Yb)

4
s2a
=

Izz

(m Nb V
/. 2

Nr

Yb

Nb Yr)

] )

(2

Izz

V)

Simplify [s2

SDRules]
2
Cf
+

( (Cf

Cr)

Izz

(a

Cr)
2

2
Cf
m
-

2
Cr m)

Sqrt[(-(Cf

Izz)
2

Cr

Izz

2
Cf Cr
+

2
Cf

Izz

(a

b Cf Cr

Cr

Cf

b Cr

) ] )

(2

Izz

V)

Zeros
Zbd
=

/.

Solve [Nbd
-

==

0,

s][[l,l]]

(m Nd V)

Nr

Yd

Nd Yr

_(

}
Izz Yd

120

Appendix B

Zbdl

Simplify [Zbd
2

/.

SDRules]

2
Cr+amV

abCr+b

Izz

V
==

Zba

/.

Solve [Nba

0,

s][[l,l]]

-Nr

-amV+cmV+aYr-cYr

_(

)
Izz

Zbal

Simplify [Zba
2

/.

SDRules]
2 2
-cmV

acCf+abCr+b

Cr-bcCr+amV

Izz

Zbt

/.

Solve [Nbt

==

0,

s][[l,l]]

Nr

Izz Zbtl

Simplify [Zbt
2

/.

SDRules]

2
a

Cf

Cr

Izz V Zrd
=

/.

Solve [Nrd
+

==

0,

s][[l,l]]

(Nd Yb)

Nb Yd

_(

)
m

Nd V
/-

Zrdl

Simplify [Zrd

SDRules]

(a

b)
m

Cr

Zra

/.
a

Solve [Nra Yb
+ c

==

0,

s][[l,l]]

Nb
-(

Yb

)
(a
-

c)

Zral

Simplify [Zra
+

/.
-

SDRules]
c

-(c

Cf)

Cr

b Cr

Cr

121

Appendix B

Zrt

Solve [Nrt

==

0,

s]

{{}}

122

Appendix C

## Two DOF Model MATLAB Programs

C.l DOF2Control.m
%DOF2Control
Controls

execution of

model.

Sets

control
.

## input type (step, step

simulation parameters.

ramp,

or

sine

steer)

Sets

step
ramp
=

1; 2;
=

rampsquare sine
=

3;

## % Step steer % Ramp step steer % Ramp square steer % Sine

steer

4;
=

input

1;

% Select

which control

input to

use

% Simulation Parameters
tO
tr
=

td
ts tf

tol

% % % % % %

steer

input

s s s
s

Ramp

time

## EWell time Period for sine Final time for

steer

simulation

Simulation accuracy

(default

le-3)

123

Appendix

CTwo

## DOF Model MATLAB Programs

C.2 DOF2Param.m
%DOF2Param
2 DOF Model Independent Parameters
and

Simulation Control

tire,

control,

and

disturbance

parameters

for 2 DOF

model.

## % Created 1/7/96 % J. Kiefer % Initialization

clear

all;

clc;
global m
global

Izz L

c u

Cf Cr dO Fzf Fzr

Fyg

Fya tO tr td ts tf

input;

Bl CI Dl El B3 C3 B5

C5;

% Constants
g
=

9.81;

m/s~2

m
=

Izz

f
L
u

## 1775; 1960; 0.52; 2.372; 100;

=

% % %

kg

Gross

vehicle mass

% kg-m^2

Yaw inertia
Fraction
of weight on

front

axle

Wheelbase
Vehicle forward
speed

% km/hr

% Control dO
==

and

Disturbance Inputs

1;
=

theta Fya
c
=

0;

% % %

deg deg
m

slope

magnitude

0; 1.25;

% N

Aerodynamic

side

force
axle side

aerodynamic

to

force

## % Linear Tire Model Parameters

Cf
Cr
==

-1230.5; -1155.5;

==

% N/deg % N/deg

Front cornering

stiffness

%
Bl CI
Dl
=

## Normalized Lateral Force Magic Formula Parameters

0.5835;
1.7166 1.0005 0.2517
Coefficient Parameters

El

%
B3 C3
=

Cornering 0.333;
-1.352e-5;

%
B5
C5
=

## Friction Coefficient Parameters

1.173;
-3.696e-5;

% Unit Conversions
u
=

u*1000/3600;

m/s

124

Appendix

CTwo

## DOF Model MATLAB Programs

dO
Cf Cr

d0*pi/180;
Cf*180/pi*2; Cr*180/pi*2;

Step

steer

input
(two tires) (two tires)

## Front tire cornering stiffness

Rear tire cornering stiffness

125

Appendix

CTwo

## DOF Model MATLAB Programs

C.3 DOF2DependParam.m
%DOF2DependParam
% % % % Created 1/7/96 % J. Kiefer % Dependent Parameters
a
=

Calculates

values

of

dependent

parameters

for 2 DOF

model.

b
V

(l-f)*L; f*L;
u;
=

%
%

m m

## Distance from front tire to C.G. Distance from Vehicle

speed rear

tire to C.G.

%
m*g*sin(theta*pi/180) ; m*g*f/2*cos(theta*pi/180); m*g*(l-f)/2*cos(theta*pi/180);

m/s

Fyg
Fzf
Fzr

% N % N % N

Side

slope

lateral force
normal

## Front tire Rear tire

normal

% Stability Derivatives
Yb
Yr
=

Cf

Cr;

Damping-

in-sideslip
/
yaw

(a*Cf-b*Cr) /V;
-Cf

Lateral force

coupling

Yd

Control force
Directional stability Yaw

Nb
Nr Nd

a*Cf-b*Cr;

(a~2*Cf+b~2*Cr) /V;
-a*Cf ;

damping
moment

Control

126

Appendix

CTwo

## DOF Model MATLAB Programs

C.4 SteerAngle.m
function delta %SteerAngle
%
=

SteerAngle (t,

input, t0,tr,td,ts,tf

,d0)

and

%delta % %
%

SteerAngle

based
on

Determines

steer angle

current

time,

input selection,
ramp,

and
or

Input

selection

may be step,

ramp square,
D0F3NLDE.m.

%
% % %

Called

Inputs: t

% %
%

input

## (s) Flag for input

Time

selection

1 2 3 4
to tr

step ramp
rampsquare

%
% % % % % % % % % % % % %
Created 1/7/96
J.

sine
simulation

(s)

Ramp
EWell

time

td ts
tf

sine
steer

Period for

simulation

dO

magnitude

Outputs:

delta

Steer

angle

Kiefer

delta
=

0;

=

dO;
tO

if t

<

delta
end end

0;

=

dO;
tO
+

if t

<

tr
=

delta
end

d0*(t-t0)/tr;

if t
end
end

<

tO

delta

0;

127

Appendix

CTwo

## DOF Model MATLAB Programs

delta

0;
tO
+

if t
end

<

2*tr
=

td

delta

d0*(t0+td+2*tr-t)/tr;
+

if t

<

tO

tr
=

td

delta
end

dO;

if t

<

tO

tr
=

delta
end

d0*(t-t0)/tr;

if t
end end

<

tO

delta

0;

% Sine Steer

if input

==

4
=

delta

d0*sin(2*pi*(t-t0)/ts)
delta
=

if t
end end

<

tO

0;

128

Appendix

CTwo

## DOF Model MATLAB Programs

C.5 DOF2LFreq.m
%DOF2LFreq
% For % % % %
Generates bode
plot a

Frequency Response
of

of

Single Set

Parameters

## data for linear 2 DOF

speed,
and

model

for

outputs

of

sideslip

angle

and yaw

for inputs

of

steer angle

control,

aerodynamic

side

force disturbance,

disturbance.

% % Created 2/4/96
% J. Kiefer

D0F2Param;
D0F2Control ;

## % Set independent % Set

execution

parameters parameters

control

D0F2DependParam;
% Transfer Function Denominator
D
=

% Calculate dependent

parameters

[1

-Nr/Izz-Yb/

## % Transfer Function Numerators Nbd

Nba
=

[Yd/(m*V) (Nd*Yr-Nr*Yd-Nd*m*V) / (Izz*m*V) ] ; [1/ (m*V) (c-a) /Izz+ ( (a-c) *Yr-Nr) / (Izz*m*V) ]
[g/V
-g*Nr/(Izz*V)] ;

Nbt
Nrd Nra Nrt

[Nd/Izz

## % Bode Plot Data

w

lcgspace(-l,2) *2*pi; bode (Nbd, D,w) ; [Mbd,Pbd,w] bode (Nba, D,w) ; [Mba,Pba,w] bode (Nbt, D,w) ; [Mbt,Pbt,w] bode (Nrd, D,w) ; [Mrd,Prd,w] bode (Nra, D,w) ; [Mra,Pra,w] bode (Nrt, D,w); [Mrt,Prt,w]
=
=

129

Appendix

CTwo

C.6 DOF2LSim.m
%D0F2LSim
%
% % % % %
Performs
simulation of

## Simulation of Linear 2 DOF Model Response to Control and Disturbance

Inputs

linear 2 DOF
yaw

model

response

to

control

and

disturbance inputs.

Determines

speed,
and

front

and rear

front

## lateral speed, sideslip angle, rear tire lateral forces, and

lateral

acceleration.

Plots these

responses versus

% %

D0F2Param, D0F2DependParam.

% Created 1/7/96

% J. Kiefer

% Perform
simulation

parameters

## execution control parameters parameters

% Calculate dependent

[t,x]
v r
=

ode23(,DOF2LDE',0,tf, [0

0]',tol);

x(:,l) ; x(:,2);

% Steer Angle
delta
=

for i

( length ( t) l:length(t)
zeros

1)

delta(i)
end

SteerAngle (t

,

Steer angle

% Vehicle beta
=

and

Tire

Slip Angles
% % %

v/u;
=

angle

alphaF alphaR

and

## Rear tires slip

angle

% External Forces
Fyf
Fyr
=

Moments

Cf*alphaF; Cr*alphaR;

% N % N

## Front tires lateral force Rear tires lateral force

% State Derivatives
vdot rdot
=

(Fyf

Fyr
-

Fya
-

(a*Fyf

b*Fyr

## u*r; Fyg) /m (c-a) *Fya) /Izz;

-

% Lateral Acceleration
ay
=

vdot

u*r;

m/s^

Lateral

acceleration

% Do Plots
subplot

(2, 2,1)

plot(t,v)
grid

title

'

Lateral Speed

'

xlabeK'Time

ylabel

subplot

plot(t,r*180/pi)

130

Appendix

CTwo

grid

xlabelCTime

(s) ')
'

## ylabel( 'Speed (deg/s)

subplot

(2, 2, 3)
,t,alphaR*180/pi,

plot(t,beta*180/pi,t,alphaF*180/pi,
grid

'-.

'

'

'

,t,delta*180/pi,

Sideslip Angle, Tire Slip Angles, (s) ) ylabel ( Slip Angle (deg) )
xlabeK 'Time
'
' '

title ( 'Vehicle

Steer Angle')

subplot

(2, 2, 4)

plot(t,ay/g)
grid

xlabel( 'Time
ylabel

'

'

(s) ')
(g)
'

'Acceleration

131

Appendix

CTwo

## DOF Model MATLAB Programs

C.7 DOF2LDE.m
function %DOF2NLDE
% %xdot
% % % % %
Determines derivatives
state vector. of
=

xdot

DOF2NLDE(t,x)
Non Linear Differential Equations for 2 DOF Model

D0F2NLDE(t,x)

lateral

time and
with ode23

## Non linear tire

and non

linear slip

angles.

Used

for

simulation.

Inputs: t
x(l) x(2)

% %
%

Time

(s)
speed speed

Lateral Yaw

of

% %
% % % %

Outputs:
xdot(l)
xdot

Derivative Derivative

lateral

speed

(2)

of yaw speed

Created 2/18/96
J.

Kiefer

global

Izz L

c u

delta
alphaF

=

atan(
atan(
=

;

alphaR

## [Fyf, Mzf] [Fyr, Mzr]

xdot
=

NLTire(Fzf,

alphaF); alphaR);

NLTire(Fzr,
+

[-u*x(2)

(2*Fyf*cos (delta)

+2*Fyr+Fya+Fyg)/m

(2*a*Fyf*cos (delta)

-2*b*Fyr+

132

Appendix C

C.8 DOF2NLSim.m
%DOF2NLSim
% % % % % %
Performs
simulation of

Simulation

of

and

Disturbance

Inputs

non

linear 2 DOF
yaw

model

response

to

control

and

and rear

Determines

speed,
and

front

versus

lateral

acceleration.

## Plots these responses

time.

% %

D0F2Param, D0F2DependParam.

% Created 2/18/96

% J. Kiefer

D0F2Param; D0F2Control;
D0F2DependParam; % Perform
simulation

## % Set independent % Set

parameters parameters

execution control

% Calculate dependent

parameters

[t,x]
v r
=
=

ode23(,DOF2NLDE',0,tf, [0

0]',tol);

x(:,l) ;

x(:,2) ;

=

zeros

(length(t)
=

1)

l:length(t)

delta(i)
end

SteerAngle

,

,d0)

Steer

angle

% Vehicle beta
=

and

Tire

Slip

Angles

atan(v/u) ;
=

% % %

Vehicle sideslip

angle

alphaF alphaR

atan(
atan(

and

## Front tires slip

Rear tires slip

angle

angle

% External Forces
Fyf Fyr
=

Moments

NLTire(Fzf, NLTire(Fzr,

alphaF); alphaR) ;

% N % N

## (one tire) (one tire)

force

% State Derivatives
vdot
=

(2*Fyf.*cos

rdot

(2*a*Fyf.*cos

## u*r; (delta) + 2*Fyr + Fya + Fyg) /m 2*b*Fyr (c-a)*Fya)/Izz; (delta)

-

% Lateral Acceleration ay
=

vdot

u*r;

m/s^2

Lateral

acceleration

% Do Plots
subplot(2,2,l) plot(t,v)
grid

## Speed') (s) ') ylabel ('Speed (m/s) ')

title
xlabeK'Time subplot

('

Lateral

(2, 2, 2)

plot(t,r*180/pi)

133

Appendix

CTwo

grid

xlabelCTime
ylabel
'

## (s) ') ( Speed (deg/s)

'

subplot

(2, 2, 3)
'
' ,t,alphaR*180/pi,

plot(t,beta*180/pi,t,alphaF*180/pi,
grid

'-.

'

'

,t,delta*180/pi,

')

title

'Vehicle

xlabel( 'Time
ylabel
'

Sideslip Angle, Tire Slip Angles, Steer Angle') (s) ') ( Slip Angle (deg) )
'

subplot
plot

' '

grid

## title ( Lateral Acceleration

xlabel( 'Time
ylabel

(s)

'

)
'

( 'Acceleration (g)

134

Appendix

CTwo

## DOF Model MATLAB Programs

C.9 DOF2NLDE.m
function xdot %D0F2NLDE
%
=

D0F2NLDE(t,x)
Non Linear Differential Equations for 2 DOF Model

%xdot
% %
% % % % %

D0F2NLDE(t,x)
Determines derivatives
state vector. of

lateral

and non

linear slip

angles.

Used

with ode23

for simulation.
Inputs:
t
x(l) x(2)

Time

(s)
speed

%
% %

Lateral speed
Yaw

of

Outputs:
xdot(l)
xdot

% %
%

Derivative

lateral

speed

(2)

Derivative

of yaw speed

% %

Created 2/18/96
J.

Kiefer

global m

Izz L

c u

delta
alphaF

## SteerAngle(t, input, tO, tr,td,ts,tf,dO);

=

atan((x(l)+a*x(2))/u)-delta;
atan(

alphaR

(x(l)-b*x(2) )/u)

Fyf Fyr

xdot

[-u*x(2)

## (2*Fyf*cos (delta) +2*Fyr+Fya+Fyg)/m

-2*b*Fyr+

(2*a*Fyf*cos (delta)

## (a-c) *Fya) /Izz]

135

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

"Control

of

Vehicle
-

Dynamics."

Automotive Engineering,

May 1995, p.

87-93.

Methods."

ISO 7401,

May

1988.

Circular Test
and

Procedure."

Vocabulary."
-

## "Road Vehicles Vehicle Dynamics Dec. 1991.

-

ISO 8855,

"Vehicle Dynamics

Terminology."

## SAE J670e, Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1976.

1994 Motor Sports Engineering Conference Proceedings: Volume 1: Vehicle Design Issues. SAE Publication No. P-287, Dec. 1994.

## Allen, R. Wade and Theodore J. Rosenthal. "A Computer Simulation Analysis

Critical Maneuvers for Assessing Ground Vehicle Dynamic No. 930760, Mar. 1993.
Stability."

of

Safety

SAE Paper

and

Simulation

Models."

Theodore J. Rosenthal. "Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics SAE Paper No. 940175, Feb. 1994.
and

## Allen, R. Wade, Raymond E. Magdaleno, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David H. Klyde,

Jeffrey

Simulation."

R. Hogue. 'Tire Modeling Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics SAE Paper No. 950312, Feb. 1995.
and

DriverA^ehicle
Interaction."

and

Systems."

Stability
SAE Paper No.

## Allen, R. Wade, Theodore J. Rosenthal,

of

and Jeffrey R. Hogue. "Modeling and Simulation SAE Paper No. 960177, Feb. 1996. and

## Allen, R. Wade, Theodore J. Rosenthal,

Transient Analysis
of

Henry

Ground Vehicle

Handling."

and

## Allen, R. Wade, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David H. Klyde, Keith J. Owens,

Szostak. "Validation Dynamics Stability
of
Analysis."

Henry T.

Ground Vehicle Computer Simulations Developed for SAE Paper No. 920054, Feb. 1992.
and

## Allen, R. Wade, Henry T. Szostak, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David H. Klyde,

Owens. "Characteristics Influencing SAE Paper No. 910234,
Stability."

Keith J.

Ground Vehicle Lateral/Directional Dynamic Feb. 1991. A. Sitchin. "Vehicle Dynamic Handling Correlation, and Application Using

--

and

of

## Araki, Kazuo and Hideo Sakai. "Study

Tire Model Consisting of Theoretical and Experimental Equations for Vehicle Dynamics Analysis Part 2: Under the SAE Paper No. Condition of Various Velocity on the Asphaltic Road
-

Surface."

## 960996, Feb. 1996.

Ashley, Steven. "Spin Control for
Cars."

## 117, No. 6, June

1995,

p.

66-68.

136

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

## Bakker, Egbert, Lars Nyborg, and Hans B.

Dynamics
Studies."

Pacejka. 'Tyre Modelling for Use in Vehicle SAE Paper No. 870421, 1987.
Studies."

Bakker, Egbert,
Barak, Pinhas.

Hans B. Pacejka, and Lars Lidner. "A New Tire Model with an SAE Paper No. 890087, 1989. Application in Vehicle Dynamics "Magic Numbers in Design Paper No. 911921, 1991.
of

Cars."

SAE

## Barbieri, Nilson. "Suspensions Bastow, D.

and

Optimization."

SAE Paper No. 921491, 1992. Handling. Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1993.
and

and

and

## Bernard, James E. Bernard, James E.

Calculations."

C.L. Clover. 'Tire Modeling for Low-Speed SAE Paper No. 950311, Feb. 1995.

High-Speed

and

Dynamics."

C.L. Clover. "Validation of Computer Simulations SAE Paper No. 940231, Feb. 1994.

of

Vehicle

## Bixel, Ronald A., Gary J. Heydinger, N.J. Durisek,

Measurement."

and Dennis A. Guenther. "New Developments in Vehicle Center of Gravity and Inertial Parameter Estimation and SAE Paper No. 950356, Feb. 1995.

Blank, Matthew

Donald Margolis. "The Effect of Normal Force Variation on the SAE Paper No. 960484, Feb. 1996. Lateral Dynamics of
and
Automobiles."

Bowman, J. Eric

and

Braking

System."

E.H. Law. "A Feasibility Study of an Automotive SAE Paper No. 930762, Mar. 1993.
and
Friction."

Slip Control

## Breuer, Bert, Thomas Bachmann, Stefan Ernesti,

Instruments for On-Board Measurement 942470, Dec. 1994.

of

Bundorf, R.T.

Properties."

## Cornering Compliance Concept for Description of

SAE Paper No. 760713, Oct. 1976.
Italy."

Cambiaghi, Danilo
1994.

"Computer- Aided

Development at the

University
and

of

Brescia,

## Captain, K.M., A.B. Boghani,

Vehicle
Simulation."

D.N. Wormley. "Analytical Tire Models for Dynamic Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 8, 1979, p. 1-32.

and

## Vehicle Dynamics. SAE Publication No. SP-878, Sept.

Suspension Stiffness

Chen H Fred

and

Responses."

## Dennis A. Guenther. "The Effects SAE Paper No. 911928, 1991.

of

on

Handling

Traction Chocholek, S.E. "The Development of a Differential for the Improvement of IMechE Paper No. C368/88, 1988.
Control."

Composite Suspension Chrstos, Jeffrey P. "A Simplified Method for the Measurement of SAE Paper No. 910232, 1991.
Parameters."

Clover, Chris L.

and

Distribution

on

James E. Bernard. "The Influence of Lateral Load Transfer SAE Paper No. 930763, Mar. 1993. Directional
Response."

## Cole, D.E. Elementary Vehicle Dynamics. Ann Arbor, MI: University

of

Michigan, 1972.

137

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

Crahan, Thomas C. "Modeling Steady-State Suspension Kinematics and Vehicle Dynamics Part I: Theory and of Road Racing Cars SAE Paper No. 942505,
Methodology."
-

Dec. 1994.

Crahan, Thomas C. "Modeling Steady-State Suspension Kinematics and Vehicle Dynamics of Road Racing Cars Part II: SAE Paper No. 942506, Dec. 1994.
Examples."
-

Crolla, D.A.

and

Vehicle

Model."

M.B.A. Abdel-Hady. "Semi-Active Suspension Control for SAE Paper No. 91 1904, Sept. 1991.
of the

Full

1995.

HVE Vehicle

Model."

## SAE Paper No. 950308, Feb.

Dickison, J.G.

and

Vehicle

Development."

A.J. Yardley. "Development and Application of a Functional Model to SAE Paper No. 930835, Mar. 1993.

Dixon, John C. Tyres, Suspension and Handling, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Dreyer, Andreas
with and Heinz-Dieter Heitzer. "Control Strategies for Active Chassis Systems Respect to Road SAE Paper No. 910660, Feb. 1991.
Friction."

Egnaczak, Bernard C. "Supplement to: 'The Development of a Differential for the Improvement of Traction Auto Tech 89, Session 5 Traction Control, Nov. 14, 1989.
Control."

ElBeheiry, ElSayed M.

and

Suspensions Based

on a

Dean C. Karnopp. "Optimization of Active and Passive Full Car SAE Paper No. 951063, Feb. 1995.
Model."

Ellis, John R. Road Vehicle Dynamics, Akron, OH: J.R. Ellis, 1989.
Ellis, John R. Vehicle Dynamics. London: Business Books, 1969. Floyd, R. Scott
and E. Harry Law. "Simulation Aerodynamic Interactions of Race and and
Cars."

## Abbas Emami-Naeini. Feedback Control of Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1994.

Garrot, W. Riley, Douglas L. Wilson, and Richard A. Scott. "Digital Simulation for Automobile Simulation, Sept. 1981, p. 83-91.
Maneuvers."

## Gillespie, T.D. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1992.

Gim, Gwanghun
Gim, Gwanghun

and

Cornering

Namcheol Kang. "Requirements of a Tire Model for Practical SAE Paper No. 960179, Feb. 1996. Simulations of
Vehicles."

Parviz E. Nikravesh. "A Three-Dimensional Tire Model for SAE Paper No. 931913, Nov. 1993. State Simulations of
and
Vehicles."

Gim, Gwanghun

and Parviz E. Nikravesh. "An Analytical Model of Pneumatic Tyres for International Journal of Vehicle Vehicle Dynamic Simulations. Part 1: Pure 1990. No. Vol. Design, 6, 11,
Slips."

Gim, Gwanghun

Parviz E. Nikravesh. "An Analytical Model Vehicle Dynamic Simulations. Part 2: Comprehensive of Vehicle Design, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1991.
and and

of

Slips."

## Pneumatic Tyres for International Journal

Gruening, James

Computer

Simulation."

James E. Bernard. "Verification of Vehicle Parameters for Use in SAE Paper No. 960176, Feb. 1996.

138

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

Gruening, James,
Force
and

Keith A. Williams, Kurt Hoffmeister, and James E. Bernard. 'Tire Moment SAE Paper No. 960182, Feb. 1996.
Processor." Model."

Guntur, R.

S. Sankar. "A Friction Circle Concept for Dugoff s Tyre Friction International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1980.
and

Haney, Paul and Jeff Braun. Inside Racing Technology. Redwood City, CA: TV Motorsports, 1995.

Heydinger, Gary J. "Improved Simulation and Validation of Road Vehicle Handling Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1990.
Dynamics."

and

Lag

on

and

Jeffrey P.

Response."

## Heydinger, Gary J., Paul A. Grygier,

Applied to Vehicle

Handling

Dynamics."

Seewoo Lee. "Pulse Testing Techniques SAE Paper No. 930828, Mar. 1993.

Holmes, H. and D. Alexander. Formula Car Technology. Santa Ana, CA: Steve Smith Autosports, 1980. Hopkins, Patrick and L. Daniel Metz. "Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics SAE Paper No. 942485, Dec. 1994.
Differential."

of a

Locked

Howard, Geoffrey. Chassis & Suspension Engineering, London, England: Osprey Publishing Limited, 1987. Huang, Feng, J. Roger Chen,
for Vehicle Parameter
and
Estimation."

Lung-Wen Tsai. "The Use of Random Steer Test Data SAE Paper No. 930830, Mar. 1993.
Traction."

Huchtkoetter, Heinrich
in

Heinz Klein. "The Effect of Various Drive Vehicles on Handling and 960717, Feb. 1996.
and Front-Wheel

Limited-Slip Differentials
SAE Paper No.
Control."

Ikushima, Y.

K Sawase. "A Study on the Effects SAE Paper No. 950303, Feb. 1995.
and
Speed."

of

## the Active Yaw Moment

Jung, Shinsub

and Dennis A. Guenther. "An Examination of the Maneuverability SAE Paper No. 910241, Feb. 1991. Wheel Steer Vehicle at Low

of an

All

## Kaminaga, M., M. Murata,

and Y. Tateishi. "Factoring Nonlinear Kinematics into New SAE Paper No. Suspension Design: A CAE Approach to Vehicle Roll Feb. 1994. 940871,
Dynamics."
Systems."

Karnopp, Dean. "Active Damping in Road Vehicle Suspension Dynamics, Vol. 12, 1983, p. 291-316. Kasprzak, James L.
R. Scott Floyd. "Use SAE Paper No. 942504, Dec. 1994.
and of

Vehicle System
Dampers."

## Simulation to Tune Race Car

Katz, Joseph. Race Car Aerodynamics. Cambridge, MA: Robert Bentley, Inc., 1995. Klein, Richard H., Gary L. Teper,
and

Dolly
Ko, Y.
and

Type Combination

Vehicles."

James D. Fait. "Lateral/Directional Stability SAE Paper No. 960184, Feb. 1996.
with an

of

Tow

T. Oh. "Motion Control of the Vehicle SAE Paper No. 940865, Feb. 1994.

Active Suspension

System."

## Koibuchi, Ken, Masaki Yamamoto, Yoshiki Fukada,

Control in Limit

and

Cornering by

Active

Brake."

Shoji Inagaki. "Vehicle Stability SAE Paper No. 960487, Feb. 1996.

139

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

Korturn, W.

and W. Schiehlen. "General Purpose Vehicle System Dynamics Software Vehicle System Dynamics, No. 14, 1985, p. Based on Multibody 229-263.
Formalisms."

Kramer,

Kenneth D. and Dale E. Calkins. "Lateral Response SAE Paper No. 942523, Dec. 1994.
Optimization."

of

Car."

## SAE Paper No. 942492, Dec.

Technology."

Langer, William. "Vehicle Testing with Flat Surface Roadway No. 960731, Feb. 1996.
Vehicle."

SAE Paper

Lee, Allan Y. "Emulating the Lateral Dynamics of a Range of Vehicles Using SAE Paper No. 950304, Feb. 1995. Wheel-Steering

a Four-

Lee, Allan Y. "Performance of Four-Wheel-Steering Vehicles in Lane Change SAE Paper No. 950316, Feb. 1995. Lee, Seewoo, Jeffrey P. Chrstos,
Inputs."

Maneuvers."

and Dennis A. Guenther. "Modeling of Dynamic Characteristics of Tire Lateral and Longitudinal Force Responses to Dynamic SAE Paper No. 950314, Feb. 1995.
and

## Input Techniques to the Study Dynamics in the Frequency

of

Domain."

Dennis A. Guenther. "The Application of Pulse Tire Lateral Force and Self- Aligning Moment SAE Paper No. 950317, Feb. 1995.
Results."

Lund, Yvonne I.

and James E. Bernard. "The Relationship Between the Complexity of SAE Paper No. 920052, Linear Models and the Utility of the Computer Feb. 1992.

Maalej, Aref Y. "Application of Suspension Derivative Formulation to Ground Vehicle Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Modeling and 1988. Columbus, OH,
Simulation."

## Mabrouka, Hani, H. Fred Chen, Aref Y. Maalej,

Lateral Tire Flexibility 910239, Feb. 1991.
on

the

Steering

Behavior."

and

## David A. Crolla. "Vehicle

Around Non-Linear

Operating

Conditions."

## Handling Analysis Using Linearization

SAE Paper No. 960482, Feb. 1996.
Program."

McConville, James B.

and John C. Angell. 'The Dynamic Simulation of a Moving Vehicle Subject to Transient Steering Inputs Using the ADAMS Computer ASME Paper No. 84-DET-2, 1984. and

Metz, L. Daniel

and

Model."

## of a Two- Wheel-Steer and

Four-Wheel-Steer Vehicle

## SAE Paper No.

911926, 1991.
Metz, L. Daniel, Michael Dover, John Fisher, Victoria McCleary,
Configurations."

Errol Shavers. Vehicle "Comparison of Linear Roll Dynamics Properties for Various SAE Paper No. 920053, 1992.
and and

## Metz, L. Daniel, Troy S. Torbeck, Kevin H. Forbes,

Maneuver Capability Without 942469, Dec. 1994.
and

L.

Gregory Metz.
Flat
Tire."

In the Presence

of a

## "Evasive SAE Paper No.

140

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

## Metz, L. Daniel. "Dynamics 930765, Mar. 1993.

of Four-Wheel

Steer Off-Highway

Vehicles."

## SAE Paper No.

Milliken, William F.
SAE, 1995.

and

Doug L.

## Milliken. Race Car Vehicle Dynamics. Warrendale, PA:

Method."

Milliken, William F.
1983,
p.

and

31-60.
and

Development."

-

## Mimuro, Tetsushi, Masayoshi Ohsaki, Hiromichi Yasunaga,

Parameter Evaluation Method 901734, 1990. 1969.
of Lateral

and

Transient

Response."

## Kohji Satoh. "Four SAE Paper No.

Mola, Simone. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, Detroit, MI: General Motors Institute, Moline, D., S. Floyd, S. Vaduri,
Active
Suspensions."

and E.H. Law. "Simulation and Evaluation SAE Paper No. 940864, Feb. 1994.

of Semi-

## Mori, Yoshinori, Hironobu Matsushita, Takashi Yonekawa, Yoshihisa Nagahara,

Hiroshi Shimomura. "A Simulation System for Vehicle Dynamics Paper No. 910240, Feb. 1991.

and

Control."

SAE

## Nalecz, Andrzej G. "Analysis

at

High

Speed."

of the Dynamic Response of a Four Wheel Steering Vehicles International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1988.

Nalecz, Andrzej G. "Development and Validation of Light Vehicle Dynamics Simulation SAE Paper No. 920056, Feb. 1992.
(LVDS)."

Nalecz, Andrzej G.
Wheel

Alan C. Bindemann. "Investigation into the Stability of Four International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 9, No. 2, Steering 159-178. p. 1988,
and
Vehicles."

Naude, Alwyn F.

and Jasper L. Steyn. "Objective Evaluation Characteristics of a Vehicle in a Double Lane Change 930826, Mar. 1993.

of the

Manoeuvre."

## Simulated Handling SAE Paper No.

Negrut, D.

and J.S. Freeman. "Dynamic Tire Modelling for Application with Vehicle SAE Paper No. 940223, Feb. 1994. Simulations Incorporating
Terrain."

Neto, Mauro Speranza, Fernando Riberio da Silva, and Jose Francisco Martinex. "Design Methodology in Vehicle Dynamics, Using the Procedures of Modeling, Simulation, SAE Paper No. 921480, 1992. and Analysis of System
Dynamics."

New Developments in Vehicle Dynamics, Simulation, Publication No. SP-1074, Feb. 1995.

and

## Suspension Systems. SAE

Nikravesh, Parviz E.

Jong-Nyun Lee. "Optimal Four-Wheel Steering Strategy Using SAE Paper No. 931915, Nov. 1993. Nonlinear Analytical Vehicle
and
Models."
Handling."

1937.

and

1961.

Suspensions."

on

## Detroit, MI: Chevrolet Engineering Center,

141

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

Olley, Maurice.

"Suspensions Notes

n."

1966.

and

## Thema Full Active Suspension

System."

Luigi Gortan. "H-Infmity Control for Lancia SAE Paper No. 950583, Feb. 1995.

Petersen, Michael R.
with

and John M. Starkey. "Nonlinear Vehicle Performance Simulation Test Correlation and Sensitivity Analysis." SAE Paper No. 960521 Feb 1996.

Post, J.W.

and E.H. Law. "Modeling, Characterization and Simulation of Automobile Power Steering Systems for the Prediction of On-Center Handling." SAE Paper No. 960178, Feb. 1996.
Data."

Radt, Hugo S. "An Efficient Method for Treating Race Tire Force-Moment Paper No. 942536, Dec. 1994. Radt, Hugo S.
and

SAE

D.A. Gleniming. "Normalization of Tire Force and Moment Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr.-June 1993, p. 91-119.
and
Derivatives."

Data."

Tire

Donald J. Van Dis. "Vehicle Handling Responses SAE Paper No. 960483, Feb. 1996.
Cars."

Using Stability

Reichelt, Werner. "Correlation Analysis of Open/Closed Loop Data for Objective Assessment of Handling Characteristics of SAE Paper No. 910238, Feb.
1991.

Reimpell, Jornsen and Helmut Stoll. The Automotive Chassis: Engineering Principles. Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1996. Rice, R.S.
and

## Utilizing the Moment

Sayers, Micheal W.
Dynamics
and
Models."

William F. Milliken. "Static Stability and Control of the Automobile SAE Paper No. 800847, June 1980.
Method."

C. Mink. "A Simulation Graphical User Interface for Vehicle SAE Paper No. 950169, Feb. 1995.
Trucks."

Sayers, Michael W.

and Stephen M. Riley. "Modeling Assumptions for Realistic Simulations of the Yaw and Roll Behavior of SAE Multibody Heavy Paper No. 960173, Feb. 1996. and

## Schuring, Dieterich J., Wolfgang Pelz,

Tire

Cornering

and

Braking

Forces."

Marion G. Pottinger. "A Model for Combined SAE Paper No. 960180, Feb. 1996.
Concept."

of

and

Formula'

## Segal, Leonard. "Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Substantiation of the Response

the Automobile to
the

Proceedings of the Automobile Division of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, No. 7, 1956-1957, p. 310-330.

Steering

Control."

Sharp, R.S.

D.A. Crolla. "Road Vehicle Suspension System Design Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 16, 1987, p. 167-192.
and
and
Moments."

Review."

Stabilizing Yaw
Smith, C. Prepare
to

Y. Shibahata. "Comparison of Three Active Chassis Control Methods for SAE Paper No. 940870, Feb. 1994.

Win.

## Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, Inc.,

1975.

142

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

Smith, C. Tune

to Win.

## Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1978.

Automobiles."

Smith, Norman. 'Transient Control Response of Dynamics, Vol. 6, No. 2-3, Sept. 1977, p. 63-67.
Sohn, H.S., S.C. Lee, M.W. Suh,
Characteristics 1994.
on

Vehicle System

and Y.M. Song. "The Influences of Chassis Geometric Performances." Vehicle Dynamic SAE Paper No. 940872, Feb.

## Song, Jun-gyu and Yong-San Yoon. "Design

Control Algorithm
of

of

Four-Wheel

Steer."

Two-Wheel Steer Vehicle Using Optimal SAE Paper No. 931914, 1993.

Staniforth, A. Competition Car Suspension. Newbury Park, CA: Haynes Publications Inc., 1991.
Sultan, Mohammad O., Gary J. Heydinger, Nicholas J. Durisek,
"A Study of Vehicle Class Segregation Paper No. 950307, Feb. 1995.
and

## Dennis A. Guenther. SAE

Models."

Taborek, Jaroslav J. Mechanics of Vehicles. Cleveland, OH: Penton, 1957. Thomas, D.W. "Vehicle Modeling
Oct. 1987.
and

Analysis."

## Trom, J.D., J.L. Lopex,

a

M.J. Vanderploeg. "Modeling of a Mid-Size Passenger Car Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Dynamics Using Multibody Automation in Design, Vol. 109, Dec. 1987. and Mechanisms, Transmissions,
and
Program."

## Trom, J.D., M.J. Vanderploeg,

Vehicle Optimization 110.

and

Problems."

James E. Bernard. "Application of Inverse Models to Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 19, 1990, p. 97-

Turpin, D.R.

and

Simulation."

D.F. Evans. "High-Fidelity Road/Tire Interaction Models for Real Time SAE Paper No. 950170, Feb. 1995.
and Mechanics.

van

## Seal Beach, CA: Paul Van

and Harmut SAE Paper No.

## Zanten, Anton Th., Rainer Erhardt, Albert Lutz, Wilfried Neuwald,

Bartels. "Simulation for the Development 960486, Feb. 1996.
of

the

Bosch-

VDC."

## Vanderlploeg, M.J., J.D. Trom,

James E. Bernard. "Evaluation Path Follow Performance Using a Linear Inverse Vehicle 880644, 1988.
and

of

Model."

Vedamuthu, S.

and

of

Qualities."

## 930829, Mar. 1993.

Vehicle Dynamics and Electronic Controlled Suspensions. SAE Publication No. Feb. 1991. Vehicle Dynamics
and

SP-861,

SP-909, Feb.

1992.
Vehicle Dynamics
and

## Simulation. SAE Publication No. SP-950, Mar. 1993.

SAE Publication No. SP-1031, Feb. 1994.

143

Appendix D

Relevant Literature

Whatmough,
Low

Speeds."

K.J. "Real-Time Wheel Brake and Tire Lateral Force Models Refined for SAE Paper No. 940178, Feb. 1994.
and

Whitcomb, David W.
of

## William F. Milliken. "Design Implications

Control."
,

of a

General

Theory

Automobile Stability and Proceedings of the Automobile Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Aug. 1956, p. 83-107. R.S.

Wilson, D.A.,

Sharp,

and

Suspension."

15, 1986,
p.

## Linear Optimal Control Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol.

of

105-118.

Wong, Jo Yung. Theory of Ground Vehicles. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993. Wright, Peter. "Out at the
Four Wheel
Edge!"

of

p.

15-18.

## Xia, Xunmao. "A Nonlinear Analysis

Closed Loop Driver/Vehicle Performance with Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Steering Clemson Engineering, University, Clemson, SC, Dec. 1990.
Control."

## Xia, Xunmao Xia, Xunmao

and E.H. Law. "Nonlinear Analysis Performance with Four Wheel Steering
and

of

Control."

## Closed Loop Driver/Automobile SAE Paper No. 920055, 1992.

on

Handling

Performance."

J.N. Willis. 'The Effects of Tire Cornering Stiffness SAE Paper No. 950313, Feb. 1995.

Vehicle Linear
Stability."

Yamamoto, Masaki. "Active Control Strategy for Improved Handling Paper No. 911902, Sept. 1991. Yasui, Yoshiyuki, Kenji Tozu, Noriaki Hattori,
of
Control."

and

SAE

and Masakazu Sugisawa. "Improvement Vehicle Directional Stability for Transient Steering Maneuvers Using Active SAE Paper No. 960485, Feb. 1996. Brake

144