by
Joseph R. Kiefer A Thesis Submitted
in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the MASTER OF SCIENCE m Mechanical Engineering Approved by: Professor         Dr. Kevin Kochersberger Thesis Advisor Dr. Alan Nye
Professor         Professor
Dr. Michael Hennessey
_ _
Dr. Charles Haines Thesis Advisor
Professor
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AUGUST 1996
Disclosure Statement
Pennission Granted
I, Joseph R. Kiefer, hereby grant pennission to the Wallace Memorial Library of the Rochester Institute of Technology to reproduce my thesis entitled Modeling of Road Vehicle Lateral Dynamics in whole or in part. Any reproduction will not be for commercial use or profit.
ii
Abstract
The lateral dynamics
mathematical model.
of a road vehicle
is
development
of a
The
vehicle
is
represented with
yaw.
Equations
of motion are
vehicle model
from basic
principles of
Newtonian
mechanics.
Both linear
developed.
In the linear
relationship.
model
represented
by an approximate linear
for
various control and
Transfer functions
for the
vehicle system
frequency
model
is
performed.
In the
detailed
representation of tire
as tire
data nondimensionalization is
utilized.
Simulation is
the
linear model
simulation
assumptions.
Table
of
Contents
ii iii
Contents
iv
vi
of
of
vii
of
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
5
10 10 11 14
14
3.1 Introduction
24
24 25 26 27 28
4. 1 Introduction 4.2 Description of Model 4.2. 1 Assumptions 4.2.2 Vehicle Parameters 4.2.3 FreeBody Diagram
4.3 Derivation
4.4 Derivation
of of
Equations Tire
of Motion
29 31
33 34 35 35 36 37 39 41 42 42 43 43
Slip Angles
4.5 Linear Model 4.5. 1 Additional Assumptions 4.5.2 Vehicle Sideslip Angle 4.5.3 Tire Slip Angles 4.5.4 External Forces and Moments 4.5.5 Equations of Motion 4.5.6 Transfer Functions 4.5.7 Vehicle Sideslip Angle Gain 4.5.8 Yaw Velocity Gain 4.5.9 Front Tire Slip Angle Gain 4.5.10 Rear Tire Slip Angle Gain 4.5.11 Path Curvature Gain
iv
Table
of
Contents
4.5. 12 Lateral Acceleration SteadyState 4.5.13 SteadyState Steer Angle 4.5.14 Understeer Gradient 4.5.15 Stability Factor 4.5. 16 Neutral Steer Point 4.5.17 Static Margin 4.5.18 Tangent Speed 4.5.19 Critical Speed 4.5.20 Characteristic Speed 4.5.21 Characteristic Equation 4.5.22 Undamped Natural Frequency 4.5.23 Damping Ratio 4.5.24 System Poles 4.5.25 System Zeros 4.5.26 Frequency Response 4.5.27 Simulation 4.6 NonLinear Model 4.6. 1 Model Equations 4.6.2 Simulation
Chapter 5
44 45 46 48 48 49
50 51
51 52 53 53
55 55 58 65 89 89 90
100 102
Conclusion
A.3 NLTire.m
Appendix B Appendix C Two DOF Model Mathematica Session Two DOF Model MATLAB Programs
C.6 DOF2LSim.m
C7DOF2LDE.m
C.8 DOF2NLSim.m
C.9 DOF2NLDE.m
Appendix D Relevant Literature
List
of Tables
Table 3.1: NonLinear Tire Model Parameters Table 3.2: Experimental Tire Data Table 4.1: Vehicle Parameters
Table 4.2: Linear Tire Model Parameters
17 21 28
36
45 56
vi
List
of Figures
Figure 3. 1 : Tire
Slip Angle
11
Figure 3.2: Tire Lateral Force Versus Slip Angle Figure 3.3: Experimental Tire Data Figure 3.4: Tire
12
21 22 22 23
23 26
Cornering Coefficient
FreeBody Diagram
29
32
Figure 4.3: Kinematic Diagram Figure 4.4: Gravitational Side Force Figure 4.5: Natural Frequency Figure 4.6: Poles Figure 4. 7: Figure 4.8:
and vs.
37
Vehicle
Velocity
54 57 V
=
Zeros
100 km/hr
V
=
61
61
Sideslip Angle /Aero Side Force Frequency Response, Sideslip Angle /Road Side Slope Frequency Response,
Velocity / Steer Angle Frequency Response,
Figure 4.9:
62 62 63 63
64
V'= lOOkm/hr
V=100 km/hr V
=
100 km/hr
30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr
64 67
71
Velocity Response
vn
List
of Figures
Velocity Response
71 72
72
73 73
74
Velocity Response
Step Steer Yaw Velocity Response Step Steer Sideslip Angle Response
Step Steer Front Tire Slip Angle Response Step Steer Rear Tire Slip Angle Response
74
75
75 76 76
Figure 4.28: Linear Ramp Square Steer Lateral Figure 4.29: Linear Ramp Square Steer Yaw
77
77
Velocity Response
Figure 4.30: Linear Ramp Square Steer Sideslip Angle Response Figure 4.31: Linear Ramp Square Steer Front Tire Figure 4.32: Linear Ramp Square Steer Rear Tire
78
78
79 79 80 80
81 81 82 82 83
Figure 4.33: Linear Ramp Square Steer Lateral Acceleration Response Figure 4.34: Linear I Hz Sine Steer Lateral Figure 4.35: Linear 1 Hz Sine Steer Yaw
Velocity Response
Velocity Response
Figure 4. 36: Linear I Hz Sine Steer Sideslip Angle Response Figure 4.37: Linear I Hz Sine Steer Front Tire Figure 4.38: Linear I Hz Sine Steer Rear Tire
Velocity Response
Velocity Response
83
vui
List
of
Figures
84
84 85
Figure 4.43: Linear Step Aero Side Force Front Tire Figure 4.44: Linear Step Aero Side Force Rear Tire
Figure 4.45: Linear Step Aero Side Force Lateral Acceleration Response Figure 4.46: Linear Step Road Side Slope Lateral Figure 4.47: Linear
85 86 86 87
87
Velocity Response
Yaw
Velocity Response
Figure 4.49: Linear Step Road Side Slope Front Tire Figure 4.50: Linear Step Road Side Slope Rear Tire
88 88
94 94
Figure 4.51: Linear Step Road Side Slope Lateral Acceleration Response Figure 4.52: NonLinear Step Steer Lateral
Velocity Response
Velocity Response
95 95 96
96 97
Figure 4.57: NonLinear Step Steer Lateral Acceleration Response Figure 4.58: NonLinear Ramp Square Steer Lateral Figure 4.59: NonLinear Ramp Square Steer Yaw
Velocity Response
Velocity Response
97 98 98
Figure 4.60: NonLinear Ramp Square Steer Sideslip Angle Response Figure 4.61: NonLinear Ramp Square Steer Front Tire Figure 4.62: NonLinear Ramp Square Steer Rear Tire
99
99
IX
List
l/R
a
of
Symbolst
Path
curvature
(1/m)
center
to front axle
(m)
(m/s2)
a0
ay
Acceleration Acceleration
)
"g"
Ay
b
units of
(g)
Distance from
mass center
to rear axle
(m)
Bj
B3 B5
c
coefficient
C} C3
(N/deg/N2)
C5
Ca
coefficient slope
stiffness
(N/rad)

Cf
Cr
Cc
d
stiffness
two tires
(N/rad)
stiffness
two tires
(N/rad)
coefficient
(N/deg)
axle
(m)
D} Ej
/
F
Magic Formula curve fit parameter Magic Formula curve fit parameter
Front
axle weight
fraction
External force
(N)
By convention,
italicized
boldfaced.
List
of
Symbols
F^
steer point
(N)
Fy Fy
Fya
Aerodynamic
side
F^
two tires
(N)
Fyg
F
two tires
(N)
Fz
g
load (N)
G
H
(kgm/s)
(about
mass
Angular Unit
momentum
center)
(kgm2/s)
vector
in xdirection
Izz
j
k K
inertia (kgm2)
vector
in ydirection
in
vector
Kus
L
m
(rad)
(m) (kg)
mass
vehicle mass
External Yaw
moment
(about
center)
(Nm)
Nr
/Vp
Ns
r
Control
moment
derivative (Nm/rad)
(rad/s)
(m)
XI
List
of
Symbols
Rf Rr
s
Position Position
vector
from vehicle
from
mass center to
vector
to
tire
(m)
Laplacedomain variable
Static
margin
SM
u
velocity
(m/s)
Vchar
Characteristic
Critical
speed
speed
(m/s)
VcHt Vf V0 Vr
V[an Vx
(m/s)
(m/s)
velocity in xdirection velocity in ydirection
Component Component
of
Vy
Yr
of
Tp
Y6
a
(N/rad)
(rad)
slip
angle
normalized
af
ar
angle
(rad)
angle
(rad)
(rad)
(3
Vehicle sideslip
angle
5
^Acker
Front
steer angle
input (rad)
Ackerman
steer angle
(rad)
xn
List
of
Symbols
8/
8r
Front
Rear
steer angle
(rad)
steer angle
(rad)
for
given path radius
8M
yr
Steadystate
steer angle
(rad)
(rad)
variable
Damping ratio
liy
oo
Q.
coefficient
frequency (rad/s)
(rad/s) (rad/s)
Qz
xin
Introduction
automobiles were
and
The top
fifteen
miles per
much of
effort
devoted to
developing faster
and
top
speeds reached
fortyfive
miles per
hour by 1900
eighty
in
a ground vehicle.
speeds of the
first
automobiles were
was
initially
However,
an
quickly became
concern
capable of
dynamics became
important
for
automotive engineers.
standpoint was
the behavior of
since
vehicles
in
maneuvers such as
turning
quality
and
braking as top
speeds
increased. Also,
early
roads were of
very
poor
by today's
and
passengers
increasingly important.
three basic modes of vehicle
refers to the vertical response
The field
performance.
dynamics
encompasses
Vertical dynamics,
or ride
dynamics, basically
of
the
vehicle
involves the
straightline
acceleration and
in
each of
for
a vehicle
to
meet
regards
to comfort, controllability,
Vehicle dynamics
needs to
be
considered
from initial
conceptualization
through
production
if performance
goals are to
be
met.
Mathematical modeling is
an
excellent
goals.
Chapter 1
Introduction
Traditionally there has been a relatively long cycle in the design and development
process
concept
for
a vehicle
to its
can
production.
With
such a
initial
concept to
production,
vehicle
designs
be
by the time
they reach production. Increasing competition from a globally expanding industry has
driven
automobile manufacturers to reduce the
cycle.
This
allows
quickly to
changes
design
cycle
length is
of
prototypes are
and
dynamics,
and
multibody dynamics
simulation
have greatly
software
facilitated this
becomes
more
effort.
As
computer speeds
continually increase
can
and
engineering
powerful, better
vehicle
designs
be
obtained
before
prototypes are
built,
resulting in fewer
and cost.
Mathematical modeling
to achieve a design
of vehicle
engineers reduce
for the
consumer and
for
government regulations.
A proposed design
can
be
studied to
determine if it
be
before any
prototypes are
built. The
effects of
design
changes can
evaluated without
Development
the
tuning
of prototypes
desired ride
and
handling characteristics.
simulation offers a
Computer
of
individual
parameters can
be isolated
environment.
Simulation
can remove
isolate the
maneuvers
performance of
the
vehicle.
In addition,
simulation can
be
used to
study
that
could result
vehicle or
Chapter 1
Introduction
example would
be
a maneuver
resulting in
roll over.
Real time
used to train
drivers
and to evaluate
driver performance in
when
drowsy or under the influence of alcohol. Many of the new safety and comfort
technologies
such antilock
related
brakes,
traction control,
stability control,
and variable
damping would be very difficult, if not impossible, to develop without the use of
simulation.
Computer
simulation
has many
useful applications
in the field
of vehicle
dynamics.
Vehicle dynamics
models can
have
Models
can
or a combination
of modes.
a model must
representations of
appropriate systems of
Effects
or
of
powertrain
system,
braking system,
accuracy
required.
Control
of
driver is
available.
The
be
suitable
for the
maneuvers
it
will simulate.
The
subject of
it is
concerned with
the
and
simple
the bicycle
model
is
used
in this
study.
degree
be very
useful
in
such as
speed.
Chapter 2 is
a review of vehicle
of
by the tires,
an overview
mechanics
is
provided
in Chapter 3 along
with a
description
of the
two
Chapter 1
Introduction
in this
study.
The
nonlinear model
is based on
data
nondimensionalization.
Chapter 4
of the
focus
of this
two degreeoffreedom vehicle model. Equations of motion are derived from basic
principles of
Newtonian
mechanics.
The
model
and
nonlinear.
In the linear
model
to derive various
frequency response of
the vehicle to control and disturbance inputs. In addition, the response of the linear model
to various inputs is simulated
the linear model. Conclusions are drawn regarding the range of applicability of the linear
model.
Literature Review
As early
mentioned
in Chapter 1
vehicle
as the
top speeds
of automobiles
part of
this century
dynamics became
an
important
consideration
A large
body of vehicle dynamics literature cunently exists covering all aspects of vertical,
and
longitudinal,
dynamics is knowledge
been
written on
this topic.
papers road vehicle
One William
of
first
concerning
work
lateral dynamics
was written
in 1908
by
Lanchester.2
In this
of
automobiles.
However,
complete
understanding
early
years
published a paper
Steering
Mechanism"
which
in terms
of
which
is
still used
today
and
all
lateral
vehicle
dynamics
models.
Following this
were
built
by a
These
advancements paved
develop
detailed
turning behavior.
One
responsible
of
the early pioneers in vehicle dynamics research was Maurice Olley. He was
of
the independent front suspension in the United States for the system in the 1934 SAE paper "Independent
Cadillac
and
operation of
Whererfores."
and
report written
in 1937 titled
and
reviewed
the
research
in lateral dynamics
is
today.3
understood
retirement
Chapter 2
Literature Review
early 1960's he
summarized
published a series of
"Olley'
Notes"4'5
as
which
his
extensive
knowledge
handling. dynamics
was written
One
concerning lateral
vehicle
in 1956 by Leonard
Segal,
who worked at
many
of
the
analytical
techniques
aircraft
entitled
'Theoretical Prediction
and
Substantiation
Control,"
Steering
Segal developed
roll)
model of
equations of motion
for
and
vehicle
was
necessary to have
linear
model
for
which
closed
form
solutions
found. Segal
used
described the
stability factor,
neutral steer
point, and
static margin.
concluded
sufficiently
accurate
for lateral
motions of a reasonable
magnitude.
A
and
second paper
"Design Implications
of a
General
Control"
written
Aeronautical
paper series
Laboratory,
"Research in Automobile
This
paper studied
authors
to utilize a large
systems.
for the
dynamic
These
deal
of research
in lateral
vehicle
dynamics
which
has
provided engineers
today
with a comprehensive
understanding
of the subject.
Several
dynamics.
Suspension
and
1993),8
Chapter 2
Literature Review
(Cole,
1972),9
Tyres, Suspension
and
Handling (Dixon,
1989),12
199
1),10
1969),11
(Gillespie,
Milliken,
1995),13
Engineering
and
Stall,
1996),15
1957),16
Theory of Ground
freedom vehicle
Another
Leffert.18
Most
of
model when
in 1976
by Bundorf and
In this
work
concept
characteristics
determined
This
allows engineers
to see the
effects of
steering
and suspension
camber
on understeer without
developing the detailed vehicle models that would be necessary to simulate these effects
directly. Since the computing hardware
models was not and software needed
readily
available at
Since the
expand on
work of
which
his
model.
The dynamics
vehicle models.
Lateral dynamics
of
models
have been
expanded to
include longitudinal
and vertical
degrees
Some
examples
in the literature
can
be
by
Allen,19
Heydinger,20
Xunmao.21
and
came
dynamics
codes.
These
individually
individually
and connected
using joints.
very
accurate
kinematic
Chapter 2
Literature Review
Examples
of the application of
multibody
codes to vehicle
dynamics
can
be found in the
literature.22'23
As
computer
processing
speeds
increase,
vehicle
dynamics
simulations
becomes
more practical.
the
use of
of
information that is in
models.
The dimensions,
component must
be known to build
simulation
an accurate model.
Commercial multibody
and
codes used
for
vehicle
dynamics
Mechanica Motion.
models
of successful vehicle
dynamics
development
of accurate representations of
this task and the results can be found in the literature. One the first attempts at a theoretical
model of tire
1941.
They represented
the tire
by a massless taut string on an elastic foundation and predicted forces based on the
and material properties of the tire.
geometry have
major advancements
in tire
models
as
computers
available.
contract
by Clarke in
In 1990
model was
developed by
Gim
and
Nikravesh.25
However,
most of
today
are
based primarily
measured
upon empirical
fitting of experimentally
tire data. One of the most popular empirical tire models known as the "Magic
was published
Formula"
by Bakker, Nyborg,
and
Allen.28
and
Pacejka in
1987.26
models
include those
by
Radt27
The development
modeling.
of accurate
been
critical
to the success
of vehicle
dynamics
There
years
exists a
large
body
literature regarding
significant
vehicle
in
particular
have
seen
many
developments
on
vehicles and
tires have been developed to the point where very accurate simulations of
response can
lateral dynamic
be
performed.
The
advent of the
digital
computer
has greatly
Chapter 2
Literature Review
enhanced the
ability
of engineers
to
list of relevant
provided
sources
from the
vehicle
is
in Appendix D.
Tire Behavior
3.1 Introduction
With the
exception of gravitational and aerodynamic
forces,
all of
to the
vehicle
the
direction
as a
result of control
inputs,
accelerations
are, in
vehicle
dynamics
Two tire widely
of road vehicles
it is necessary to have
a simple
behavior.
in this thesis:
linear model
and a more
accurate, more
The
requirements of a
tire
model
vary
three
force
components and
longitudinal, lateral,
be
and
being studied,
effect of the
tires
on
vehicle.
However,
this thesis is concerned only with the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The simple
is
studied
and rotational
degrees
of
freedom in the
the vertical
horizontal
axis of
plane.
the
vehicle need
vertical axis
is
called
The
effect of the
aligning
moments of the
tires on the
overall
dynamics
lateral forces
moments of
of the tires.
In the
is
presented
neglected.
aspect of tire
behavior which is
is lateral force
generation.
10
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
mechanics of the
lateral force
generation of a
discussion
of
this
process
is beyond the
scope of
Many thorough
The lateral
discussions
force
of the mechanics of
force
generation exist
in the
literature.1'1317
Fy generated by a pneumatic tire depends upon many variables including road surface
carcass
conditions, tire
construction, tread
design,
rubber
temperature, speed,
given tire on
vertical
load, longitudinal
unchanging,
load
and
slip
angle are
the
variables
having the largest effect and are the variables considered for the tire models used
in this thesis.
The tire slip
angle angle
is
represented
"the This
between the
X'
axis and
tire
contact."29
X'
Figure 3. 1: Tire
Slip Angle
11
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
definition
references the
S AE tire
X'
system.29
axis
The
origin of
axis
is the intersection
axis
is
perpendicular
to the
is
positive
Y'
axis
is in the
plane of
system.
lateral force,
in Figure 3.1. A
positive
slip
lateral
force
are shown.
Simply stated, the slip angle is the angle between the direction the wheel
direction it is traveling
produced at a given
is pointing
and the
slip
angle curve
for
load is
shown
is approximately
generated
depends primarily
on
design,
within
There is little sliding occurring between the tire Lateral force is developed
as a result of
the contact
patch.
deformation
of
the tire.
\.<h.j...\....^r.
v>r
<D o
2
0)
CO
10
12
14
16
Slip Angle
12
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
The initial
tire. The
slope of lateral
force
is
versus
slip
angle curve
is the cornering
stiffness
Ca of the
cornering
stiffness
often used as a
linear
approximation
to the relationship
stiffness can
and
slip
angle
be
both vary
with
the vertical
while
load
on
vertical
load,
the
cornering
decreases. Both
of
this thesis.
As the slip
angle
increases the
slope of
a maximum.
At this
maximum the
vertical
coefficient \iy.
usually decreases
the vertical load on the tire increases. Beyond the slip angle at which the peak lateral
angles a
larger portion
of
the
is sliding than
at
low slip
angles.
produced
depends
in Figure 3.2
represents steadystate
characteristics.
Because
of
actually
dynamic
system within
itself. When
in slip
angle
effects of tire
dynamics
for
are
can
be
by including
are
vehicle model
each
generally
small
Hz.6
Tire dynamics
simulating emergency
Tire
dynamics
are neglected
in the
13
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
initial
slope of the
lateral force
versus
slip
angle curve
for
single vertical
stiffness
Under
certain
tire behavior.
Inspection
of Figure
3.2
reveals
linear. Thus
at
sufficiently
small
produced
by a tire can be
approximated
by the expression
Fy
where
Caa
(3.1)
c.Z
a
da
(3.1)
a=0
of
the
versus
slip
angle
relationship
variety
of
permits
Since there is
a wide
linear systems,
much can
be learned
about vehicle
of a
range of
applicability
of
by comparison
linear
in Section 4.6.2.
model
does
not
accurately predict
tire lateral force. At a high slip angle the linear model predicts a force which is higher than the actual tire force. A nonlinear tire model is necessary to accurately determine tire lateral
force
at
high slip
angles.
several approaches
models are
fitting of
primarily theoretical,
with some
14
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
parameters
determined experimentally,
such as
the
stiffness of
has
advantages and
of
tire model
used
based entirely
on empirical
of
tire
model
is
used
limited
complexity
and
available
to the
researcher.
The tire
was originated
called
tire data
nondimensionalization and
by
Hugo
Radt.13,27,30
aligning
and
moment, longitudinal
force,
and
lateral force
so
are
constant
forward velocity,
it is
not
a negligible effect on
dynamics
of
the vehicle.
There
are
two
main steps
nondimensionalization
technique.
experimental
The
second
a given
vertical
load
and
slip
In
a vehicle
would
typically
simulation.
The
step
would
be done
at each
time step
during the
simulation
based
on
instantaneous
values of
used
on experimental
for
in tabular form
versus
at
section
and
is
plotted
slip
vertical
loads
of
and
angle varies
from 0 to 15. At
slip
angle
is
be
expected.
ply
steer
in
the tire.
errors
Conicity
arises
ply
steer results
from
in the
angles of
the belt cords in the tire. Both conicity and ply steer depend upon
15
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
quality
to tire.
control
and can
be
random
Since these
here, these effects have been eliminated from the experimental data by shifting each of the
lateral force
used curves to the
origin of
zeroed
data is
in
Preprocessing the experimental data is done by normalizing the data and then curve
fitting the normalized data. The first step in normalizing the data is to determine the tire
cornering
coefficient
Cc at each load.
angle
stiffness
is the initial
slope of the
lateral force
stiffness
versus
slip
divided
load
slip
angle
experimental
coefficient at a single
Cc=^==%1
(32)
in Figure 3.4. As
and vertical
The cornering
coefficients at each
load
are plotted
can
be
seen
load is load
can
coefficient as a
function
of vertical
CC=B,
Values
used of
C3FZ
This
expression can
(3.3)
be
the constants
arbitrary load
during a simulation.
coefficient
dividing the maximum lateral force for a given vertical load by the vertical load itself.
for a
single vertical
load,
16
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
Parameter
Tire cornering coefficient intercept Tire cornering coefficient
Tire lateral friction Tire lateral friction
slope
Symbol
Value
0.333
coefficient
intercept
coefficient slope
B3 C3 B5 c5 B, c, D, E,
1.173
Py
..
'
imax
(3.4)
in Figure 3.5. As
the
coefficients at each
load
are plotted
with
cornering coefficients, the relationship between lateral friction is approximately linear for this tire. The lateral friction
load
coefficient can
be
expressed as
fly=B5
Values
of
C5Fz
This
expression
(3.5)
is
used
the constants
during simulation to predict the lateral friction coefficient for an arbitrary vertical load.
With the cornering
the
experimental coefficient and
lateral friction
angle a can
coefficient
known
at each
load for
data,
the
normalized
slip
be
calculated at each
the
expression
_=Cctan(q)
(3.6)
Similarly,
the
normalized
lateral force F
at each
data point is
F.=F'
(3.7)
HyZ
17
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
When the
data point, the
then curve fit.
normalized
lateral force is
plotted against
results
lie
data
are
While
various
functions
could
be
used
data,
a popular
function for
a
formula"
is
used
The
magic
formula is
functions
and
aligning
moment.
The
normalized
Fy
where
Dx sin(0)
(3.8)
6
and
Cx atan(fl^)
(3.9)
. _
y/
(lEl)a+
,_
(3.10)
provide the
The
parameters
B}, C,, Dn
data. The
and
Ej
must
be determined to
normalized experimental
curve
MagicFit.m. This
and uses
script reads
the normalized lateral force versus slip angle data from a file
squares
fit. The
each
leastsq function calls the function MagicError.m which computes the enors
and
between
data point
Bp C7, D,,
and
Et
are
found to
are
minimize
listed in Appendix A. 1
Appendix A.2
and the
respectively.
curve
fit
with
in Table 3. 1,
function is
plotted
the
normalized
data. It
a
can
be
seen
from the
plot
With
now
normalized
slip
force
can
be
calculated
for any
combination of vertical
load
18
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
and
slip
angle.
First, the cornering coefficient and lateral friction coefficient are calculated
load using Eq. (3.3)
and
from the
vertical
normalized
slip
angle
is
calculated
lateral friction
coefficient
lateral force is
calculated
from the
normalized
slip
and
can
then be found
from the
Fy=FyHyFz
This
procedure
(3.11)
which
is listed
load
and
slip
angle as
inputs
and
of
lateral force
versus
slip
and
angle
vertical
loads
8380 N
in Figure 3.7
as solid
lines along
The
points.
implemented in this
versus
section
accurately
of
reproduces the
slip
angle
relationship
produced
This
model
is
capable of
angles.
model
is
suitable
a model of vehicle
where
model
can
be
extended
aligning
should
moment
due to camber,
It
be
noted
that due to sign conventions in the SAE tire axis system and in
lateral force is
produced
by a negative
slip
angle.
The description
of
produced a positive
However,
when
be taken to
compatibility
with
19
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
the sign convention required by the vehicle model. In the linear tire model the cornering
stiffness must
be
20
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
(N)
6984
334
2793
89
4190
156
5587
245
8380
378
737
1357
1458
3025 4404
1388 1935
2358 2647
2869
4115
5026 5649
6005
4849
5182
6
7
5350
5470
8 9
10 11 12 13 14
5490
5450
5400 5350
5282
4099
4037
5200 5121
6978 6900
15
3977
10
21
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
0.35
0.30
TO
0)
TJ
0.25
s^
c o
0.20
*= CD o
O
O) c
k
0.15
0)
^
0.10
0.05
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
Vertical Load
(N)
Cornering Coefficient
1.2
1.0
g>
0.8
'o it=
a) o
O
c
0.6
o
o
it
to
0.4
a
a>
0.2
6000
8000
10000
Vertical Load
(N)
22
Chapter 3
Tire Behavior
1.2
1.0
CD

CD
08
5
CD N
0.6
15
0.4
o
2793 N
4190N
A
0.2 X
ill
5587 N
6984 N 8380 N
i II
0.0
II
....
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0 Normalized
Slip
3.5
4.0
4.5
10
12
14
16
23
4.1 Introduction
Under
The driver
normal
the
desired lateral
motion.
concerned
primarily
with
disturbance inputs.
used
The
realistically be
to
examine
the lateral
response
of a road vehicle
"bicycle"
model.
As
noted
in
lateral
Chapter 2, this
response.
model
road vehicle
greatly
the
vehicle
system, much
can
be learned
about vehicle
response
through its use. The model demonstrates the effects of major tire properties, inertia properties, mass center
of practical significance
design
location,
regarding
model.17
road vehicle
lateral directional
chapter
control and
stability
can
simple
In this
vehicle model
principles of
dynamics. Next,
for
vehicle
model
is
and nonlinear.
linear form
of
the model,
kinematic
relationships and
tire
mechanics.
This
systems analysis
of road vehicles.
response of
aerodynamic side
force,
developed. Several
state and
transient
response are
examined
using bode
plots.
Finally,
vehicle response
for
variety
of
steering
24
Chapter 4
inputs
and
respect to time.
In the
nonlinear
nonlinear
kinematics
accounts
and a nonlinear
tire
vertical
slip
angle relationship.
Simulation
response to
performed and
simulation.
4.2 Description
of
Model
used
in this
chapter
is
shown
is
r
modeled as a single
lumped
mass
rigid body
u
and
velocity
degrees
of
is
assumed
The
vehicle
has
a wheel
base L,
a
a mass
its
mass center
located
of
distance
rear axle.
Rotation
is
measured
front
steer angle
is
assumed.
Position
is defined by SAE
"that
inputs
in the steering
system
independent
of
the force
required."29
This is in
independent
of
displacement.
xyz
The
motion of
standard
SAE
is
used
to describe the
xaxis
is
positive
in the forward
origin
is
positive
down. The
for the
is
at
the
25
Chapter 4
center, and the coordinate system translates and rotates with the vehicle.
permitted
Motion is only
in the xy
plane.
4.2. 1 Assumptions
Several simplifying
model:
Constant vehicle
parameters
and
pitching
motions of
sprung
Vehicle is rigid
26
Chapter 4
Vehicle is
Road
surface
is
smooth
Ignore
effects of
effects
road slope
direction)
aerodynamic
drag)
kinematics
and
Ignore
suspension system
dynamics
system
kinematics
and
dynamics
control
steer
sprung
mass
steer
chassis compliance
angles
scrub
and
remain
constant)
properties are
forward velocity
and
Ignore tire lateral forces due to camber, conicity, Ignore tire aligning Ignore
effect of
ply
steer.
moments
on
nominal values of
in this study
are given
(SI) is
27
Chapter 4
used
for
all calculations.
The base
and second
(s).
Force is
on
measured
in the derived
unit newton
of weight
along the
wheelbase.
The
location parameters
a and
from/ and L.
These
Parameter Vehicle
Yaw
mass
Symbol
m
Value
1775
kg
kgm2
moment of
inertia
fraction
'
f
L
to front axle
a
Front
axle weight
Wheelbase
Distance from
mass center
center
m m m m
1.139
1.233 1.25
to
rear axle
b
force
c
4.2.3
FreeBody
There
are
Diagram
lateral forces,
force,
occur
angles.
The
aerodynamic side
force F a is
at a
distance
axle.
This type
of
force
a
acts on a
it
encounters a crosswind.
gravitational side
force F is
disturbance
road.
input acting
at
the
resulting from
a side slope
in the
All forces
are
are considered
to be the
positive when
acting in the
positive ydirection.
These forces
shown
acting
on
vehicle
in Figure 4.2.
28
Chapter 4
Figure 4.2:
FreeBody Diagram
Motion
vehicle are
4.3 Derivation
The
of
Equations
of
equations of motion
derived using
basic
motion relative to
translating and
acting
systems.31
rotating
on a
coordinate
The basic
equations
and moments
rigid
Xmg=hg
where
(4.1)
and
Mg are external forces and moments about the mass center (in vector form)
body,
and
acting
vector
on
the
and
form) measured relative to an inertia! reference frame. Since in this model only
29
Chapter 4
motion
plane
is
longitudinal
(xdirection) forces
are
being
ignored,
(4.1) become
ma
(4.2)
coordinate system
is fixed to the
vehicle with
its
origin at
the vehicle
of
of
rotational
velocity
the vehicle are identical to those of the xyz system. From Figure 4. 1, the velocity the origin of the xyz system is
V0 of
V0=wi + vj
and the angular
(4.3)
velocity Q. is Q
=
rk
(4.4)
changing
with
Since the
xyz system
is rotating, the
acceleration
a0
of
an
inertial
reference
frame
coincident with
the
xyz system
is
dV.
a
=
+ ilxV
dt
=
(4.5)
(v + ur)j
to the inertial frame is
(u vr)i +
system relative
+ Q.XQ.
dt
=
(4.6)
rk
Thus the
acceleration values of
interest
are
=v
+ ur
(4.7)
Qz=r
These
values
vehiclefixed
mass center.
30
Chapter 4
The
external
forces acting
on
positive sense
in
Figure 4.2. A
in
positive
freebody
diagram, it is
seen that
Fv
=Fyf cost
=
(4.8)
ya
X Mz
Substitution
of
aF^
Eq.
cos 8
(c
a)Fy
Eq.
(4.7)
and
yields
(4.9)
bFyr
(c
a)Fya is
Ia r
The
state variables are
is the
v and
vehicle
forward velocity
r.
and
a constant.
the
lateral velocity
F^ and Fyr are the front and rear tire lateral forces.
and gravitational side
Fya and F
while
are
8.
4.4 Derivation
of
Tire
Slip
Angles
produced
by a tire
depends upon,
things, the
vertical
load
on
the tire and the slip angle of the tire. In this model
and rear
vertical
tire slip
angles
vary
as
functions
of
velocity r,
which are
necessary to
develop expressions
and rear
of v and r.
Figure 4.3 is
and
kinematic diagram
of
the vehicle
vectors
tire slip angles. Each slip angle is shown in its positive sense as the angle between the
vector.
positive
slip
angle
implies
a clockwise rotation
from the
vector.
steer
input
as shown
31
Chapter 4
is actually
a counterclockwise rotation
so
slip
angles are
negative.
In summary,
a positive steer
input
results
in
negative tire
slip
angles.
Since
rotational velocities of
(4.3)
and
to
use
the principle
of relative
velocities.31
velocities
respectively
Vf=V0+QxRf
V=V+fixR
(4.10)
where
R, and Rr are position vectors from the vehicle mass center to the front and rear tires:
32
Chapter 4
Rf
R,
Thus the tire
velocities are
=a\
(4.11)
=b\
V. f
u\
ar)\ + (v V + '
Vr
In general, if the velocity
u\ +
(v
(4.12)

br)j
ith tire
are
known,
fvA
a,
=
atan
8,.
(4.13)
\Y*j
where
x
and ycomponents of
rear
tire is not permitted in this model, the tire slip angles are, in their general nonlinear
form,
^
a/=atan(
(v + ar\
jS
(4'14)
ar
atan
fvbA
V
u
tire slip
angle relationships
assumptions are
to linearize the model, analysis techniques for linear systems may be used to gain
more
insight into
road vehicle
angles and
lateral
forces
are assumed
are valid
for
vehicle
lateral
accelerations
up to
about
0.35 g,
linear
range of the
relationship.13
Most
automobile
driving is
done
within
this range, so results from the linear model are applicable over a wide range of
driving
situations.
33
Chapter 4
It is
models, to
common
in modeling
of vehicle
with
linear
use
angle
lateral
The
vehicle
is the
angle
between the
vehicle
fixed xaxis
Eq.
and
vector
Vn
as shown
(4.14)
vehicle
sideslip
angle
is
p
A
positive vehicle
= atari
(;)
may be
positive or
(4.15)
from the xaxis to the velocity
negative,
sideslip
angle
implies
clockwise rotation
vector.
For
a given steer
angle
depending
lateral
upon
the forward
when
speed.+
vehicle
sideslip
angle
is
used
in
place of
velocity
response
measures, and
since simulation of
the nonlinear
of the
model
is
as a state
variable, simulation
linear model is
lateral velocity
as a state variable to
facilitate parallel
development
of
in terms
of
functions,
response
frequency
is
examined.
Simulation
of
disturbance inputs.
following assumptions are made for the linear two degreeoffreedom model in
more
information.
34
Chapter 4
angle
relationship
vehicle
sideslip angle,
4.5.2 Vehicle
With the
Sideslip Angle
small angle
assumption, Eq.
angle
becomes
Pu
(4.16)
small then
cos(P)
i^l
(4.17)
or u~V
where
Vis the
P~"
4.5.3 Tire
(418)
Slip
Angles
assumption, the tire slip
v + ar
With the
small angle
angles
become
af
a
8
u v
=
br
u
(4.19)
of
be
expressed as
af K f =P
r8
b
r=Pr
(4.20)
35
Chapter 4
and
Moments
the
vehicle are
F^ the
rear tire
aerodynamic side
force Fya,
are
force Fyg.
lateral forces
employed.
linear functions
of
model of
Section 3.3
can
be
From Eq.
(3.1)
Fyf *
Fyr
where
(4.21)
_ ~
and rear
cornering
tires
on an axle.
stiffness of a single
front tire. As
result,
of
both tires
on an axle.
for
a positive steer
angle, the
cornering
required
be
negative
in
order
forces
by the
sign convention.
For further
explanation of
stiffnesses
for the
Eq.
(3.3)
in Table 4.2.
Symbol
(two tires)
Value
2461
C~f
Cr
N/deg N/deg
stiffness
(two tires)
23
11
The
aerodynamic side
force
and a reference
side
force itself is
used as
positive when
acting
the
vehicle
in the
positive ydirection.
36
Chapter 4
gravitational side
force
gravitational side
acting
on
the vehicle in
the positive ydirection. Thus the gravitational side force can be expressed as
Fyg
where
=mg sinQ
and
(4.22)
road side
g is the
acceleration
due to gravity
on
9 is the
a road which
is sloping down
(4.22)
simplifies to
F
With the
can now gravitational side
mgQ
(4.23)
of
force
expressed
in terms
be
considered
4.5.5 Equations
With Eq. (4.21),
of
Motion
the tire slip
angles
substitution of
the linearized
equations of motion
become
37
Chapter 4
(Cr+Cr)p + ^
C*
rrCf5 + Fya+mgQ
hi
r

mV$ + mVr
rt
U
(aCf
The
bCr )p
f
aCf8
(c
a)Fya =1J
been
to the
is
small
has
also
applied
reduce
form. This
assumption
is generally
valid
for maneuvers
at moderate
to high speeds. For very low speed maneuvers, such as parking, large
often required.
To simplify
manipulation of
external
force
and moment
William
Milliken.6,7,13
In
addition
to
simplifying the
which can give
physical
meaning
lateral dynamics.
are
acting
on
the
p,
associated with
lateral force
and
three associated
are
The
equations of
motion
+ mgQ
mV$ + mVr
(4'25)
Nfi
where
Nrr + N6S(ca)Fja=I,tr
38
Chapter 4
V cf+cr
=

Damping
in
Sideslip Coupling
(4.26)
Yr
aCf
V
=
bCr
Lateral Force/Yaw
Y5
~Cf
Control Force
Directional
NP
aCfbCr a2Cf+b2Cr
V
Stability
Nr
Yaw
Damping
Ns=
aCf
Control Moment
model under consideration the
stability derivatives
are
As such, the
be
manipulated
in stability derivative
of generality.
always negative
by
dampinginsideslip
coupling derivative
negative
aCf is
bCr,
then the
then the
derivatives
derivatives
Understeer,
oversteer,
discussed in
in
simple, compact
form,
and
transfer
functions
can
outputs
From
can
functions
can
be
many
frequency
39
Chapter 4
and zeros.
The derivation
of
for measures
of system response
session
for the two degreeoffreedom vehicle is included in Appendix B. To find the transfer functions the
equations of motion are
first
written
in the Laplace
s
1
mV
s
( Y \
mV
1
mV
a c
> (g\
mV
Na
N.
m+
As);
equations of
Fjs)
W
yOj
(4.27)
sideslip
angle are
found to be
75
NrYs+N8(mVYr)
i*v
!
mV
N~
Y\ + !W+N9(mVYr)
LmV
s+

(4.28)
\^+'mVj 1
(ca)(mVY)Nr ^ Ti
P
ya
mV
(')
I^mV
I
s2
Y\{N^+N*(mVYr)
mV
(4.29)
I,mV
8S
Ya \
s2
8Nr
(4.30)
^NrY^N^mVYr)
mV
IzjnV
are
Similarly,
the transfer
N
I
s
8j
Va^P
I,mV
"i
s2
N.
i
N^ + N^mVY,)
IumV
(4.31)
v'
mV
40
Chapter 4
ac
s+
+ yp(cfl) iVp p

J(S)
I*
^mV
,
(4.32)
\*zz
ntV
ImV zz
gN L(s)
r
IV
=
isl
2
BK)
(4 33) IjnV
of
(Nr
H
Y,]51 NrY,+N,{mVYr)
mVj
the two degreeoffreedom
U
The
vehicle can
above transfer
be
used
angles,
path
curvature, and lateral acceleration are found. The steer angle required to
turn radius is calculated. In addition, measures of steadystate
vehicle
produce a given
behavior
such as understeer
gradient, stability
factor,
neutral steer
tangent speed, critical speed, and characteristic speed are defined and expressed in terms of the stability derivatives.
steadystate
step
response of vehicle
sideslip
velocity
can
be
each of
functions.33
system must
The
system
is
stable
if none
of
4.5.7 Vehicle
Sideslip Angle
of the
Gain
vehicle
Application
sideslip
angle transfer
functions for
Eq. (4.29),
steer
angle,
force,
the
(Eq. (4.28),
and
Eq.
(4.30)
respectively)
gives
41
Chapter 4
P
8
(4.34)
P
ya
(4.35)
(4.36)
NrYf N9{mVYr)
Results for the sideslip
are given
for the
response gains
that follow
for the
in
Table 4. 1
Table 4.2,
and
4.5.8 Yaw
Velocity
Gain
Similarly,
"&*&
NrY9+N,(mVYr)
rp(ca) + JVp
ya
(4.37)
NrYf+N,{mVYr)
mgN?
(4.38)
NrYf+N9{mVYr)
(4.39)
Slip
Angle Gain
sideslip
angle and yaw
velocity
are
known the
tire slip angles can be found using Eq. (4.20). The front tire
slip
angle gains
are
oc<
=
a(N9YsNJA)V(mVYrpt+Nh)VNr(YR +
Yh)
(4.40)
v(ivryp+ivp(mvyr))
42
Chapter 4
a,
ya
V(c
a)(mV
Yr)
a(c
a)7p
aiVp
VNr
(4.41)
v{NrY^N^mVYr))
a,
e
mg{aN[,VNr)
(4.42)
v(NrY^N9{mVYr))
Slip
Angle Gain
are
(4.43)
v(ivryp+ivp(mvyr))
V(c
_ ~ 
a)(mV
Yr)b(c
a)Y&
WVp VNr

Fya
O^
e
(4.44)
v(ivrrp+;vp(mvyr))
mg^+VN^
~v(NrYB +
(445)
NB{mvYr))
interest is the
follows
when subject
is the
reciprocal of the
be found
1/R
V The
path curvature gains
(4.46)
for
each of the
inputs
are
1/R
N Y
N
(4.47)
v(ivryp+;vp(mvyr))
yp(ca) + iVp
(4.48)
1/R
ya
v(NrY{i+N{i(mVYr))
43
Chapter 4
1/R
mgN,
(4.49)
v(Arryp+ivp(mVyr))
Step Response
Gain
performance.
is
an
important
measure of vehicle
cornering
acceleration
is typically
expressed
in
units of
vehicle model
being
considered
here is
valid
for lateral
accelerations
up to approximately 0.35
g.
Beyond that
level,
significant.
Most
able
passenger car
although a
typical
passenger car
may be
approximately 0.70.8 g
reach over
1.2 g
with special
tires designed specifically for racing, while race cars with aerodynamic downforce have
been known to
expressed
exceed
4 g lateral
acceleration.
The
steadystate
lateral
acceleration
Ay
in
"g"
units of
is
rV
Ay
The lateral
acceleration gains
(4.50)
8
for each
of
V(^YSN&YP)
8
(4.51)
A,
ya
(4.52)
g(ivryp+ivp(mvyr))
=
mVJVp
NY+NJmVYr)
(4.53)
44
Chapter 4
100 km/hr
Response
Vehicle sideslip
Yaw velocity
angle
Steer Angle
(6) (P)
/
1.52
(r)
angle
0.197
rad/s
1
rad/s
/N
2.15xl0'4rad/s/
(af)
2.05
2.66xlO"4/N
1
0.0620 0.0609
angle
(ar)
2.02
3.00xl0'4o/N
2.54xlO7l/m/N
curvature
(1/R) (Ay)
7.10xl03l/m/
7.76xl06l/m/
Lateral
acceleration
0.559
g/
6.11xl04g/
2.00xl05g/N
for the
vehicle
be found
by solving the yaw velocity gain for steer angle input expression of
steer angle
Eq.
8. After
some
manipulation, the
mV2Na
steer angle
is
= +
(4.54)
/?(/vpy5/v8yp)
Substitution
of
f
"
b
C
nYL
L R
(4.55)
steer angle can also
Examination
expressed
of
the
kinematics
of
of a
turning
vehicle
be
in terms
as17
8
From Eq.
angle
ar +ar
(4.56)
velocity
approaches zero the steer
(4.55) it can be
seen
becomes
L
Ac ker
(4.57)
45
Chapter 4
This
steer angle
is known
as the
Ackerman
at
is the
to
low
vehicle velocity.
At low
speeds
the lateral
and
negligible and
turning behavior is
solely
by geometry considerations.
in this study the Ackerman
steer angle
vehicle used
for
50
m radius
turn is
turning behavior is
the
understeer
gradient, or
understeer
understeer
turn, is
of the
The definition
be
seen
in the
for
a constant
radius turn
Sss= + Kus
(4.58)
gR
Thus the
understeer
gradient, expressed in
units of
radians, is
K
"*
mgNa ^N Y ivpi5

N Y
(4.59)
JV6p
or
mg
(4.60)
The
vehicle
understeer gradient
is
has. If to
forward velocity,
positive and
and
is
the
vehicle
is
said
to be
understeer.
If the
decrease, the
does
not
understeer gradient
is
negative and
the
vehicle
is
oversteer.
If the
steer angle
46
Chapter 4
is
zero and
the vehicle is
neutral steer.
The
understeer of a
be
obtained
and rear
tire slip
angles.
If If
the magnitude
of
vehicle
is
understeer.
vehicle
is
oversteer.
If the slip
angles are
equal, the
is
neutral steer.
For this
is
function
of tire
distribution. Other
understeer gradient
roll
force
compliance
forces, steering
The
be
measured experimentally.
The two
test.17
most
common methods of
testing
are
In the
forward velocity
steer angle
the vehicle is varied as the car is driven on a to maintain the constant radius. The
The
is
as
varied
understeer gradient
is then calculated
acceleration:
K.=
y
d8
(4.61)
In the
path radius
constant speed
is
varied and
understeer gradient
from the
test is
d8
gL
K~
Most
designed into
conditions.
M,^ between 1
and
(462)
10 deg. Understeer is
passenger cars
have
understeer gradients
passenger cars
The
vehicle used
for this
example
has
an understeer gradient of
0.0626 deg,
47
Chapter 4
indicating that the vehicle has a very small amount of understeer in the linear response
range.
4.5.15
Stability
A
Factor
cornering behavior is the stability
factor.6
The
definition
of
the stability factor comes from the yaw velocity gain for steer angle input
expression of
expression can
be
rewritten as
VIL l+
where
KV2
(4.63)
for K and substituting Eq. (4.37),
K=
(4.64)
l(n,y5nsy?)
or
L2
(4.65)
If K is
positive
the
vehicle
is understeer,
4.69xl0"5
while
if K is
negative
it is
oversteer.
The
sample vehicle
has
stability factor
of
s2/m2.
the vehicle is
understeer.
is "the
point
along the
lateral
there
be
velocity."13
On
a real vehicle
is actually
a neutral steer
does
not account
for body
there is only a neutral steer point. To find the neutral steer point a
written
relating the
yaw
velocity to
axle.
applied
to the
vehicle at a
48
Chapter 4
can
be
used
to find the
steadystate yaw
velocity
gain
Y^da) + N^
(4.66)
NrY^N,{mVYr)
Setting this yaw
velocity
gain equal
to
zero and
solving for d,
= a^
(4.67)
Yt
Substituting the stability derivative definitions, the neutral steer point is located at a distance
behind the front
axle of
^
(4.68)
is understeer, has if
Cf + Cr
If the
neutral steer point
is behind the
vehicle
mass
center, the
vehicle
while
it is in front
steer point
of
is
oversteer.
The
sample vehicle
a neutral
located
m
distance
of
1.149
axle.
Since the
mass center
is
located 1.139
the vehicle is
is behind the
understeer.
margin.
The
static margin
by the
SM

^p
(4.69)
Lip
or, substituting the stability derivative
definitions,
aCf
=
7i
SM
bCr
rr
(4.70)
L(Cf+Cr)
49
Chapter 4
If the
static margin
is positive, the
has
vehicle
is
understeer.
If it is
negative
the
vehicle
is
oversteer.
The
sample vehicle
a static margin of
is understeer.
in
a steadystate
As
speed
is increased the
increases
and surpasses
of
the front. Thus at high speed the rear axle travels on a larger circle than the front in a
steadystate turn.
The
front
radius
is
called the
sideslip
is
zero.
For
a right
sideslip
angle
is positive,
while
above the
by multiplying the
steadystate
sideslip
angle gain
for
steer angle of
Eq.
(4.34) by the
for
solving for
Vtan=
&r
rS
mNs
(4.71)
However,
of
velocity, it is necessary to substitute the stability derivative definitions and solve for V.
speed
is
vm=4 V
The
sample vehicle used
bLCr
am
(472)
this speed the vehicle sideslip angle is positive for a right turn. Above this speed it is
negative.
50
Chapter 4
Eq.
(4.37) for steadystate yaw velocity gain for steer angle input
gain could
velocity
were zero.
The
happens is
of
called
be found by
of
Eq.
V. In terms
the
derivatives,
NaYrNY
Vcril
However,
the stability derivatives
substitute the
"
"
(473)
mNp
of velocity.
Therefore, it is
critical speed
necessary to is then
and solve
for V. The
CfCL2
v'=l^K^)
At this infinite
yaw
(4'74)
speed
the
vehicle
is
unstable.
small
theoretically
velocity
response.
by
definition, it can be
than
seen
a critical speed
only
exists
if bCr is is
greater
oversteer.
Thus
has
a critical speed
only if it is
oversteer.
When
its
critical speed
it becomes
The
lower its
critical speed.
for
is infinite,
and the
critical speed
does
not exist
for
an understeer vehicle.
Since the
sample vehicle
is understeer, it does
not
have
a critical speed.
has
no critical
in
a similar manner
51
Chapter 4
characteristic speed
is the
any
steady
steer angle.
The characteristic
speed can
be found
by setting the steadystate steer angle of Eq. (4.54) equal to twice the Ackerman steer angle
of
Eq.
(4.57)
of
and
solution
to this
equation
is
function
stability derivatives
must
definitions
speed
be
for V. The
characteristic
is then
L CfC f
r
2
,
ychar=
'vmiaCfbCA The
(4.75)
characteristic speed
is
seen
to have the
same
form
as
the
critical
the sign of the denominator reversed. A characteristic speed only exists if aC/is greater than
condition
for
an understeer
vehicle, only
an
have
a characteristic speed.
Neutral
steer vehicles
have
infinite
have
no characteristic speed.
The
more
understeer a vehicle
has,
The
speed
sample vehicle
has
a characteristic speed of
characteristic
vehicle
has
degreeoffreedom
road vehicle
is
now examined.
equations of motion of
characteristic
for the
system
is
(N
s1*
Y)s+ NrYf+Nf(mVYr)
H
V7*
mVJ
L,rnV
/\7
(4.76)
52
Chapter 4
From this
characteristic
equation, the
undamped natural
be found.
Frequency
Eq.
characteristic equation of
of
the system is
NY+NJmVY)
*
=
"
A V
r v ImV
(477)
Substituting the
>,.=,
I^f +
ImV2
\L2CfCr
zz
aCfbC '.""'
(478)
With the
natural
expression
frequency,
and
can
be
seen.
the
of
natural
the
vehicle.
In addition, it increases
wheelbase.
with
cornering
The
numerator of
positive
if the
vehicle
is understeer,
all else
if it is oversteer,
and zero
if it is
a
neutral steer.
being equal,
an understeer vehicle
has
higher
natural
oversteer vehicle.
The
speed of
sample vehicle
has
an undamped natural
frequency of 1.01
Hz
at a
forward
natural
shown
in Figure 4.5.
4.5.23
Damping
The
Ratio
damping ratio of the system can also be obtained from the characteristic
of
equation.
In terms
damping ratio is
53
Chapter 4
50
100
V
150
200
(km/hr)
vs.
Vehicle
Velocity
(4.79)
IJi+mVNr
2^mV(iVryp+/Vp(mVyr))
If the stability derivatives
are substituted
the
Izz(Cf+Cr) + m(a2Cf+b2Cr)
2^Iam{l}CfCr +
mV2
(aCf
bCr ))
Neutral
steer vehicles
damped, tending
tending
toward
overdamped.13
As
with other
of
inputs. At
a
forward
speed of
sample vehicle
has
indicating that the vehicle is very slightly underdamped. Damping ratio decreases as vehicle
velocity increases. This
vehicle
is
overdamped
below
a speed of
54
Chapter 4
be found
by
solving the
characteristic equation of
(4.76)
for
s.
Pi2=
J(mVNr
Ijrf Alumv\NTY^
H^mV
+N?{mV
Yr))
(4.81)
The location
of
splane provides an
indication
of system response.
During the design stage the vehicle parameters may be manipulated to place the poles
that the desired system response is obtained. The pole locations also provide
of system stability.
an
such
indication
If there
are
any
poles
5plane
positive real
components), the
system
is
unstable.
At Since the
forward
speed of
sample vehicle
has
poles of
6.301
0.918/.
since
conjugates, the
vehicle
is
underdamped.
Furthermore,
of
the poles is negative, the system is stable. As speed decreases the poles
together until
they
meet on
the
real axis at
9.897
at a vehicle speed of
63.7 km/hr. At
poles
vehicle
is critically damped. As
the
speed
farther
poles remain
for
reasonable speeds.
be
obtained
by examining the
The
be found for
each
input
by setting the numerator of the corresponding transfer function equal to zero and solving
for
s.
are given
for sideslip
angle response
55
Chapter 4
zp/s
The
NrY&+N&{mVYr)
(4.82)
force input is
zero
for sideslip
angle response
to
aerodynamic side
hipya
The
zero
'
Nr(ca)(mVYr)
(4.83)
input is
for sideslip
Nr
p/e
The for
j
(4.84)
input is
zero
yaw
velocity
Zr/6
The
(4.85)
mVNx
zero
force is
+
_;vp
yp(ca)

zr IF
mV(c
(4.86)
does
not
a)
There is
appear
no zero
for
yaw
velocity
in
numerator of
this transfer function. This is due to the fact that the gravitational
side
force
in
the
vehicle.
The
given
system zeros
for the
forward
speed of
100 km/hr
are
Response
Vehicle sideslip Yaw velocity
angle
Aerodynamic
Side Force
9.86
5.04
56
Chapter 4
The
poles.33
have
a
on response
depends
upon
their location
relative
to the
The
closer a zero
is to
effect.
zero
the 5plane
(i.e., is
positive
in sign) is
The
nonminimum
This
response
can
be
seen
and
input which is
simulated
for
each
input
and output
forward
speed of
100
km/hr.
The
angle zero values of all of
the
zeros
increase
The sideslip
angle
steer
is
negative at
low
high
speed.
This
when
for
0.5
m CO
/\
a*
E
0.5
?
10
10
15
20
25
Re(s)
?Pole
ASideslip Angle /Aero Side Force Zero XYaw Velocity /Steer Angle Zero Figure 4.6: Poles
Force Zero
and
Zeros
57
Chapter 4
4.5.26
Frequency Response
It is
also
event where
vehicle
The
and
frequency of the input required to negotiate the slalom depends upon the vehicle speed
the cone spacing. The performance
of
the
vehicle
in the
slalom
may be influenced
by
be
used
in emergency
maneuvers such as a
double lane
Examining the frequency response of the vehicle may provide an indication of its
in
such a maneuver.
performance
minimize
the response of
a vehicle
to
disturbances
be
used
frequency response
techniques
can
response to
adjust
his input to
the desired response, making the vehicle more difficult to drive. Smaller phase lags
tend to
a
improve
controllability.21
vehicle
The
forward velocity
of
100 km/hr is
examined
the
sideslip
angle and
velocity to
steer
force,
in
script
DOF2LFreq.m,
which
is listed in
C.5, is
used
frequency response.
The
script generates
input
DOF2LFreq.m
parameters;
DOF2Param.m,
magnitude
parameters;
and
58
Chapter 4
These
scripts are
The
most of
the
the
general shape of
the
curves remain
approximately
constant.
There is little
change
in the
phase plot
for
most of
response
is the only
response which
in the
forward velocity
changes.
The sideslip
angle
steer angle
magnitude of the
forward
of
the sideslip angle / steer angle zero changing sign at the tangent speed. The sideslip angle
steer angle
and
speeds of
30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr
gain
respectively.
At 30 km/hr the
goes
is flat up to approximately 1 Hz
at
at
0.33
from
at
0. 1 Hz to
phase response
is typical
as
the
However,
in the
gain at
approximately 2 Hz,
90
which
is
the
undamped natural
at
0. 1 Hz to
at
zero at
frequency. The
from
180
frequency response at
at
100
phase goes
at
0.1 Hz to
100 Hz.
180
phase
low
in Section 4.5.18.
The
phase
Also
goes
of
interest is the
0.1 Hz to
others
yaw
velocity / road
100 Hz. The
of a zero.
from
at
at
phase response of
59
Chapter 4
gains
gains shown
forward
velocity V
100 km/hr.
60
Chapter 4
1.6
O)
1.2
o>
i^^^
iiTiiir_
~i~
"
\
~i
i~
i
CD
0.8
CO
0.4
0.0 0.1
1 10
100
Frequency (Hz)
180
D)
CD
2.
CD
CO
90
!
_i
__

+^^J


co
'
90
'
'
'
'
IT
0.1
10
100
V=
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.7:
100 km/hr
3.0E04
"& 2.0E04
CD
"I
CD
1.0E04
Frequency (Hz)
CD
2_
CD
CO
45
CO
90
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.8:
100 km/hr
61
Chapter 4
CD
CD
2.
C co
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
CD
CD
CO

45
CO
90
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.9:
100 km/hr
0.20
CD
0.15
52
co
CO
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
CD
2,
CD
CO
__ _ _ _ _,_ _ _ ,
45
, r
i
i "I i
^c
i
iiiTirTT
CO
90
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.10: Yaw
100 km/hr
62
Chapter 4
8.0E06
6.0E06
,,
rT^~
ni~~TTirTTr~___in
2. 4.0E06
O 2.0E06
0.0E+00
0.1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)
180
O)
CD
135 90
2.
CD
CO CO
45 0
\
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.11: Yaw
V100 km/hr
2.5E04
.g
CO
O 5.0E05
0.0E+00
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
0
CD TO CD
CO
45
90
CO
135
180
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.12: Yaw
100 km/hr
63
Chapter 4
0.4
^m^
O)
CD T3
O)
0.3
0.2
\
\
\~
tt
i_
~^^t
~inirTTr
i
i
i~
CD
2,
C co
._____,__
_r
__!
r
~r
r

i^W"
ttt
,
i
j

0.1
0.0 0.1 10
100
Frequency (Hz)
CD TO CD
CO
45
i
tit]iti ^ci
i
i }
CO
90
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.13:
30 km/hr
0.3
,,
O)
CD
0.2
CD D
H^

I
__l__l_l_
_l_l
,_
f^l^I
I
I
I
I
tf__l__l_H
"co
0.1
0.0 0.1
1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
90 45
CD
2,
CD
CO
CO
45
90
0.1
10
100
Frequency (Hz)
Figure 4.14:
49.84 km/hr
64
Chapter 4
4.5.27 Simulation
Another tool that is very
simulation.
useful
in analyzing
vehicle
lateral dynamics is
numerical
Simulation is done by
be
used
to predict the
the
vehicle
to arbitrary
control and
are
generally
much easier
to handle
point
with numerical
up to this
in this
chapter.
To
maintain
consistency
with
the
follows in
simulation
is
originally derived in
model
has been
returned
general, form.
equations of motion
in their general,
form
are given
by Eq.
(4.9).
With the
model
Fyf+Fyr+Fya+Fyg=m(v + ur)
~
aFyf
bFyr
(c
a^Fya
IJ
and gravitational side
force
and
repeated
convenience.
v + ar
af
u
,
vbr
ar=
(4.19)
Fyf=Cfaf
Fy=mgQ
(4.23)
65
Chapter 4
simulation are
and
lateral
acceleration.
Inputs
can
be
step
aerodynamic side
force,
or
The
simulation
script
DOF2LSim.m,
which
is
the differential
equations of motion
The function
ode23 returns
specified
for the
each
simulation.
At
ode23
function
calls
which
derivatives
v and r
variables v and r.
First,
by the function
time,
the type of
SteerAngle.m,
which
the current
magnitude of the
input,
and
Any arbitrary steer input, including steer inputs measured experimentally during vehicle
testing,
could
of measured steer
input data
facilitates
experimental validation of
After the
values of
steer angle
from the
current
tire lateral forces are then calculated from the slip angles using Eq. (4.21).
Finally, the
state
derivatives
are calculated as
Fyf+Fyr+Fya+Fyg
m
ur
aFyfbFyr(ca)Fya
=
(488>
66
Chapter 4
Eq.
(4.88)
are obtained
by
solving Eq.
(4.87) for
v and r.
listing of DOF2LDE.m is
provided
in Appendix C.7.
effect of
To illustrate the
at
forward velocity
on
response,
low
speed
(49.84
km/hr),
at normal
km/hr),
and at
speed
reached.
Initial
conditions
Lateral velocity,
yaw
velocity,
rear
input
studied.
The inputs
used
for the
1
simulation are a
step steer,
ramp step
steer with a
ramp time
of
of
0.2 sec,
ramp
ramp time
of
0.2
sec and a
dwell time
1.0 sec,
1
1 sec,
10000 N step
square
aerodynamic side
force,
inputs
and a
step
steer,
are shown
input is
a positive steer
angle,
Ramp Step
CD ;o
Steer Input
CD
1.0
<
CD CD
I
0.5
<
CD CD
0.5
CO
0.0
1
55 0.0
Time
El
1 2
(s)
Time
(s)
CD
1.0
2,
<D
D) c
0.0
<
CD CD
OT
10
Time
(s)
67
Chapter 4
The aerodynamic
slope
side
force input is
applied
in the
positive
is positive,
Simulation
Figure 4.21. The
velocity
and
results
steer
input
are plotted
in Figure 4. 16 through
The
steadystate
response times
increase
with
forward
speed.
lateral
sideslip
zero at
This
definition
of
presented
speed the
lateral velocity
and
sideslip
angle
also
initially begin to increase from zero becoming positive and then decrease to negative
This is
a result of
values.
in Section 4.5.25
is
of
step
response shown
here,
initially in the opposite direction to the steadystate value. The front tire slip angles show
response similar
due to the
step lateral
steer.
The lateral
acceleration
has
a nonzero
initial
value
of change of
velocity
when
the step steer occurs. The steadystate values of yaw velocity, sideslip angle,
rear
with
the steadystate
angles and yaw
steadystate
sideslip
plots of
and
Ramp
The ramp step
expected.
steer response
is
similar
lags it slightly
as
The
identical to those
velocity
and
sideslip
magnitude of
steer.
Unlike
with
the step
input,
lateral
initially zero
68
Chapter 4
and
are peaks
0.2
sec which
is
when
The
responses to the
ramp
square steer
input
are plotted
up
until
At the lower
at
occurs
before
steadystate
As
with
30 km/hr
and
49.84 km/hr
ramp up is
completed.
sine steer
frequency of 1
and
Hz. From
visual
inspection
of
steady
velocity
sideslip
from the
The
frequency response
Figure 4.14.
response amplitude
increases As
forward velocity in
lateral
velocity
and
sideslip
angle.
expected
of
and
sideslip
30 km/hr. in
aerodynamic side
magnitude of
Since the
point,
force
The
steadystate yaw
velocity, sideslip angle, front tire slip angle, rear tire slip angle, and lateral acceleration
responses at
100 km/hr
steadystate yaw
velocity
and
and
sideslip
as
angle at
100 km/hr
the
frequency response
The sideslip
gains of Figure
4.8
Figure 4. 1 1
rear
the input
frequency
approaches zero.
have higher
lower
speeds
69
Chapter 4
Road
side slope
are plotted
yaw
acceleration responses
forward
and rear
tire slip
decrease.
Again,
and
the steadystate
velocity, sideslip angle, front tire slip angle, rear tire slip angle,
obtained with
lateral
acceleration at
100 km/hr
the
the steadystate
gains of
Table 4.3,
velocity
and
sideslip
frequency response gains of Figure 4.9 and Figure 4.12 as the input frequency approaches
zero.
useful
for characterizing
and
predicting
the response of the automobile to control and disturbance inputs. Although this model
simplifies the vehicle
much can
greatly
system,
be learned
lateral
study.
The
effects of
changing
vehicle and
quickly be
can
studied.
Powerful linear
applied
analysis techniques
based
on system
transfer
functions
be readily
results
insight into
system
behavior. The
are
generally
valid
for lateral
accelerations
up to 0.35 g,
driving.
is
required
high slip
angles.
70
Chapter 4
0.5 V 0.0 V
= =
0.5
_
I
1.0
V=
100 km/hr
o CD
co
CD
CO J
2.0
2.5
V= 150 km/hr
3.0
0.5
1 Time
1.5
(s)
Velocity Response
>
0.25
150 km/hr
0.20
f0
/i
8
CD
15
/^
100 km/hr
>
o.io
'/ /^
ifs^~
49.84 km/hr
0.05
30 km/hr
0.00
J
0.5
1
1.5
Time
(s)
Velocity Response
71
Chapter 4
0.5
,
,
30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr
0.0
V
0.5
=
C7> CD T7
1.0
CD TO C
1.5
V
2.0
100 km/hr
<
Q.
CO
CD
Tl
CO
2.5
3.0
3.5
V
1
150 km/hr
4.0
0.5
1.5
Time
(s)
V
1.0
^s.
O)
CD
2.
CD TO
1.S
<
Q.
2.0
V=
?.5
100 km/hr
CO
a)
H
H*
r o
3.0
LL
3.5
4.0
V= 150 km/hr
4.5
0.5
1.5
Time
(s)
72
Chapter 4
0.0
V
0.5
30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr
V
1.0
^^
TO 0)
2,
CD TO C
l.b
<
Q.
2.0
V
?.S
100 km/hr
CO
CD
1
m CD
3.0
DC
3.5
4.0
V
4.5
150 km/hr
0.5
1.5
Time
(s)
V
1.2
150 km/hr
1.0
c
o ffl
OJ CD O O
0.
<
0.
V= 100 km/hr
s
CD
CO
i
0.4
0.2
V V
49.84
km/hr"
"
30 km/hr
0.0
0.5
1.5
Time
(s)
73
Chapter 4
0.5 V 0.0
V
= =
"5
_
""V
E,
&
o o
1.0
V= 100 km/hr
CD
i
CD
I
"15
co J
2.0
2.5
V
..
150 km/hr
3.0
0.5
1.5
Time
(s)
s^
V= 150
km/hr
0.25
0.20
T3
/f
l/^
V= 100 km/hr
8
CD
0.15
>
0.10
If
r
49.84 km/hr
0.05
30 km/hr
0.00
!
0.5
1.5 Time
(s)
74
Chapter 4
TO CD
TO
<
Q.
W
CD
g
CO
3.0
0.5
1.5
Time
(s)
V
0.5
V
1.0
^H^
TO CD
2,
CD TO C
1.S
X
2.0
^^^^
<
a.
V= 100 km/hr
?.S
CO
CD
i
1
C O
3.0
3.5
4.0
V
1
4.5
150 km/hr
'
0.5
1.5
Time
(s)
75
Chapter 4
0.0
V
0.5
=
V
1.0
^^
TO
a)
2,
CD
TO
l.b
<
a.
2.0
V
2.5
100 km/hr
CO
a>
H
3.0
CD
oc
3.5
4.0
.;
>s
V= 150 km/hr
4.5
0.5
1.5
Time
(s)
V= 150 km/hr
1.2
1.0
c
]3
CD O U
0. 8
<
0.
V= 100
km/hr
B
"5 0.4
0.2
V V
^^^
"
0.0
0.5
1 Time
1.5
(s)
76
Chapter 4
0.5
>
V V
30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr
0.0
"^V
i
1.0
\ ^Ss*^^
]/
\
\
V= 100 km/hr
o CD
I"'5
CD
CO
J
2.0
\V
150 km/hr
2.5
3.0
0.5
1.5
2.5
Time
(s)
Velocity Response
>^V
150 km/hr
0.25
0.20
7
l/?
V
=
\
100 km/hr
\
A \
\
0.15
o o
2
co
>
0.10
\/
^*
49.84 km/hr
V \
\
0.05
Wf
"^Nk
/]:*"'
0.00
.1
>^
.>
0.05
0.5
2.5
Velocity Response
77
Chapter 4
0.5
'
'
0.0
^Z~~^__ "^l
30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr
N^
'
0.5
W.
TO CD
1.0
!
100 km/hr
\ ^v^V
1.5
CD TO
c
<
Q.
CO
2.0
V
'
\
\
rn
2.5
3.0
\. V

150 km/hr
3.5
4.0
1
0 0.5
1
1.5
2.5
Time
(s)
oU
Km/nr
\^
x^~~
r*"~
'
'
/
;
V
=
V
\\.
49.84 km/hr
TO
1.0
"to TO
<
9.
15
\ ^SV
V
100 km/hr
2.0
CO
2.5
\
P
3.0 3.5
;
:
150 km/hr
\,
I
1.5 Time (s) 2
4.0
4.5
0.5
2.5
78
Chapter 4
0.5
0.0
Ys^:
0.5
' ^S
/^
49.84 km/hr
TO
1.0
/
/
T3
TO C
1.5
<
a.
2.0
\
2.5
:^vV=
100 km/hr
CO
2
H
i
CO
3.0
rr
3.5
v
ibUKm/nr
~/~
4.0
l 4.5
....
i 1
0.5
1.5
2.5
Time
(s)
js^~\.
1.0
/
~
150 km/hr
0.8
/
0.6
\ \
=
j
o
Sv
0.4
100 km/hr
<
2
co
0.2
J/
49.84 km/nr
; \^;
X^
0.0
0.2
0.5
2.5
79
Chapter 4
1.0
y\
0.5 V
=
30 km/hn
r~\
\
>^
0.0
jf<5
\\
0.5
)V
49.84 km/hr
V \
>
2
CO
;V=
100 km/hr
1.0
>^V
1.5
150 km/hr
0.5
1.5
2.5
Time
(s)
Velocity Response
0.25 0.20
0.15
I"
v^\/
\
/nA
1/^sN
//SV
0.10
'
\
==

49.84 km/hr
w
30 km/hr

\\ r\\\
Is^
^dr^^sAW
T
u
T^x \\
fss\
r\\\
i^r\\\\
0.05
o
0.00
0.05
0.10
0.15
i 0.20
0.5
2.5
Velocity Response
80
Chapter 4
1.5
f\.
1.0
1
0.5
TO
'
30 km/hr
fl
VV
0.0
TO
C
<
a0.5
\\
1.0
49.84 km/hr
CO
g
CO
W/
\
i
V= 100 km/hr
W
\ /
i i
1.5
V= 150
2.0
km/hr
i
0.5
1.5
2.5
Time
(s)
1.0
0.5
V v
49.84
km/hr^y/
\V
sT*l
30
TO
km/h>7/v\
\\
" "
yy/h\
0.0
TO C
<
0.5
Vs
'/
CO
~^\\
'/ /
<
LL
1.0
Yv
100 km/hr
1.5
V
j
2.0
150 km/hr
1
0.5
1.5
2.5
Time
(s)
81
Chapter 4
1.5
1
__
1.0
0.5
TO
V 0.0
TO C
30 km/hr^^f
\ \\
\\
<
0.5
==
49.84 km/nr
CO
2 F
CO
1.0
//
\
\
\
\
DC
100 km/hr
1.5
2.0
V= 150
km/hr
2.5
0.5
2.5
0.5
f\
0.4
\v
150 km/hr
0.3
0.2
'
1
o
o.i
"^^\v
f^
= =
//
L
'/its.'
49,84 km/hr
"
~/Tr<~
\\
o.o
30
km/hr^^VVy;
\
1
//
/
co
"0.1
N\l^
0.2
VI
0.3
.1
0.4
0.5
2.5
82
Chapter 4
3.0 V 2.5
=
150 km/hr
,
',
52
2.0
E
o
2
CD
1 5 J
"
"
100 km/hr
i
i i
>
2
*
1.0
V
0.5
49.84 km/hr
:
V
*
=
30 km/hr
0.0 0
0.2
0.4
0.6
1.2
1.4
1.6
Velocity Response
0.02
JO
0.04
T3 co
'o
o
0.06
>
>
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.4
1.6
Velocity Response
83
Chapter 4
4.0
V
r
150 km/hr
3.5
i
3.0
TO
100 km/hr
2.5
TO C
Jr
V V
49.84, km/hr
30 km/hr
< Jo
2.0
1.5
CO
1.0
i i
0.5
i
0.0
1
0.6
0.2
0.4
1.2
1.4
1.6
V= 150 km/hr
3.0
V
CD
<D
100 km/hr
49.84 km/hr

1?
<
2.0
V 1.5
=
30 km/hr
f
p
1.0
0.5
0.0
V
0
i
1.4
0.2
0.4
0.6
1.2
1.6
84
Chapter 4
4.0
i
,V
150 km/hr
i
3.5
i
!V
^
100 km/hr
3.0
TO
2.5
TO C
!V
iV
49.84 km/hr
<
J2
30 km/hr
2.0

//
co
2 F
CO
1.5
DC
1.0
0.5
i
i
0.0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
1.2
1.4
1.6
0.6
0.4
0.2
o
\
o o
V
0.0
30 krrl/hr
<
V
o2
49.84 km/hr
CO
V= 100 km/hr
0.4
V= 150 km/hr
1
0.6
0.2
0.4
0.6
1.2
1.4
1.6
Figure 4.45: Linear Step Aero Side Force Lateral Acceleration Response
85
Chapter 4
0.05
;
V
150 km/hr
0.04
jo
~
0.03
V= 100 km/hr
i
+*
'a
o
>
0.02
/j
V
0.01
49.84 km/hr
l~r
V
=
30 km/hr
0.00 0
0.2
0.4
0.6
1.2
1.4
1.6
Velocity Response
3.0E04
V= 150 km/hr
2.5E04
T3
~
V= 100 km/hr
2.0E04
+*
"o
o
S
co
>
1.5E04
V
1
.0E04
49.84\ km/hr
V
5.0E05
30 km/hr
1
0.0E+00
i 0
0.2 0.4
i_.
1
i
1.4 1.6
0.6
1.2
Velocity Response
86
Chapter 4
0.07
V 0.06
30 km/hr
j/0^
;
t
.
;
ii
.
;
I
100
km/hr
/ Ai
0.05
TO

150 km/hr
49.84
knrvhr^'
0.04
TO c
<
0.03
CO
T3
CO
0.02
0.01
0.00
i
0.2
0.4
0.6
1.2
1.4
1.6
V= 150 km/hr
0.6
1.2
1.4
1.6
87
Chapter 4
0.07
0.06
V
TO
100 km/hr
150 km/hr
0.05
TO C
0.04
<
Q.
(f)
(1>
0.03
H
\
CC
CD
0.02
0.01
0.00
0
0.2 0.4
0.6
1.2
1.4
1.6
0.014
S 0.012
c
0.010

2
0.008
% CO
0.006
"
0.004
\\v
h
~V
"
"
vVcV
0.002
^W
100lcm/hr
i
!
V
'
=
'"^*H^^
150 km/hr
V^
'
^^^.
0.4
1.6
Figure 4.51: Linear Step Road Side Slope Lateral Acceleration Response
88
Chapter 4
accelerations
up to
respect
approximately 0.35
g.
This is primarily
Beyond 0.35 g
when
angles are
predict tire
model
for this
work
is
called
originated
by Hugo
model
section
Simulation
the model is
performed
for
selected
steering
inputs
and
the results are compared with the simulation of the linear model.
for the
nonlinear
here.
+

F^ cos 8 + F
aF^ cos 5
Expressions for the tire slip

F

m(v +
ur)
bFyr
(c
a)Fya
I^r
(4.9)
angles are
tf=^f)i atan 8 a ,

(4'14>
a,
=atan
vM
u
j
as
given
described in
lateral force F
and repeated
here for
convenience.
be
calculated
based
upon
the tire
vertical
load
89
Chapter 4
CC=B3
Hy=B5
C3FZ C5Fz
(3.3) (3.5)
_=Qtan(a)
(3
6)
y/
(lE1)a+
x_
FatanfB.a) ^^i
^x
(3.10)
C, atan(fl^)
(3.9)
Fy=DlSin(tJ)
Fy=FuFz
4.6.2 Simulation
Simulation in the MATLAB
similar of
(3.8) (3.11)
script
DOF2NLSim.m. This
script
and
is very
to DOF2LSim.m
with
the linear
are
DOF2Control.m, DOF2Param.m,
set
DOF2DependParam.m
the
beginning of DOF2NLSim.m to
ode23
is
used again
differential
equations of
calculates the
state
derivatives
v and r
based
v and r
and
the current steer angle. DOFTNLDE.m is listed in Appendix C.9. The state
derivatives
are calculated as
(c
(4'89)
a)Fya
90
Chapter 4
These
v and r
The
most significant
nonlinear and
linear model
simulations
is in the
calculation of tire
are calculated
by the
script
load
and
slip
with
nonlinear
simplification
are multiplied
by the
called at each
instantaneous For
performed
comparison with
is
steer
input
steer
input. As
with
the linear
velocities of
km/hr,
used
and
steer and
ramp
square steer
inputs
are
identical to those
nonlinear
having a magnitude of 1.
Tire
parameters
for the
tire
the curve
fitting of empirical
values of
throughout Section 4.5 are derived from these parameters, so the linear tire model and non
linear tire
the linear
slip
angles.
Vehicle
parameters are
identical to those
used
in
simulation.
these plots as dashed lines are the linear simulation results for
Lateral velocity,
angle, and
presented
yaw
rear
tire slip
lateral
acceleration results
nonlinear and
simulations are
steer
and
non
91
Chapter 4
linear lateral
simulation
1%
over
the
complete
duration
of
the
for forward
velocities of
30 km/hr
and
speeds correspond
At 100 km/hr,
which
0.55 g
steadystate
acceleration
1.0%
once
steady
state
is
reached.
At this
slightly
more
than
angles
still
very nearly
a straight
linear tire
g.
model
is reasonably
for lateral
accelerations
in
excess of
0.5
of
However,
at
model
lateral
the
non
accelerations exceed
those
by over 27%.
0.95 g
At this
speed
linear model
predicts
predicts a steadystate
lateral have
acceleration of
while
1.20
g.
angles
exceeded
where
angle curve
is approaching its
angles of
peak.
approximation
is
not
sufficiently
accurate at
slip
this magnitude.
speeds the
linear model
predicts
and
tire slip angles are below those that the nonlinear model predicts and
lateral
linear
linear
nonlinear model.
non
the
quantities
examined,
while
predicts no overshoot.
Nonlinear
and
linear
simulation results
square steer
input
are plotted
nonlinear and
linear
are similar
to those of the step steer input. The two models agree very
and
well
for forward
velocities of
30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr. As
with
input,
at
and tire
slip
below those
of
the
92
Chapter 4
lateral
acceleration reach
25%. Again,
at
the
linear model
predicts
faster response
than the
nonlinear
model.
In particular,
model
by approximately 0.5
input is
ramped
back down to
and nonlinear
lateral
accelerations reach
Comparison
angles and
of
shows
that at
lateral
accelerations the
linear
vehicle and
tire models
comparable
where
slip
angles exceed
and the
lateral
that are
acceptable
angles and
lateral
accelerations
tire
model
to obtain
accurate results.
However,
since most
slip
angles and
model and
the linear analysis techniques presented in Section 4.5.6 through Section 4.5.26
can
be
used
both to study
vehicle
behavior
and
variety
operating
93
Chapter 4
0.5
V
0.0 V
0.5
30 km/hr
49.84 km/hr
'
1.0
CO
[
Linear NorlLinear
100 km/hr
E
1.5
o o
2.0
>
2
To
2.5
\s
\
*s
Linear
3.0
V= 150 km/hr
3.5
.
NonLinear
4.0
>
4.5
12
3 Time
(s)
Velocity Response
0.30
/
0.25
\ Linear
.
\/
1 <^n km/hr
ij
;
If
^^^
! NonLinear
0.20
co
;
0.15
V= 100
km/hr
>
V
>
49.84 km/hr
10
0.05
0.00
Time
(s)
Velocity Response
94
Chapter 4
1.0
V
1
=
*
30 km/hr
0.0 V
1.0

49.84 km/hr
TO
\

^^^
' ^
_
V
,
100 km/hr
2.0
TO C
'
<
3.0
V.j
i
Linear
CO
CO
4.0
V= 150 km/hr
t
5.0
'
^'
; NonLinear
6.0
12
Time
(s)
=
'
0.0
30 km/hr
V
1.0
49.84 km/hr
TO o
2.0
'
TO C
V
3.0
100 km/hr
<
Q.
CO
4.0
r
4_d
*"*
*_
Linear
u
5.0
,
150 km/hr

6.0
^
1 1
NonLinear
7.0
12
3 Time
(s)
95
Chapter 4
1.0
0.0
v"^
V
i
!
30 km/hr
'.
.
10
=
i
49.84 km/hr
TO
CD TO
C
2.0
'
**"'
"~"
"
~~
<
j?3.0
100 km/hr
co
2 p
CO
4.0
V^*^
x.
1
Linear
5.0
v.
v
,
"~
=
i
i50km/nr
_^
NonLinear
6.0
7.0
12
Time
(s)
Linear
1.2
/
V= 150
,
'
/ 1.0
C

km/hr
/
o
nS
;
0.8
. . .
NonLinear
Jj/
//
o
<
0.6
If
i__,
'
.
'
S
0.4 0.2
V= 100 km/hr
"
'
i^
0.0 12 3
Time
(s)
96
Chapter 4
0.5
;V
=
30 km/hr
0.0
"^vV
y.
49.84 km/hr
.
0.5
^^
/
"co"
1.0
'*~^r
100 km/hr
f
/
1.5
o o
7
\n

/ : / ; /
:
>
m
co
2.0
2.5
; Linear \_V,H /
,
3.0
;
3.5
\^
150 km/hr
NonLinear
1.5
i.
4.0
0.5
2 Time
2.5
3.5
(s)
Velocity Response
0.30
0.25
0.20
co
0.15
o
g
co
0.10
0.05
0.00
0.05
0.5
1.5
2 Time
2.5
3.5
(s)
Velocity Response
97
Chapter 4
1.0
V 0.0
30 km/hr
^VvV
<S
^
'
"""
49.84 km/hr
^'"*^
'
1.0
TO
'

2.0
'
TO
<
3.0
CO
V \\
/
Linear
g
CO
4.0
Nv
5.0
' 1
/
NonLinear
v= 150 km/hr
1
6.0
^__^j
0.5
1.5
2 Time
2.5
3.5
(s)
0.0
\/
3D
jh<V.
:_^_
to
y V
i.o
2.0
'/
V
=
^r^~\ ^
>"
49.84 km/hr
=
.^
\Xv
c
100 km/hr
/^
<
Q.
CO
3.0
:\
j
Y_ Linear
: 2
/ / 1 ;
:
4.0
V \
/ s^/
/ /
/ ;
:
150 km/hr
Nw
5.0
r^\j=
NonLinear
i
6.0
i 1
i
1.5
i
2 Time
i
2.5
1l
0.5
3.5
(s)
98
Chapter 4
1.0
0.0
^_
30 km/hr
^^sj_'
"^y
=
TO
1.0
\

49.84 km/hr
=
\\v
?
<
Q.
2.0
100 km/hr
ffr
/
//
\^<^\
X
.,
CO
3.0
\ \
^
_,
*/
:
/
/
/
:
,/
:/
1
CO
40
\\
Linear
/
/
V
f
/
=
\N'
150 km/hr
5.0
;
6.0
NonLin ear
1 1
0.5
1.5
2.5
3.5
Time
(s)
1.0
0.8
3
c
S
o o
0.6
<
0.4
2
15
0.2
0.0
0.2
0.5
1.5
2 Time
2.5
3.5
(s)
99
5
In
the
Conclusion
top
speeds of automobiles
early
part of
increased
vehicle
dynamics became
higher
and
an
important
meet
higher
standards of
safety
and comfort.
Mathematical modeling
of vehicle
an excellent
way for
engineers
to
study
vehicle
behavior and to
There is
performance goals.
a great
deal
of literature on
Lateral
vehicle
dynamics in
particular
has been
relationship
with safety.
Two
areas of
an
of road
is
essential
for vehicle
In Chapter 3
an overview of
representations of tire
lateral forces
were used.
model
considered
of
method called
nondimensionalization
method
experimentally
measured
tire lateral force versus slip angle curves for several vertical loads
can
function
of
both
vertical
load
and
slip
In Chapter 4 the
were
equations of motion
for
principles of
Newtonian
mechanics.
The
model was
then
developed in two
tire
model.
forms, linear and nonlinear. The linear vehicle model utilized the linear
were written
Transfer functions
relating both
yaw
velocity
and
sideslip
angle to
aerodynamic side
force,
Expressions for
100
Chapter 5
Conclusion
steadystate
step input
stability
were
derived
frequency,
damping ratio, and poles and zeros were developed. Numerical simulation of the response
of
the model to step steer, rampstep steer, rampsquare steer, sine steer, step
aerodynamic
side
force,
and
step
inputs
was performed.
It
was seen
that the
steadystate
and
transient response characteristics of the vehicle were very dependent upon its forward
speed.
In particular,
when
the
forward
steer
input became
positive.
The
effect
was seen
For
magnitude
lateral
accelerations
higher than
were
actually
possible
due to the
assumption of linear
tire
and
behavior. In
all cases
frequency response,
in
agreement.
The
the
nonlinear
tire
model
lateral forces
during
simulation.
This
high slip
the
angles and
lateral
accelerations.
model showed
that for
vehicle studied
the linear model was reasonably accurate for most engineering purposes
2
up to slip modeling
angles of
and
lateral
accelerations of 0.5g.
It
was seen
of vehicle response at
high slip
angles and
lateral
accelerations a nonlinear
representation of
necessary.
101
References
Gillespie,
1992.
Lanchester, F. William. "Some Reflections Peculiar to the Design of an Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Vol. 2, 1908, p. 187257.
Handling."
and
4.
Suspensions."
n."
Segal, Leonard. "Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Substantiation of the Response of the Automobile to Steering Proceedings of the Automobile Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 19561957.
Control."
Whitcomb, David W.
William F. Milliken. "Design Implications of a General Proceedings of the Automobile Division and of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 19561957.
and
Control."
Bastow, D.
1993.
and
and
9.
Cole, D.E. Elementary Vehicle Dynamics. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan,
1972.
and
University Press,
11.
1991.
12. Ellis, John R. Road Vehicle Dynamics, Akron, OH: J.R. Ellis, 1989. 13. Milliken, William F. PA: SAE, 1995.
and
Doug L.
Warrendale,
14. Mola, Simone. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, Detroit, MI: General Motors Institute, 1969. 15. Reimpell, Jornsen and Helmut Stall. The Automotive Chassis: Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1996.
16.
Engineering Principles.
102
References
Theory
of Ground Vehicles
Wiley
Bundorf, R.T.
of
Properties."
19. Allen, R. Wade, Theodore J. Rosenthal, Transient Analysis of Ground Vehicle 20. Heydinger,
Handling."
Henry T.
Dynamics."
Gary J.
Ph.D.
"Improved Simulation
and
Validation
21
Xia, Xunmao. "A Nonlinear Analysis of Closed Loop Driver/Vehicle Performance with Four Wheel Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Steering Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, Dec. 1990.
Program."
22. Trom, J.D., J.L. Lopex, and M.J. Vanderploeg. "Modeling of a MidSize Passenger Car Using a Multibody Dynamics Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol. 109, Dec. 1987. 23. Kortum, W. and W. Schiehlen. "General Purpose Vehicle System Dynamics Software Based on Multibody Vehicle System Dynamics, No. 14, 1985, p. 229263.
Formalisms."
24. Clarke, S.K. (Ed.). Mechanics of Pneumatic Tires, DOT HS805952, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1981.
25. Gim, Gwanghun and Parviz E. Nikravesh. "An Analytical Model of Pneumatic Tyres for Vehicle Dynamic Simulations. Part 1: Pure International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 11, No. 6, 1990.
Slips."
26. Bakker, Egbert, Lars Nyborg, and Hans B. Pacejka. "Tyre Modelling for Use in SAE Paper No. 870421, 1987. Vehicle Dynamics
Studies."
27. Radt, Hugo S. and D.A. Glemming. "Normalization of Tire Force Tire Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr.June 1993.
and
Moment
Data."
28. Allen, R. Wade, Raymond E. Magdaleno, Theodore J. Rosenthal, David H. Klyde, and Jeffrey R. Hogue. 'Tire Modeling Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics SAE Paper No. 950312, Feb. 1995.
Simulation."
29.
"Vehicle Dynamics
Terminology."
SAE J670e,
30. Radt, Hugo S. "An Efficient Method for Treating Race Tire ForceMoment SAE Paper No. 942536, Dec. 1994.
31
.
Data."
Meriam, James L.
York: John
and
Wiley
New
103
References
32. Katz, Joseph. Race Car Aerodynamics: Designing for Speed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Robert Bentley, Inc., 1995. 33. Franklin, Gene F., J. David Powell, and Abbas EmamiNaeini. Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems. New York: AddisonWesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1994. 34. MATLAB Reference Guide. The MathWorks, Inc., 1994.
104
Appendix A
A.l MagicFit.m
%MagicFit % % % % % Created 4/21/96 % J. Kiefer
% Initialization
clear all
Curve
Fitting
of
Finds
parameters
curve
read
fit
of
or
aligning
moment vs.
data
ele;
TireSlip(:,l) TireSlip(:,2)
; ;
0.5];
,
leastsq (
'MagicError'
xO,
[]
[], t,
y)
linspace(0/max(t)
=
,10)
(lx(4))*tl
=
x(4)/x(l)*atan(x(l)*tl);
theta
x(2)*atan(x(l)*psi);
x(3)*sin(theta) ;
% Plot Data
plot(tl, title
(['
and
Fit Function
F,
',
t, y,
D=
'o')
(B='
num2str(x(l)
',
C='
num2str(x(2)
',
E='
num2str
(x(4) )
')'])
xlabel
'
'
ylabeK'y')
grid
105
Appendix
ATire
A. 2 MagicError.m
function e %MagicError
%
=
MagicError(x,
t,
y)
%e
MagicError(x, t,
Calculates
x and
y)
vector of errors
of
Magic Formula
curve
fit
given parameters
data
(t,
y)
% %
Inputs:
Vector
% x(l) x(2) x(3) x(4)
of
curve
fit
parameters
B c
D E
% %
% %
% % % % % %
t y
Vector Vector
of of
independent data
dependent data
between data
and
Outputs:
e
Vector
of errors
fit function
Created 4/21/96
J.
Kiefer
psi
(lx(4))*t
=
x(4)/x(l)*atan(x(l)*t);
theta
F
=
x(2)*atan(x(l)*psi);
x(3)*sin(theta);
F;
106
A. 3 NLTire.m
function Fy %NLTire %
=
NLTire(Fz,
alpha)
%Fy
%
NLTire(Fz,
alpha)
%
% % % % % % % % % % % %
of
tire
vertical
load
and
slip
Based
on
nondimensionalization model
and
the
model.
Force is for
one
tire.
Called
by
the function
Inputs:
alpha
angle
(rad)
Fz Outputs:
vertical
load (N)
Fy
Created 2/18/96
J. Kiefer
(N)
global
Bl CI Dl El B3 C3 B5
C5;
% Normalization Parameters
Cc
mu
=
B3 B5
+ +
C3*Fz; C5*Fz;
% N/deg/N % N/N
Cornering
Friction
coefficient
coefficient
Cc.*tan (alpha)
./mu*180/pi;
(lEl)*alphaN
=
El/Bl*atan(Bl*alphaN)
;
thetaFN
Cl*atan(Bl*psiFN)
;
FyN
Dl*sin( thetaFN)
% Lateral Force
Fy
FyN.*mu.*Fz;
107
Appendix B
Stability Derivatives
SDRules
=
{Yb
Yd
>
Cf
Cf,
Cr,
Nb
Nd
>
Yr
a
a
>
(a

Cf
b
Nr
Cr)/V#
>
>
Cf
Cr,
(aA2
Cf
bA2
Cr)/V,
>
Cf}
Cf
b Cr
,
{Yb
>
Cf
Cr,
Yr
>
Yd
>
Cf,
Nb
>
Cf
b Cr,
2
a
2
Cf
+
Cr
,
Nr
>
Nd
>
(a
Cf)}
Transformed Equations
A
=
of Motion
{{sYb/(m
V),
lYr/(m
V)},
{Nb/Izz,
MatrixForm Yb
s

sNr/Izz}};
[A]
Yr
1
m
Nb
(
Nr
(
)
Izz
Izz
Bl
=
{Yd/(m
V),
Nd/Izz};
MatrixForm
[Bl]
Yd
Nd
Izz
B2
=
{l/(m
V),
(ac)/Izz};
MatrixForm
[B2]
Izz
108
Appendix B
B4
{l/(m
V),
(ad)/Izz>;
MatrixForm
[B4]
Izz
Collect [Det
[A]
,s]
Nb
+
2
s
+
Nr
Yb
+
Nr
s
Yb
Nb Yr
((
Izz
)
m
)
V
Izz
Izz
Izz
Yd
Izz
Izz
Izz
Nba
Transpose
a c
[A],B2,l]]],s]
Nr
s a
Yr
Yr
Izz Nbt
=
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Transpose [A],B3,l]]],s]
g Nr
(
)
Izz
109
Appendix B
Nrd
Transpose [A] Nd
s
Bl, 2 ] ] ]
Nb Yd
s]
Nd Yb
+
Izz Nra
=
Izz
Izz
Transpose
a
c
[A],B2,2]]],s]
Nb
a
Yb
Yb
Izz Nrt
=
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Transpose [A]
g Nb
B3
2] ] ]
s]
Izz Nrn
=
Transpose [A]
ad
] ]
s]
Nb
Yb
d Yb
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Transfer Functions
Sideslip Angle
Gbd
=
Nbd/Ds Nd
Nr
Yd
Yd
Nd Yr
Izz
Izz
Izz
Nb
+ s
2
+
Nr
Yb
+ s
Nr
Yb
Nb
Yr
((
Izz
)
m
)
V Izz
m
Izz Gba
=
Izz Nba/Ds
a c
Nr
Yr
Yr
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Nb
+ s
2
+
Nr
Yb
+
Nr
s
Yb
Nb Yr
((
Izz
)
m
)
V Izz
m
Izz
Izz
110
Appendix B
Gbt
Nbt/Ds g Nr g
s
(
Izz V
Nb
+
2
s
+
Nr
Yb
+
Nr
s
Yb
Nb Yr
((
Izz
)
m
)
V
Izz
m
Izz
Izz
Yaw
Grd
Velocity
=
Nrd/Ds
Nd
s
Nd Yb
+
Nb Yd
Izz
Izz
Izz
Nb
+
2
s
+
Nr
Yb
+
Nr
s
Yb
Nb Yr
((
Izz
)
m
)
V
Izz
m
Izz
Izz Nra/Ds
Gra
Nb
Yb
Yb
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Nb
+
2
s
+
Nr
Yb
+ s
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr
((
Izz
)
m
)
V Izz
m
Izz
Izz
Grt
Nrt/Ds g Nb
Nb
Izz V
2
+ s +
Nr
Yb
+ s
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr
(
Izz
((
Izz
)
m
)
V Izz
m
)
V
Izz
Grn
Nrn/Ds
ad
Nb
Yb
d Yb
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Izz
Nb
+ s
2
+
Nr
Yb
+
Nr
s
Yb
Nb Yr
((
Izz
)
m
)
V
Izz
m
Izz
Izz
111
Appendix B
Steady
Sideslip Angle
Sbd
=
s>0]
(m
Nr
Yd
Nd Yr
Nb V
=
Nr Yb
Nb Yr
s>0]
Sba
Nr
amV+cmV+aYrcYr
Nb V
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr s>0]]
Sbt
Nr
_(
)
m
Nb V
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr
Yaw
Srd
Velocity
=
s>0]]
(Nd
Nb Yd
Nb V
=
Nr Yb
Nb Yr
s>0]
Sra
Nb
Yb
Yb
Nb V
=
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr
s>0]
Srt
Nb
Nb V
=
Nr Yb
Nb Yr
s>0]
Srn
Nb
Yb
d Yb
Nb V
Nr Yb
Nb
Yr
Front Tire
Safd
=
Slip
Angle
+ a/V
Simplify [Sbd
2
Srd
1]
2
+
(m Nb V
Nd V
Nd Yb
Nr V Yb
Nb Yd
Nr V Yd
Nb V Yr
Nd V
Yr)
(V
((m Nb V)
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr)
112
Appendix B
Safa
Simplify [Sba
a/V
Sra]
2 2
+a YbacYbaVYr+
2
(
(a Nb)
+NrV+amV
cmV
V Yr)
(V
((m Nb V)
+ a/V
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr)
Saft
Simplify [Sbt
g
m
Srt]
(a Nb
Nr
V)
Nb Yr)
(m Nb V
Nr Yb
Rear Tire
Sard
Slip Angle
Simplify [Sbd
2

b/V
Srd]
Nd V
b Nd Yb
b Nb Yd
Nr V Yd
Nd V Yr
V Sara
=
((m Nb V)

Nr
Yb
Nb Yr)
Simplify [Sba
b/V
Sra]
2
2 (bNb
+
NrV
amV
cmV
abYb
bcYbaVYr
V Yr)
(V
((m Nb V)

Nr
Yb
Nb
Yr) )
Sart
Simplify [Sbt
g
m
b/V
Srt]
(b Nb
Nr
V)
+
((m Nb V)
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr)
Path Curvature
Scd
=
Simplify[l/V
Srd]
(Nd Yb)
Nb Yd
V Sea
(m Nb V
=
Nr Yb
Nb Yr)
Simplify [1/V
Nb

Sra]
Yb
Yb
V Set
(m Nb V
=
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr)
Simplify[l/V
Srt]
Nb
(m Nb V
Nr Yb
Nb
Yr)
113
Appendix
BTwo
Lateral Acceleration
SAd
=
Simplify [V/g
((Nd Yb)
+
Srd]
Nb Yd)
g
SAa
(m Nb V
=
Nr Yb
Nb Yr)
Simplify [V/g
(Nb

Sra]
c
Yb
Yb)
Nb Yr)
g SAt
(m Nb V
=
Nr Yb
Simplify [V/g
m
Srt]
Nb V
Nb V
Nr Yb
Nb Yr
delta
2
/.
Solve[Scd
==
1/R
(m Nb V
Nr V Yb
Nb V Yr
_(
(Nd
)
R Yb)
+
Nb
R Yd
Terml
Coefficient [Expand
[deltaR]
,V,
2]
VA2
2
m
Nb V
(Nd
R Yb)
=
Nb
R Yd
TermlS
Simplify [Terml
2
/.
SDRules]
(a Cf
b Cr)
Cf
Cr
=
b Cf Cr R
TermlSa
Numerator
[TermlS]
a>Lb]
Simplify [Denominator [
TermlS]
2 (a Cf

/.
b Cr)
Cf
Cr
114
Appendix B
Terms 2 3
ExpandNumerator
[Simplify [Coefficient
[Expand
deltaR], V]
(Nr
V]]
Yb)

Nb V Yr
Nd
R Yb
Nb
R Yd
Terms23S
Simplify [Terms23
/.
SDRules
/.
a>Lb]
deltaRl
Terml
Terms23S
2
L

m
+

Nb V
(Nd R Yb)
=
Nb
R Yd Terms23S
deltaR2
TermlSa
2
L

(a Cf
+
b Cr)
Cf
Cr
Understeer Gradient
Kus
=
Coefficient
[Simplify [deltaRl
g]
,VA2]
Nb
(Nd
Yb)
Nb Yd
Kusl
Simplify [Kus

/.
SDRules]
(a Cf
b Cr)
(a
b)
Cf
Cr
Stability
Kl
=
Factor
Simplify [K
2
/.
Solve [Srd
==
V/(L
(1+K
VA2)),
K][[l]]]
Nb V
L Nd Yb
Nr V Yb
L Nb Yd
Nb V Yr
2
L V
((Nd Yb)
Nb Yd)
115
Appendix B
K2
/.
SDRules
,
/. VA2
a>Lb]
Coef f icient [
Numerator
[Kl]
VA2]
Denominator [Kl]
Nb
L K3
((Nd Yb)
Nb Yd) /.
m
Simplify [K2
(a Cf

SDRules]
b Cr)
Cf
=
Cr
b Cf Cr L
K4
Numerator [K3]
a
>
/,
b)]
m
(a Cf
b Cr) 2
Cf
Cr
Simplify [d
Nb
/.
Solve [Numerator
[Srn]
==
0,
d] [ [1] ] ]

Yb
d2
Simplify [dl
+
/,
SDRules]
(a
b)
+
Cr
Cf
Cr
d3
Simplify [d2
L
/.
>
b]
Cr
Cf
Cr
Static Margin
SM
=
(dl
Nb
a)/L
(
)
L Yb
SMI
Simplify [SM
Cf)
L
+ +
/.
SDRules]
(a
b Cr
Cf
Cr
116
Appendix B
Tangent Speed
Vtan
=
/.

Solve[Sbd
deltaR
==
0,V][[2,1]]
Nr Yd
(
Nd Yr
)
m
Nd Sqrt
Vtanl
[Simplify [Expand[
/.
(V
/.
Solve [V
==
Simplify [
Vtan
SDRules]
,V]
[ [2,1] ]) A2] ] ]
(a
b)
m
Cr
Sqrt[(
a
)]
Vtan2
Sqrt
/.
>
Lb] /
Denominator [Vtanl b Cr
L
2 ] ]
Sqrt[(
a m
)]
Critical Speed
Vcrit
=
/.
Solve [Denominator
[Srd]
==
0,V][[1]]
Nr Yb
(
Nb Yr
)
m
Vcritl
[V
==
Vcrit
2 (a
Sqrt
+
b)
+
Cf
Cr
[

]
(a Cf m)
=
b Cr
Vcrit2
Sqrt
/.
>
Lb]/
2
Cf Cr L
Sqrt
[

]
(a Cf m)
+
b Cr
Characteristic Speed
Vchar
=
/.
+
Solve[deltaR
==
L/R, V] [ [2, 1] ]
(2 Nd Yb

((Nr Yb)
Nb Yr
Sqrt [4
LmNb
Nb Yd)
2
(Nr Yb

Nb Yr)
])
(2
Nb)
117
Appendix B
Vcharl
Sqrt
[Simplify [ (V
/.
Solve [V
==
Vchar
/
SDRules, V] [[2,1]])A2]]
(a
+
b)
Cf
Cr
(a
L)
Sqrt[
(a
]
Cf m)
+
b Cr
Vchar2
Sqrt
/.
>
Lb]/
Sqrt[(
(a
)]
Cf
m)
+
b Cr
Yaw Radius
kz
=
of
Gyration
Sqrt[Izz/m]
Izz
Sqrt[
m
LA2/kzA2
2
L
m
Izz
Total
TCF
Cornering Factor
=
Cf Cr
Cr/mA2
Cf
2
m
Characteristic Equation
Ds
==
0 2
+
Nb
s
Nr Yb
+ + s
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr
((
Izz
)
m
)
V
Izz
m
==
Izz
Izz
a2
Coef f icient
[Ds,
sA2]
118
Appendix B
al
Nr
(
)
Izz
m
V
sA2

aO
Ds
a2
al
Nb
+
Nr
Yb
_
Nb Yr
Izz
Izz
Izz
Nb V
Nr Yb
Nb Yr
Sqrt[
Izz
wnl
=
]
m
Simplify [wn
2
a
/.
SDRules]
2 2
Cf Cr
+
2

Cf
Cr
b Cf Cr
Cf
b Cr
Sqrt[
2
Izz
m
]
V
Damping
zeta
Ratio
Simplify [al

Izz
+
V/(2
Sqrt[wnA2
(Izz
V)A2])]
(m Nr V
Izz
Yb)
Nb Yr)
Sqrt [Izz
=
mV
(hi Nb V
Nr Yb
zetal
Simplify [zeta
2
/.
SDRules]
2
(Cf
Izz
Cr
Izz
Cf
Cr m)
/
2
2 (2
Sqrt [Izz
m
2
Cf Cr
+
(a
Cf Cr
b Cf Cr
Cf
2 b Cr
m
) ] )
119
Appendix B
Poles
poles
=
Solve [Ds==0, s] ;
/poles
si
[[1,1]]
2
(m Nr V
Izz
Yb
Sqrt[((m Nr V)
+
Izz
Yb)
4
sla
=
Izz
(m Nb V
/.
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr)
] )
(2
Izz
V)
Simplify [si
SDRules]
2
Cf
+
( (Cf
Cr)
Izz
(a
Cr)
2
2
Cf
m

2
Cr m)

Sqrt[((Cf
Izz)
2
Cr
Izz
2
Cf Cr
+
2
Cf Cr
+
Izz
(a
b Cf Cr
Cf
b Cr
s2
=
) ] )
(2
Izz
V)
/.
poles
[[2,1]]
2
(m Nr V
Izz
Yb
Sqrt[((m Nr V)
Izz
Yb)
4
s2a
=
Izz
(m Nb V
/. 2
Nr
Yb
Nb Yr)
] )
(2
Izz
V)
Simplify [s2
SDRules]
2
Cf
+
( (Cf
Cr)
Izz
(a
Cr)
2
2
Cf
m

2
Cr m)
Sqrt[((Cf
Izz)
2
Cr
Izz
2
Cf Cr
+
2
Cf
Izz
(a
b Cf Cr
Cr
Cf
b Cr
) ] )
(2
Izz
V)
Zeros
Zbd
=
/.
Solve [Nbd

==
0,
s][[l,l]]
(m Nd V)
Nr
Yd
Nd Yr
_(
}
Izz Yd
120
Appendix B
Zbdl
Simplify [Zbd
2
/.
SDRules]
2
Cr+amV
abCr+b
Izz
V
==
Zba
/.
Solve [Nba
0,
s][[l,l]]
Nr
amV+cmV+aYrcYr
_(
)
Izz
Zbal
Simplify [Zba
2
/.
SDRules]
2 2
cmV
acCf+abCr+b
CrbcCr+amV
Izz
Zbt
/.
Solve [Nbt
==
0,
s][[l,l]]
Nr
Izz Zbtl
Simplify [Zbt
2
/.
SDRules]
2
a
Cf
Cr
Izz V Zrd
=
/.
Solve [Nrd
+
==
0,
s][[l,l]]
(Nd Yb)
Nb Yd
_(
)
m
Nd V
/
Zrdl
Simplify [Zrd
SDRules]
(a
b)
m
Cr
Zra
/.
a
Solve [Nra Yb
+ c
==
0,
s][[l,l]]
Nb
(
Yb
)
(a

c)
Zral
Simplify [Zra
+
/.

SDRules]
c
(c
Cf)
Cr
b Cr
Cr
121
Appendix B
Zrt
Solve [Nrt
==
0,
s]
{{}}
122
Appendix C
C.l DOF2Control.m
%DOF2Control
Controls
execution of
model.
Sets
control
.
ramp,
or
sine
steer)
Sets
1; 2;
=
rampsquare sine
=
3;
4;
=
input
1;
% Select
which control
input to
use
% Simulation Parameters
tO
tr
=
td
ts tf
tol
% % % % % %
steer
input
s s s
s
Ramp
time
simulation
Simulation accuracy
(default
le3)
123
Appendix
CTwo
C.2 DOF2Param.m
%DOF2Param
2 DOF Model Independent Parameters
and
Simulation Control
tire,
control,
and
disturbance
parameters
for 2 DOF
model.
all;
clc;
global m
global
Izz L
c u
Cf Cr dO Fzf Fzr
Fyg
Fya tO tr td ts tf
input;
Bl CI Dl El B3 C3 B5
C5;
% Constants
g
=
9.81;
m/s~2
Izz
f
L
u
% % %
kg
Gross
vehicle mass
% kgm^2
Yaw inertia
Fraction
of weight on
front
axle
Wheelbase
Vehicle forward
speed
% km/hr
% Control dO
==
and
Disturbance Inputs
1;
=
theta Fya
c
=
0;
% % %
deg deg
m
magnitude
0; 1.25;
% N
Aerodynamic
side
force
axle side
to
force
1230.5; 1155.5;
==
% N/deg % N/deg
Front cornering
stiffness
0.5835;
1.7166 1.0005 0.2517
Coefficient Parameters
El
%
B3 C3
=
Cornering 0.333;
1.352e5;
%
B5
C5
=
1.173;
3.696e5;
% Unit Conversions
u
=
u*1000/3600;
m/s
124
Appendix
CTwo
dO
Cf Cr
d0*pi/180;
Cf*180/pi*2; Cr*180/pi*2;
rad
Step
steer
input
(two tires) (two tires)
% N/rad % N/rad
125
Appendix
CTwo
C.3 DOF2DependParam.m
%DOF2DependParam
% % % % Created 1/7/96 % J. Kiefer % Dependent Parameters
a
=
Calculates
values
of
dependent
parameters
for 2 DOF
model.
b
V
(lf)*L; f*L;
u;
=
%
%
m m
tire to C.G.
%
m*g*sin(theta*pi/180) ; m*g*f/2*cos(theta*pi/180); m*g*(lf)/2*cos(theta*pi/180);
m/s
Fyg
Fzf
Fzr
% N % N % N
Side
slope
lateral force
normal
normal
% Stability Derivatives
Yb
Yr
=
Cf
Cr;
Damping
insideslip
/
yaw
(a*Cfb*Cr) /V;
Cf
Lateral force
coupling
Yd
Control force
Directional stability Yaw
Nb
Nr Nd
a*Cfb*Cr;
(a~2*Cf+b~2*Cr) /V;
a*Cf ;
damping
moment
Control
126
Appendix
CTwo
C.4 SteerAngle.m
function delta %SteerAngle
%
=
SteerAngle (t,
input, t0,tr,td,ts,tf
,d0)
and
%delta % %
%
SteerAngle
Determines
steer angle
current
time,
input selection,
ramp,
and
or
Input
selection
may be step,
ramp square,
D0F3NLDE.m.
%
% % %
Called
Inputs: t
% %
%
input
selection
1 2 3 4
to tr
step ramp
rampsquare
%
% % % % % % % % % % % % %
Created 1/7/96
J.
sine
simulation
(s)
Ramp
EWell
time
td ts
tf
Period for
simulation
dO
magnitude
Outputs:
delta
Steer
angle
(rad)
Kiefer
0;
dO;
tO
if t
<
delta
end end
0;
dO;
tO
+
if t
<
tr
=
delta
end
d0*(tt0)/tr;
if t
end
end
<
tO
delta
0;
127
Appendix
CTwo
delta
0;
tO
+
if t
end
<
2*tr
=
td
delta
d0*(t0+td+2*trt)/tr;
+
if t
<
tO
tr
=
td
delta
end
dO;
if t
<
tO
tr
=
delta
end
d0*(tt0)/tr;
if t
end end
<
tO
delta
0;
% Sine Steer
if input
==
4
=
delta
d0*sin(2*pi*(tt0)/ts)
delta
=
if t
end end
<
tO
0;
128
Appendix
CTwo
C.5 DOF2LFreq.m
%DOF2LFreq
% For % % % %
Generates bode
plot a
Frequency Response
of
of
Single Set
Parameters
model
for
outputs
of
sideslip
angle
and yaw
for inputs
of
steer angle
control,
aerodynamic
side
force disturbance,
disturbance.
% % Created 2/4/96
% J. Kiefer
D0F2Param;
D0F2Control ;
parameters parameters
control
D0F2DependParam;
% Transfer Function Denominator
D
=
% Calculate dependent
parameters
[1
Nr/IzzYb/
[Yd/(m*V) (Nd*YrNr*YdNd*m*V) / (Izz*m*V) ] ; [1/ (m*V) (ca) /Izz+ ( (ac) *YrNr) / (Izz*m*V) ]
[g/V
g*Nr/(Izz*V)] ;
Nbt
Nrd Nra Nrt
[Nd/Izz
lcgspace(l,2) *2*pi; bode (Nbd, D,w) ; [Mbd,Pbd,w] bode (Nba, D,w) ; [Mba,Pba,w] bode (Nbt, D,w) ; [Mbt,Pbt,w] bode (Nrd, D,w) ; [Mrd,Prd,w] bode (Nra, D,w) ; [Mra,Pra,w] bode (Nrt, D,w); [Mrt,Prt,w]
=
=
129
Appendix
CTwo
C.6 DOF2LSim.m
%D0F2LSim
%
% % % % %
Performs
simulation of
Inputs
linear 2 DOF
yaw
model
response
to
control
and
disturbance inputs.
Determines
speed,
and
front
and rear
front
lateral
acceleration.
Plots these
responses versus
% %
D0F2Param, D0F2DependParam.
% Created 1/7/96
% J. Kiefer
parameters
% Calculate dependent
[t,x]
v r
=
ode23(,DOF2LDE',0,tf, [0
0]',tol);
x(:,l) ; x(:,2);
% Steer Angle
delta
=
for i
( length ( t) l:length(t)
zeros
1)
delta(i)
end
SteerAngle (t
rad
Steer angle
% Vehicle beta
=
and
Tire
Slip Angles
% % %
rad
v/u;
=
alphaF alphaR
rad
rad
angle
% External Forces
Fyf
Fyr
=
Moments
Cf*alphaF; Cr*alphaR;
% N % N
% State Derivatives
vdot rdot
=
(Fyf
Fyr

Fya

(a*Fyf
b*Fyr
% Lateral Acceleration
ay
=
vdot
u*r;
m/s^
Lateral
acceleration
% Do Plots
subplot
(2, 2,1)
plot(t,v)
grid
title
'
Lateral Speed
'
xlabeK'Time
ylabel
subplot
plot(t,r*180/pi)
130
Appendix
CTwo
grid
(s) ')
'
(2, 2, 3)
,t,alphaR*180/pi,
plot(t,beta*180/pi,t,alphaF*180/pi,
grid
'.
'
'
'
,t,delta*180/pi,
Sideslip Angle, Tire Slip Angles, (s) ) ylabel ( Slip Angle (deg) )
xlabeK 'Time
'
' '
title ( 'Vehicle
Steer Angle')
subplot
(2, 2, 4)
plot(t,ay/g)
grid
'
'
(s) ')
(g)
'
'Acceleration
131
Appendix
CTwo
C.7 DOF2LDE.m
function %DOF2NLDE
% %xdot
% % % % %
Determines derivatives
state vector. of
=
xdot
DOF2NLDE(t,x)
Non Linear Differential Equations for 2 DOF Model
D0F2NLDE(t,x)
lateral
time and
with ode23
and non
linear slip
angles.
Used
for
simulation.
Inputs: t
x(l) x(2)
% %
%
Time
(s)
speed speed
Lateral Yaw
(m/s) (rad/s)
of
% %
% % % %
Outputs:
xdot(l)
xdot
Derivative Derivative
lateral
speed
(2)
of yaw speed
Created 2/18/96
J.
Kiefer
global
Izz L
c u
delta
alphaF
atan(
atan(
=
alphaR
NLTire(Fzf,
alphaF); alphaR);
NLTire(Fzr,
+
[u*x(2)
(2*Fyf*cos (delta)
+2*Fyr+Fya+Fyg)/m
(2*a*Fyf*cos (delta)
2*b*Fyr+
132
Appendix C
C.8 DOF2NLSim.m
%DOF2NLSim
% % % % % %
Performs
simulation of
Simulation
of
and
Disturbance
Inputs
non
linear 2 DOF
yaw
model
response
to
control
and
Determines
speed,
and
front
lateral
acceleration.
time.
% %
D0F2Param, D0F2DependParam.
% Created 2/18/96
% J. Kiefer
D0F2Param; D0F2Control;
D0F2DependParam; % Perform
simulation
parameters parameters
execution control
% Calculate dependent
parameters
[t,x]
v r
=
=
ode23(,DOF2NLDE',0,tf, [0
0]',tol);
x(:,l) ;
x(:,2) ;
zeros
(length(t)
=
1)
l:length(t)
delta(i)
end
SteerAngle
,d0)
rad
Steer
angle
% Vehicle beta
=
and
Tire
Slip
Angles
atan(v/u) ;
=
% % %
rad
rad rad
Vehicle sideslip
angle
alphaF alphaR
atan(
atan(
angle
angle
% External Forces
Fyf Fyr
=
Moments
NLTire(Fzf, NLTire(Fzr,
alphaF); alphaR) ;
% N % N
force
% State Derivatives
vdot
=
(2*Fyf.*cos
rdot
(2*a*Fyf.*cos
% Lateral Acceleration ay
=
vdot
u*r;
m/s^2
Lateral
acceleration
% Do Plots
subplot(2,2,l) plot(t,v)
grid
('
Lateral
(2, 2, 2)
plot(t,r*180/pi)
133
Appendix
CTwo
grid
'
subplot
(2, 2, 3)
'
' ,t,alphaR*180/pi,
plot(t,beta*180/pi,t,alphaF*180/pi,
grid
'.
'
'
,t,delta*180/pi,
')
title
'Vehicle
xlabel( 'Time
ylabel
'
Sideslip Angle, Tire Slip Angles, Steer Angle') (s) ') ( Slip Angle (deg) )
'
subplot
plot
grid
(s)
'
)
'
( 'Acceleration (g)
134
Appendix
CTwo
C.9 DOF2NLDE.m
function xdot %D0F2NLDE
%
=
D0F2NLDE(t,x)
Non Linear Differential Equations for 2 DOF Model
%xdot
% %
% % % % %
D0F2NLDE(t,x)
Determines derivatives
state vector. of
lateral
and non
linear slip
angles.
Used
with ode23
for simulation.
Inputs:
t
x(l) x(2)
Time
(s)
speed
%
% %
Lateral speed
Yaw
(m/s) (rad/s)
of
Outputs:
xdot(l)
xdot
% %
%
Derivative
lateral
speed
(2)
Derivative
of yaw speed
(m/s^2) (rad/sA2)
% %
Created 2/18/96
J.
Kiefer
global m
Izz L
c u
delta
alphaF
atan((x(l)+a*x(2))/u)delta;
atan(
alphaR
(x(l)b*x(2) )/u)
Fyf Fyr
xdot
[u*x(2)
(2*a*Fyf*cos (delta)
135
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
"Control
of
Vehicle

Dynamics."
Automotive Engineering,
May 1995, p.
8793.
Methods."
ISO 7401,
May
1988.
Steady State
Circular Test
and
Procedure."
RoadHolding Ability
ISO 8855,
"Vehicle Dynamics
Terminology."
1994 Motor Sports Engineering Conference Proceedings: Volume 1: Vehicle Design Issues. SAE Publication No. P287, Dec. 1994.
of
Safety
SAE Paper
Allen, R. Wade
and
Simulation
Models."
Theodore J. Rosenthal. "Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics SAE Paper No. 940175, Feb. 1994.
and
Jeffrey
Simulation."
R. Hogue. 'Tire Modeling Requirements for Vehicle Dynamics SAE Paper No. 950312, Feb. 1995.
and
and
Systems."
Stability
SAE Paper No.
and Jeffrey R. Hogue. "Modeling and Simulation SAE Paper No. 960177, Feb. 1996. and
Henry
Ground Vehicle
Handling."
Henry T.
Ground Vehicle Computer Simulations Developed for SAE Paper No. 920054, Feb. 1992.
and
Keith J.
Ground Vehicle Lateral/Directional Dynamic Feb. 1991. A. Sitchin. "Vehicle Dynamic Handling Correlation, and Application Using
and
ADAMS."
Tire Model Consisting of Theoretical and Experimental Equations for Vehicle Dynamics Analysis Part 2: Under the SAE Paper No. Condition of Various Velocity on the Asphaltic Road

Surface."
1995,
p.
6668.
136
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
Pacejka. 'Tyre Modelling for Use in Vehicle SAE Paper No. 870421, 1987.
Studies."
Bakker, Egbert,
Barak, Pinhas.
Hans B. Pacejka, and Lars Lidner. "A New Tire Model with an SAE Paper No. 890087, 1989. Application in Vehicle Dynamics "Magic Numbers in Design Paper No. 911921, 1991.
of
Cars."
SAE
Optimization."
SAE Paper No. 921491, 1992. Handling. Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1993.
and
and
Calculations."
C.L. Clover. 'Tire Modeling for LowSpeed SAE Paper No. 950311, Feb. 1995.
HighSpeed
and
Dynamics."
C.L. Clover. "Validation of Computer Simulations SAE Paper No. 940231, Feb. 1994.
of
Vehicle
and Dennis A. Guenther. "New Developments in Vehicle Center of Gravity and Inertial Parameter Estimation and SAE Paper No. 950356, Feb. 1995.
Blank, Matthew
Donald Margolis. "The Effect of Normal Force Variation on the SAE Paper No. 960484, Feb. 1996. Lateral Dynamics of
and
Automobiles."
Bowman, J. Eric
and
Braking
System."
E.H. Law. "A Feasibility Study of an Automotive SAE Paper No. 930762, Mar. 1993.
and
Friction."
Slip Control
of
Bundorf, R.T.
Properties."
Cambiaghi, Danilo
1994.
Marco Gadola.
"Computer Aided
Development at the
University
and
of
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and
Chen H Fred
and
Responses."
of
on
Handling
Traction Chocholek, S.E. "The Development of a Differential for the Improvement of IMechE Paper No. C368/88, 1988.
Control."
Composite Suspension Chrstos, Jeffrey P. "A Simplified Method for the Measurement of SAE Paper No. 910232, 1991.
Parameters."
Clover, Chris L.
and
Distribution
on
James E. Bernard. "The Influence of Lateral Load Transfer SAE Paper No. 930763, Mar. 1993. Directional
Response."
of
Michigan, 1972.
137
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
Crahan, Thomas C. "Modeling SteadyState Suspension Kinematics and Vehicle Dynamics Part I: Theory and of Road Racing Cars SAE Paper No. 942505,
Methodology."

Dec. 1994.
Crahan, Thomas C. "Modeling SteadyState Suspension Kinematics and Vehicle Dynamics of Road Racing Cars Part II: SAE Paper No. 942506, Dec. 1994.
Examples."

Crolla, D.A.
and
Vehicle
Model."
M.B.A. AbdelHady. "SemiActive Suspension Control for SAE Paper No. 91 1904, Sept. 1991.
of the
Full
HVE Vehicle
Model."
Dickison, J.G.
and
Vehicle
Development."
A.J. Yardley. "Development and Application of a Functional Model to SAE Paper No. 930835, Mar. 1993.
Dixon, John C. Tyres, Suspension and Handling, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Dreyer, Andreas
with and HeinzDieter Heitzer. "Control Strategies for Active Chassis Systems Respect to Road SAE Paper No. 910660, Feb. 1991.
Friction."
Egnaczak, Bernard C. "Supplement to: 'The Development of a Differential for the Improvement of Traction Auto Tech 89, Session 5 Traction Control, Nov. 14, 1989.
Control."
ElBeheiry, ElSayed M.
and
Suspensions Based
on a
Dean C. Karnopp. "Optimization of Active and Passive Full Car SAE Paper No. 951063, Feb. 1995.
Model."
Ellis, John R. Road Vehicle Dynamics, Akron, OH: J.R. Ellis, 1989.
Ellis, John R. Vehicle Dynamics. London: Business Books, 1969. Floyd, R. Scott
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Cars."
Addison
Garrot, W. Riley, Douglas L. Wilson, and Richard A. Scott. "Digital Simulation for Automobile Simulation, Sept. 1981, p. 8391.
Maneuvers."
Gim, Gwanghun
Gim, Gwanghun
and
Cornering
Namcheol Kang. "Requirements of a Tire Model for Practical SAE Paper No. 960179, Feb. 1996. Simulations of
Vehicles."
Parviz E. Nikravesh. "A ThreeDimensional Tire Model for SAE Paper No. 931913, Nov. 1993. State Simulations of
and
Vehicles."
Steady
Gim, Gwanghun
and Parviz E. Nikravesh. "An Analytical Model of Pneumatic Tyres for International Journal of Vehicle Vehicle Dynamic Simulations. Part 1: Pure 1990. No. Vol. Design, 6, 11,
Slips."
Gim, Gwanghun
Parviz E. Nikravesh. "An Analytical Model Vehicle Dynamic Simulations. Part 2: Comprehensive of Vehicle Design, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1991.
and and
of
Slips."
Gruening, James
Computer
Simulation."
James E. Bernard. "Verification of Vehicle Parameters for Use in SAE Paper No. 960176, Feb. 1996.
138
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
Gruening, James,
Force
and
Keith A. Williams, Kurt Hoffmeister, and James E. Bernard. 'Tire Moment SAE Paper No. 960182, Feb. 1996.
Processor." Model."
Guntur, R.
S. Sankar. "A Friction Circle Concept for Dugoff s Tyre Friction International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1980.
and
Haney, Paul and Jeff Braun. Inside Racing Technology. Redwood City, CA: TV Motorsports, 1995.
Heydinger, Gary J. "Improved Simulation and Validation of Road Vehicle Handling Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 1990.
Dynamics."
and
Lag
on
Jeffrey P.
Response."
Handling
Dynamics."
Seewoo Lee. "Pulse Testing Techniques SAE Paper No. 930828, Mar. 1993.
Holmes, H. and D. Alexander. Formula Car Technology. Santa Ana, CA: Steve Smith Autosports, 1980. Hopkins, Patrick and L. Daniel Metz. "Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics SAE Paper No. 942485, Dec. 1994.
Differential."
of a
Locked
Howard, Geoffrey. Chassis & Suspension Engineering, London, England: Osprey Publishing Limited, 1987. Huang, Feng, J. Roger Chen,
for Vehicle Parameter
and
Estimation."
LungWen Tsai. "The Use of Random Steer Test Data SAE Paper No. 930830, Mar. 1993.
Traction."
Huchtkoetter, Heinrich
in
Heinz Klein. "The Effect of Various Drive Vehicles on Handling and 960717, Feb. 1996.
and FrontWheel
LimitedSlip Differentials
SAE Paper No.
Control."
Ikushima, Y.
K Sawase. "A Study on the Effects SAE Paper No. 950303, Feb. 1995.
and
Speed."
of
Jung, Shinsub
and Dennis A. Guenther. "An Examination of the Maneuverability SAE Paper No. 910241, Feb. 1991. Wheel Steer Vehicle at Low
of an
All
and Y. Tateishi. "Factoring Nonlinear Kinematics into New SAE Paper No. Suspension Design: A CAE Approach to Vehicle Roll Feb. 1994. 940871,
Dynamics."
Systems."
Karnopp, Dean. "Active Damping in Road Vehicle Suspension Dynamics, Vol. 12, 1983, p. 291316. Kasprzak, James L.
R. Scott Floyd. "Use SAE Paper No. 942504, Dec. 1994.
and of
Vehicle System
Dampers."
Katz, Joseph. Race Car Aerodynamics. Cambridge, MA: Robert Bentley, Inc., 1995. Klein, Richard H., Gary L. Teper,
and
Dolly
Ko, Y.
and
Type Combination
Vehicles."
James D. Fait. "Lateral/Directional Stability SAE Paper No. 960184, Feb. 1996.
with an
of
Tow
T. Oh. "Motion Control of the Vehicle SAE Paper No. 940865, Feb. 1994.
Active Suspension
System."
and
Cornering by
Active
Brake."
Shoji Inagaki. "Vehicle Stability SAE Paper No. 960487, Feb. 1996.
139
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
Korturn, W.
and W. Schiehlen. "General Purpose Vehicle System Dynamics Software Vehicle System Dynamics, No. 14, 1985, p. Based on Multibody 229263.
Formalisms."
Kramer,
Kenneth D. and Dale E. Calkins. "Lateral Response SAE Paper No. 942523, Dec. 1994.
Optimization."
of
Car."
Langer, William. "Vehicle Testing with Flat Surface Roadway No. 960731, Feb. 1996.
Vehicle."
SAE Paper
Lee, Allan Y. "Emulating the Lateral Dynamics of a Range of Vehicles Using SAE Paper No. 950304, Feb. 1995. WheelSteering
a Four
Lee, Allan Y. "Performance of FourWheelSteering Vehicles in Lane Change SAE Paper No. 950316, Feb. 1995. Lee, Seewoo, Jeffrey P. Chrstos,
Inputs."
Maneuvers."
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and
of
Domain."
Dennis A. Guenther. "The Application of Pulse Tire Lateral Force and Self Aligning Moment SAE Paper No. 950317, Feb. 1995.
Results."
Lund, Yvonne I.
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Maalej, Aref Y. "Application of Suspension Derivative Formulation to Ground Vehicle Ph.D. Dissertation, The Ohio State University, Modeling and 1988. Columbus, OH,
Simulation."
the
Steering
Mashadi, Behrooz
and
Around NonLinear
Operating
Conditions."
McConville, James B.
and John C. Angell. 'The Dynamic Simulation of a Moving Vehicle Subject to Transient Steering Inputs Using the ADAMS Computer ASME Paper No. 84DET2, 1984. and
Metz, L. Daniel
and
FourWheelSteer Vehicle
911926, 1991.
Metz, L. Daniel, Michael Dover, John Fisher, Victoria McCleary,
Configurations."
Errol Shavers. Vehicle "Comparison of Linear Roll Dynamics Properties for Various SAE Paper No. 920053, 1992.
and and
L.
Gregory Metz.
Flat
Tire."
In the Presence
of a
140
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
of FourWheel
Steer OffHighway
Vehicles."
Milliken, William F.
SAE, 1995.
and
Doug L.
Milliken, William F.
1983,
p.
and
3160.
and
Development."
and
Transient
Response."
Mola, Simone. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics, Detroit, MI: General Motors Institute, Moline, D., S. Floyd, S. Vaduri,
Active
Suspensions."
and E.H. Law. "Simulation and Evaluation SAE Paper No. 940864, Feb. 1994.
of Semi
and
Control."
SAE
High
Speed."
of the Dynamic Response of a Four Wheel Steering Vehicles International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1988.
Nalecz, Andrzej G. "Development and Validation of Light Vehicle Dynamics Simulation SAE Paper No. 920056, Feb. 1992.
(LVDS)."
Nalecz, Andrzej G.
Wheel
Alan C. Bindemann. "Investigation into the Stability of Four International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 9, No. 2, Steering 159178. p. 1988,
and
Vehicles."
Naude, Alwyn F.
and Jasper L. Steyn. "Objective Evaluation Characteristics of a Vehicle in a Double Lane Change 930826, Mar. 1993.
of the
Manoeuvre."
Negrut, D.
and J.S. Freeman. "Dynamic Tire Modelling for Application with Vehicle SAE Paper No. 940223, Feb. 1994. Simulations Incorporating
Terrain."
Neto, Mauro Speranza, Fernando Riberio da Silva, and Jose Francisco Martinex. "Design Methodology in Vehicle Dynamics, Using the Procedures of Modeling, Simulation, SAE Paper No. 921480, 1992. and Analysis of System
Dynamics."
New Developments in Vehicle Dynamics, Simulation, Publication No. SP1074, Feb. 1995.
and
Nikravesh, Parviz E.
JongNyun Lee. "Optimal FourWheel Steering Strategy Using SAE Paper No. 931915, Nov. 1993. Nonlinear Analytical Vehicle
and
Models."
Handling."
and
Suspensions."
on
141
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
Olley, Maurice.
"Suspensions Notes
n."
1966.
and
System."
Luigi Gortan. "HInfmity Control for Lancia SAE Paper No. 950583, Feb. 1995.
Petersen, Michael R.
with
and John M. Starkey. "Nonlinear Vehicle Performance Simulation Test Correlation and Sensitivity Analysis." SAE Paper No. 960521 Feb 1996.
Post, J.W.
and E.H. Law. "Modeling, Characterization and Simulation of Automobile Power Steering Systems for the Prediction of OnCenter Handling." SAE Paper No. 960178, Feb. 1996.
Data."
Radt, Hugo S. "An Efficient Method for Treating Race Tire ForceMoment Paper No. 942536, Dec. 1994. Radt, Hugo S.
and
SAE
D.A. Gleniming. "Normalization of Tire Force and Moment Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 2, Apr.June 1993, p. 91119.
and
Derivatives."
Data."
Tire
Radt, Hugo S.
Donald J. Van Dis. "Vehicle Handling Responses SAE Paper No. 960483, Feb. 1996.
Cars."
Using Stability
Reichelt, Werner. "Correlation Analysis of Open/Closed Loop Data for Objective Assessment of Handling Characteristics of SAE Paper No. 910238, Feb.
1991.
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and
William F. Milliken. "Static Stability and Control of the Automobile SAE Paper No. 800847, June 1980.
Method."
C. Mink. "A Simulation Graphical User Interface for Vehicle SAE Paper No. 950169, Feb. 1995.
Trucks."
Sayers, Michael W.
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Cornering
and
Braking
Forces."
Marion G. Pottinger. "A Model for Combined SAE Paper No. 960180, Feb. 1996.
Concept."
and
Formula'
Proceedings of the Automobile Division of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, No. 7, 19561957, p. 310330.
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Control."
Sharp, R.S.
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and
and
Moments."
Review."
Shimada, K.
Stabilizing Yaw
Smith, C. Prepare
to
Y. Shibahata. "Comparison of Three Active Chassis Control Methods for SAE Paper No. 940870, Feb. 1994.
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142
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
Smith, C. Tune
to Win.
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Sohn, H.S., S.C. Lee, M.W. Suh,
Characteristics 1994.
on
Vehicle System
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of
FourWheel
Steer."
TwoWheel Steer Vehicle Using Optimal SAE Paper No. 931914, 1993.
Staniforth, A. Competition Car Suspension. Newbury Park, CA: Haynes Publications Inc., 1991.
Sultan, Mohammad O., Gary J. Heydinger, Nicholas J. Durisek,
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Taborek, Jaroslav J. Mechanics of Vehicles. Cleveland, OH: Penton, 1957. Thomas, D.W. "Vehicle Modeling
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Service Loads
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and
Program."
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Problems."
James E. Bernard. "Application of Inverse Models to Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 19, 1990, p. 97
Turpin, D.R.
and
Simulation."
D.F. Evans. "HighFidelity Road/Tire Interaction Models for Real Time SAE Paper No. 950170, Feb. 1995.
and Mechanics.
the
Bosch
VDC."
James E. Bernard. "Evaluation Path Follow Performance Using a Linear Inverse Vehicle 880644, 1988.
and
of
Model."
Vedamuthu, S.
of
Qualities."
Vehicle Dynamics and Electronic Controlled Suspensions. SAE Publication No. Feb. 1991. Vehicle Dynamics
and
SP861,
SP909, Feb.
1992.
Vehicle Dynamics
and
143
Appendix D
Relevant Literature
Whatmough,
Low
Speeds."
K.J. "RealTime Wheel Brake and Tire Lateral Force Models Refined for SAE Paper No. 940178, Feb. 1994.
and
Whitcomb, David W.
of
of a
General
Theory
Automobile Stability and Proceedings of the Automobile Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Aug. 1956, p. 83107. R.S.
Wilson, D.A.,
Sharp,
and
105118.
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Edge!"
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Closed Loop Driver/Vehicle Performance with Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Steering Clemson Engineering, University, Clemson, SC, Dec. 1990.
Control."
and E.H. Law. "Nonlinear Analysis Performance with Four Wheel Steering
and
of
Control."
Handling
Performance."
J.N. Willis. 'The Effects of Tire Cornering Stiffness SAE Paper No. 950313, Feb. 1995.
Vehicle Linear
Stability."
Yamamoto, Masaki. "Active Control Strategy for Improved Handling Paper No. 911902, Sept. 1991. Yasui, Yoshiyuki, Kenji Tozu, Noriaki Hattori,
of
Control."
and
SAE
and Masakazu Sugisawa. "Improvement Vehicle Directional Stability for Transient Steering Maneuvers Using Active SAE Paper No. 960485, Feb. 1996. Brake
144
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