COMMISSION SENSITIVE

CHAPTER
1. The Foundation of an Islamic Army 1.1 The fatwa of February 1 998 1.2 Islamist extremism and its appeal in the Islamic world 1.3 The rise of Bin Ladin and al Qaeda 1.4 Al Qaeda and the Muslim world 1.5 Attacking the United States I. I

LEAD DRAFTER
May May MacEachin Dowling MacEachin

1

2.1 2.2 2.3

Counter-terrorism Evolves From the old terrorism to the new: The case of WTCI Adaptation - or non-adaptation - in the law enforcement community ... the intelligence community 2.4 ... the Departments and the Congress 2.5 ... the White House

MacEachin FO FO FO FO

III.
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 IV. 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5

Responses to al Qaeda's Initial Assaults Before the bombings in Kenya and Tanzania Crisis Post-crisis diplomacy Military options Clandestine and covert action Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland Terrorist entrepreneurs Plans, targets, and requirements Choosing the attackers: recruitment, vetting, and training Seeing aircraft as weapons? A money trail?

Albion Bass Allan Jenkins Albion

Snell De De May Roth

V. From Threat to Threat 5.1 The Millennium crisis 5.2 Post-crisis reflection: an agenda for 2000 5.3 The attack on the U.S.S. Cole 5.4 Change and continuity 5.5 A new strategy? VI. 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Linden Albion Grandrimo Hurley Bass

The Attack Looms Going to California California and Florida Final strategies and tactics Assembling the teams The 'summer of threat1 Late leads? Al Mihdhar and Moussaoui

Snell Jacobson Kim Kim Grewe Grewe

VII. The Four Flights 7.1 The hijacking of AA 1 1 and UA 1 75 7.2 FAA and NORAD 7.3 Losing AA 77 7.4 Improvising a homeland defense 7.5 The battle for UA 93
VIII. Heroism and Horror 8.1 Emergency plans 8.2 Agencies and firms implement the plans 8.3 The World Trade Center 8.4 Fateful choices in emergency response COMMISSION SENSITIVE

Johnstone Farmer Farmer Farmer Raidt

Caspersen Caspersen Caspersen Caspersen

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

IX 9.1 9.2 9.3

CHAPTER Wartime Crisis management and domestic responses Initial war planning and the invasion of Afghanistan The emerging shape of a war on terror

LEAD DRAFTER Hyde Hurley Byman

1

X. Problems of Foresight - and Hindsight 1 0.1 The world of policymakers: appreciations and judgments 1 0.2 The blinding effects of hindsight 1 0.3 Finding fair verdicts XI. National Leadership and National Strategy 11.1 A new world and a new kind of conflict 11.2 Measuring success 1 1.3 Coordinating a national strategy 1 1.4 The role of the Congress 1 1.5 From national strategy to coalition strategy XII. Bringing Foreign Policy Back In

FO FO FO

FO FO FO FO FO

1 2.1 America and the Muslim world 1 2.2 Central Asia and Arabia 12.3 Reinventing multilateral institutions XIII. Intelligence for a Different World 1 3.1 America's intelligence community: A legacy of the Cold War 1 3.2 Bridging the foreign-domestic divide 1 3.3 Assessment and warning 1 3.4 Reforming the Executive and the Congress XIV. Protecting Security and Preserving Liberty 1 4.1 Balancing empowerment and restraint 14.2 Harnessing and regulating the power of the information age 14.3 Terrorist finance XV. National Defense 1 5.1 Transforming institutions for attacking terrorists 1 5.2 Border security (move to Chap. 1 4?) 15.3 Homeland defense XVI. Living in a World of Risk 1 6.1 Assessing vulnerabilities and judging risks 16.2 Aviation and transportation security 16.3 Who is protecting us? Public and private partnerships 16.4 Mitigating and managing the consequences of catastrophic attack 16.5 Learning to live in a world of risk

Byman Byman Byman

Lederman Healey Fenner Lederman

Cole Rundlet Roth

Hurley Lt^> ([<*+ Ginsburg Rundlet

FO Dillingham Farmer Team 8 FO

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

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One. Two. Three. Four. Five. Six. Seven. Eight. Nine. Ten. Eleven. Twelve. Thirteen. Fourteen. Fifteen. Sixteen.

The Foundation of an Islamic Army Counterterrorism Evolves Responses to al Qaeda's Initial Assaults Al Qaeda Aims at the American Homeland From Threat to Threat The Attack Looms The Four Flights Heroism and Horror Wartime Problems of Foresight - and Hindsight National Leadership and National Strategy Bringing Foreign Policy Back In Intelligence for a Different World Protecting Security and Preserving Liberty National Defense Living with a World of Risk

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

I. THE FOUNDATION OF AN ISLAMIC ARMY
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Thefatwa of February 1998 Islamist extremism and its appeal in the Islamic world The rise of Bin Ladin and al Qaeda Al Qaeda and the Muslim world Attacking the United States

II.

COUNTERTERRORISM EVOLVES

2.1 2.2 2.3 '*j "2-2.4 2.5

From the old terrorism to the new: The case of WTC I Adaptation - or non-adaptation - in the law enforcement community ... the intelligence community ... the Departments and the Congress ...the White House

III. RESPONSES TO AL QAEDA'S INITIAL ASSAULTS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 A-3.5 Before the bombings in Kenya and Tanzania Crisis Post-crisis diplomacy Military options Clandestine and covert action

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

IV.
4.1 4.2 4.3 j ^A,4 4.5

ALQAEDA AIMS AT THE AMERICAN HOMELAND
Terrorist entrepreneurs Plans, targets, and requirements Choosing the attackers: recruitment, vetting, and training Seeing aircraft as weapons? A money trail?

V. FROM THREAT TO THREAT
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 The Millennium crisis Post-crisis reflection: an agenda for 2000 The attack on the U.S.S. Cole Change and continuity A new strategy?

VI. THE ATTACK LOOMS
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 Going to California California and Florida Final strategies and tactics Assembling the teams The 'summer of threat' Late leads? Al Mihdhar and Moussaoui

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

VII. THE FOUR FLIGHTS
7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 The hijacking of AA 11 and UA 175 FAAandNORAD Losing AA 77 Improvising a homeland defense The battle for UA 93

VIII. HEROISM AND HORROR
8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 Emergency plans Agencies and firms implement the plans The World Trade Center Fateful choices in emergency response

IX. WARTIME
9.1 9.2 9.3 Crisis management and domestic responses Initial war planning and the invasion of Afghanistan The emerging shape of a war on terror

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

X. PROBLEMS OF FORESIGHT - AND HINDSIGHT
10.1 10.2 10.3 The world of policymakers: appreciations and judgments The blinding effects of hindsight Finding fair verdicts

XI. NATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND NATIONAL STRATEGY
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 A new world and a new kind of conflict Measuring success Coordinating a national strategy The role of the Congress From national strategy to coalition strategy

XII. BRINGING FOREIGN POLICY BACK IN
12.1 12.2 12.3 America and the Muslim world Central Asia and Arabia Reinventing multilateral institutions

XIII. INTELLIGENCE FOR A DIFFERENT WORLD
13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 America's intelligence community: A legacy of the Cold War Bridging the foreign-domestic divide Assessment and warning Reforming the Executive and the Congress: Unity of effort, joint missions COMMISSION SENSITIVE

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

XIV. PROTECTING SECURITY AND PRESERVING LIBERTY
14.1 14.2 14.3 Balancing empowerment and restraint Harnessing and regulating the power of the information age Terrorist finance

XV. NATIONAL DEFENSE
15.1 15.2 15.3 Transforming institutions for attacking terrorists Border security Homeland defense

XVI. LIVING IN A WORLD OF RISK
16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 Assessing vulnerabilities and judging risks Aviation and transportation security Who is protecting us? Public and private partnerships Mitigating and managing the consequences of catastrophic attack Learning to live in a world of risk

COMMISSION SENSITIVE

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