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2, MARCH 2008

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Vehicle Stability Enhancement of Four-Wheel-Drive Hybrid Electric Vehicle Using Rear Motor Control

Donghyun Kim, Sungho Hwang, and Hyunsoo Kim

AbstractA vehicle stability enhancement control algorithm for a four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is proposed using rear motor driving, regenerative braking control, and electrohydraulic brake (EHB) control. A fuzzy-rule-based control algorithm is proposed, which generates the direct yaw moment to compensate for the errors of the sideslip angle and yaw rate. Performance of the vehicle stability control algorithm is evaluated using ADAMS and MATLAB Simulink cosimulations. HEV chassis elements such as the tires, suspension system, and steering system are modeled to describe the vehicles dynamic behavior in more detail using ADAMS, whereas HEV power train elements such as the engine, motor, battery, and transmission are modeled using MATLAB Simulink with the control algorithm. It is found from the simulation results that the driving and regenerative braking at the rear motor is able to provide improved stability. In addition, better performance can be achieved by applying the driving and regenerative braking control, as well as EHB control. Index TermsFour-wheel-drive (4WD), hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), regenerative braking, vehicle stability control.

Tire slip angle (in radians). Vehicle body sideslip angle (in radians). Vehicle yaw rate (in radians per second). Steering angle (in radians). Vehicle heading angle (in radians). Tireroad friction coefcient.

Subscript f r Front. Rear. I. I NTRODUCTION YBRIDIZATION of the four-wheel-drive (4WD) vehicle by adopting separate motors at the front and rear wheels provides many advantages. First, an additional mechanical device, such as a transfer case and propeller shaft that are required to transfer the engine power to the wheels, can be eliminated by adopting separate motors at the front and the rear wheels. Second, an improvement in fuel economy can be achieved by recapturing energy from the regenerative braking. Finally, improved vehicle stability can be obtained with adequate control of the motor drive torque and the regenerative braking torque [1]. Generally, vehicle stability in 4WD vehicles has been pursued by torque split-based and brake-based technologies. Brake-based methods are essentially brake-maneuver strategies that use the active control of the individual wheel brake. By comparison, torque-based technologies realize stability by varying traction torque split through the power train to create an offset yaw moment [2]. Recently, vehicle safety enhancement systems, known as electronic stability program or vehicle dynamic control, that adopt the brake-based methods have become very popular, and applications of these systems have expanded. When a car encounters unexpected road conditions, such as a split- road, the tire slip angles and, consequently, the vehicle slip angle may rapidly increase, which causes the car to reach its physical limit of adhesion between the tires and the road. Since most drivers have less experience operating a car under this situation, they might eventually lose control of the vehicle. The brake-based vehicle safety enhancement system controls the predictability of vehicle behavior by using the active control of the individual wheel brake so that the driver can reestablish control of the vehicle. As brake-based technologies, vehicle safety enhancement systems, such as the offset yaw moment generation using the brake force control of the each wheel

N OTATION i T J Q C CG F I L Llook M N V g h m w x y CVT speed ratio. Torque (in newton meters). Rotational speed (in revolutions per minute). Moment of inertia (in kilogram square meters). Battery capacity (in ampere hour). Tire cornering stiffness (in newtons per radian). Center of gravity. Force (in newtons). Moment of inertia (in kilogram square meters). Wheel base (in meters). Look-ahead distance (in meters). Moment (in newton meters). Static normal load (in newtons). Vehicle velocity (in kilometers per hour). Gravitational acceleration (in meters per second squared). Height of CG (in meters). Vehicle mass (in kilograms). Vehicle tread (in meters). Estimated longitudinal displacement (in meters). Estimated lateral displacement (in meters).

Manuscript received October 29, 2005; revised July 17, 2006, July 5, 2007, and July 6, 2007. The review of this paper was coordinated by Dr. M. Abul Masrur. The authors are with the School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, Korea (e-mail: sugiya@unitel.co.kr; hsh@me. skku.ac.kr; hskim@me.skku.ac.kr). Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TVT.2007.907016

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[3] and the wheel slip control based on the estimated friction coefcient between the tire and the road [4][6], have been investigated. Although brake-based technology has been proven to be effective in providing vehicle safety, it does have the drawback of causing the vehicle speed to slow down too much against the drivers demand. On the other hand, vehicle safety is pursued by controlling the drive torque by using a torque split device, such as viscous coupling [7] and electromagnetic coupling [8], as the torque-based technology. However, the limitation of the torque-based method is that it cannot accurately control the individual wheel torque. Therefore, a vehicle safety enhancement system that fullls both the safety requirement, as well as the drivers demand, is required. In the 4WD HEV that adopts separate front and rear motors, the vehicle stability enhancement algorithm using the motor control has some advantages, such as faster response, braking energy recapturing, etc. [9]. However, since the left and right wheels are controlled by the same driving and regenerative torque from one motor, stability enhancement only by the rear motor control has a limitation in satisfying the required offset yaw moment. Therefore, to obtain the demanded offset yaw moment, a brake force distribution at each wheel is required. In this paper, a vehicle stability control logic using the rear motor and electrohydraulic brake (EHB) is proposed for a 4WD HEV. A fuzzy control algorithm is suggested to compensate for the error of the sideslip angle and the yaw rate by generating the direct yaw moment. Performance of the vehicle stability control algorithm is evaluated using ADAMS and MATLAB Simulink cosimulations. II. V EHICLE M ODELING A. MATLAB Simulink Power Train Model Fig. 1 shows the 4WD HEV power train structure investigated in this study. Dynamic models of the 4WD HEV power train, such as the engine, motor, battery, clutch, continuously variable transmission (CVT), and controller, are obtained using MATLAB Simulink on a modular base. 1) Engine: The state equation of the engine is expressed as Je de = Te Tloss Tnet dt (1)

Fig. 1.

drive the motor is obtained, the voltage and current of the battery are obtained from the battery model. Since the motor torque dynamics is very fast compared with other power train elements dynamics, the motor torque dynamics is modeled by a rst-order system as Tm 1 = Tm_desire 1 + m s (3)

where Tm_desire is the desired motor torque, and m is the motor torque time constant. 3) Battery: In this paper, the input and output currents of the battery and the state of charge (SOC) are calculated using the battery internal resistance model. The internal resistances are obtained from the experiments with respect to the battery SOCs. The battery voltage is represented as Ua = E IRi Ua = E + IRi at discharge at charge (4) (5)

where Ua is the voltage, E is the electromotive force, I is the current, and Ri is the internal resistance. The batterys SOC is directly related to the battery capacity, which is dened as

t

where Je is the engine inertia, e is the engine speed, Tloss is the auxiliary device loss, and Tnet is the CVT input torque. The engine torque dynamics is modeled by the rst-order system as Te Te_desire = 1 1 + e s (2)

Qu (I, t, ) = Q (, I )

0

I (t)dt

(6)

where Te_desire is the desired engine torque, and e is the engine torque time constant. 2) Motor: The front and rear motor torque is determined as the smaller torque by comparing the target motor torque, which is calculated from the controller, and the maximum motor torque available at the present motor speed. Using the motor torque and speed, the motor efciency is determined from the efciency map. Once the required battery power to

where Qu is the temporary usable capacity, which is a function of the current I , temperature , and time t. Q is the batterys capacity. The integral term in (6) is the usable charge that has been drawn from the battery. 4) CVT: The CVT ratio needs to be controlled, depending on the operation mode. In the 4WD HEV, there are two modes that are dened: 1) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) mode and 2) zero emission vehicle (ZEV) mode. In the HEV mode, where the vehicle is driven by the engine and the motors, the desired CVT ratio is controlled to move the engine operation point on the optimal operation line (OOL) for minimum fuel

KIM et al.: VEHICLE STABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING REAR MOTOR CONTROL

729

Fig. 2.

consumption. Therefore, the desired CVT speed ratio id for the minimum fuel consumption is dened as id = R t d Nd V (7)

where Rt is the tire radius, Nd is the nal reduction gear ratio, d is the desired engine speed that can be obtained as a point where the OOL and the throttle valve opening curve cross each other. In the ZEV mode, where the vehicle is propelled only by the motors, the desired CVT ratio needs to be controlled to operate the front motor at the best efciency region. The desired CVT speed ratio id in the ZEV mode is dened as id = Rt mf Nd V (8)

where V is the present vehicle velocity, and wmf is the front motor speed. Since the rear motor is not connected with the CVT, it is controlled to generate the required power. The CVT speed ratio shift dynamics is modeled by the experimental equation as [10] di = (i) |p | Pp Pp dt (9)

where (i) is the coefcient that is a function of the speed ratio i, p is the primary actuator speed, Pp is the primary actuator is the primary actuator pressure at steady state. pressure, and Pp Fig. 2 shows the MATLAB Simulink power train model for a 4WD HEV investigated in this study. B. ADAMS Vehicle Model In high-speed cornering or emergency braking, the tire slip and lateral force that determine the vehicles dynamic behavior are greatly affected by the tire nonlinear characteristic, the steering system, and the suspension system. Therefore, a vehi-

cle model that is able to describe the dynamic characteristics of these systems is required. In addition, in order to represent the independent driving characteristics of the front and rear wheels of the 4WD HEV, a detail vehicle model is required. In this paper, a vehicle model using ADAMS is developed by considering the actual vehicle chassis design parameters. Fig. 3 shows the 4WD HEV model using the ADAMS program [11]. In the ADAMS vehicle model, longitudinal velocity, lateral velocity, yaw rate, roll angle, pitch angle, sideslip angle, and longitudinal and lateral displacements are calculated. The ADAMS vehicle model in Fig. 3 provides the reliable dynamic behavior of the vehicle since the dynamic characteristics of the chassis components such as the tires, the steering system, and the front and rear suspension systems can accurately be described from multibody dynamic analysis by the ADAMS solver. As shown in Fig. 3, every chassis component is modeled

730

Fig. 6.

Driver model.

Fig. 5. Vehicle motion and parameters.

Vehicle motion in longitudinal, lateral, and yaw directions (Fig. 5) can be expressed as follows: = mV + ) = mV ( Iz = Fx = Fxf r + Fxf l + Fxrr + Fxrl Fy = Fyf r + Fyf l + Fyrr + Fyrl Mz = (Fxf r + Fxf l ) Lf (12) (13) (10) (11)

as a rigid body and is connected with joint and bush to simulate the vehicles dynamic motion. In Fig. 4, the cosimulation structure is shown. In the ADAMS/MATLAB cosimulation, the front and rear drive axle torque and the friction brake torque that are calculated from the MATLAB Simulink model are transmitted to the ADAMS model, while the vehicle velocity, sideslip angle, yaw rate, wheel slip angle, etc., are transferred from the ADAMS model to the MATLAB Simulink model. III. V EHICLE S TABILITY C ONTROL When a vehicle travels around a sharp corner or a driver excessively maneuvers the steering wheel, the rear-tire slip angle may exceed its limit value, which results in reduced rear lateral forces. This causes the vehicle sideslip angle and the yaw rate to increase. The grip is lost, and consequently, steerability becomes out of control. Therefore, to ensure vehicle stability, an appropriate vehicle safety enhancement system should be provided to assist the driver in recovering control of the vehicle. In this paper, a control algorithm using the regenerative braking with EHB is proposed.

where F is the tire force, Iz is the moment of inertia, L is the wheel base, M is the direct yaw moment that is generated from the tire force at each wheel, V is the vehicle velocity, is the sideslip angle, is the yaw rate, m is the vehicle mass, w is the vehicle tread, x is the longitudinal direction, y is the lateral direction, z is the vertical direction, f r is the front right wheel, f l is the front left wheel, rr is the rear right wheel, and rl is the rear left wheel. In vehicle stability control, the direct yaw moment M is used as the control input of the system, while the tire force F at each wheel, sideslip angle , and yaw rate are calculated from the ADAMS model.

KIM et al.: VEHICLE STABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING REAR MOTOR CONTROL

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Fig. 7.

Fig. 9. Membership function for the fuzzy controller. TABLE I RULE BASE FOR THE FUZZY CONTROLLER

Fig. 8.

B. Driver Model A driver model is used to trace the desired path for the closed-loop simulation. Fig. 6 shows a schematic diagram of the steering driver model. The steering driver model manipulates the steering angle to compensate the error between the estimated position and the desired position. The estimated position x and y can be calculated from the following equations [12]: x = x + (Vx cos Vy sin ) Llook V (14)

Llook V

= PID(s) e exp( s)

where x is the estimated longitudinal displacement, y is the estimated lateral displacement, xd is the desired longitudinal

732

Fig. 10. Yaw moment generation. (a) Oversteer control. (b) Understeer control. (c) Flow chart of yaw moment control.

displacement, yd is the desired lateral displacement, is the steering angle, is the vehicle heading angle, e is the error of the displacement between the estimated position and the desired position, Llook is the look ahead distance, PID(s) is the PID control gain, and is the human-response-time constant for steering. Equation (17) is proposed to describe the drivers response, which manipulates the steering angle that corresponds to the position error e. In (17), = 0.3 is used by considering the average human response delay time for perception [13]. C. Desired Vehicle Model The error e that is obtained from (16) is transformed into the steering angle by considering the control gain PID and

the steering response delay in (17) and (18). From the steering angle , the desired yaw rate d and the desired sideslip angle d can be obtained as follows [12]: d = d = As = 1 V 1 + As V 2 L 1

m 2L

1+

Lf 2 Lr Cr V As V 2

m Lr Cr Lf Cf 2L2 Cf Cr

where d is the desired yaw rate, d is the desired sideslip angle, As is the steering stability factor, Cf is the front-tire cornering stiffness, and Cr is the rear-tire cornering stiffness.

KIM et al.: VEHICLE STABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF FOUR-WHEEL-DRIVE HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE USING REAR MOTOR CONTROL

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D. Fuzzy Control Algorithm For the vehicle stability control, a fuzzy control algorithm is used by considering the tire nonlinear characteristics in cornering [14][16]. The inputs of the fuzzy controller are the errors of the vehicle sideslip angle and the yaw rate. The error is dened as the difference between the desired value from the desired vehicle model and the actual value from the actual vehicle model. Using these inputs, the fuzzy controller generates the direct yaw moment that is required to compensate the errors. In Figs. 7 and 8, a block diagram and a owchart for the vehicle stability control are shown. For the desired displacements xd and yd , the driver model manipulates the steering angle . The actual sideslip angle and yaw rate are measured and compared with the desired sideslip angle d and yaw rate d , which are calculated from the desired value estimator in (18) and (19). error and error are used as the inputs of the fuzzy controller. The fuzzy controller consists of a triangular membership function (Fig. 9) that gives the direct yaw moment output for the inputs of the yaw rate and sideslip angle errors. The rule base used in the fuzzy controller is shown in Table I. The rule base consists of the ve linguistic variablesnegative big (NB), negative small (NS), zero (ZR), positive small (PS), and positive big (PB)and is arranged by the center-of-gravity method [17]. The fuzzy controller calculates the direct yaw moment M to compensate the errors. The direct yaw moment M is used as the system control input. In generating the required direct yaw moment M , the following control strategy is proposed to maximize the recapturing energy and fast response: M is generated by the rear motor driving and regenerative braking controls, in priority, and if the direct yaw moment by the rear motor control is not sufcient enough, M is compensated by the EHB force at the front and rear wheels. Fig. 10 shows how the yaw moment is generated by the rear motor and EHB module with respect to the yaw rate error. When the yaw rate error e becomes negative, the vehicle shows oversteer characteristics, and vice versa. For the oversteer case [Fig. 10(a)], the rear motor is controlled to carry out the regenerative braking to generate the direct yaw moment. When the regenerative braking is executed at the rear wheel, the longitudinal force applied at the tire decreases, which results in the decreased slip in the longitudinal direction. This causes increased lateral force at the tire, according to the tire model. Since the lateral force on the front tire remains almost constant, the increased lateral force on the rear tire generates the yaw moment in the opposite direction, which operates to reduce the sideslip angle and the yaw rate. If the direct yaw moment by the regenerative braking is not large enough to control and , the EHB module begins to come into action, together with the regenerative braking. In the case of understeer [Fig. 10(b)], the rear motor is controlled to provide tractive force, which generates the direct yaw moment to assist the vehicle cornering motion. When the tractive force is applied at the rear wheel, the lateral force on the rear tire decreases. Since the lateral force on the front tire remains unchanged, the decreased lateral force on the rear

tire generates the yaw moment in the direction that reduces understeer. Fig. 10(c) shows the owchart of yaw moment control for oversteer and understeer. IV. S IMULATION R ESULTS AND D ISCUSSION Four-wheel-drive HEV performance simulations are carried out for a J-turn and a single-lane change. Table II lists the vehicle parameters used in the simulations. A. J-Turn Simulation Fig. 11 shows the simulation results for the J-turn [18]. In the simulation, the steering angle input is applied with 56 , as shown in Fig. 11(a), at 80 km/h constant velocity under the slippery road condition of = 0.2. In Fig. 11, simulation results of (b) the yaw rate, (c) yaw rate error, (d) sideslip angle, and (e) vehicle trajectory are shown. In vehicle dynamic control, the target yaw rate is calculated from the desired model. As shown in Fig. 11, the actual yaw rate without any control (No control) rapidly increases right after the steering input is applied, which causes the vehicle to spin (e) in the counterclockwise direction. In the case of the rear motor control (Motor only), the sideslip angle, yaw rate, and vehicle trajectory follow the targets, showing some errors. The vehicle attitude shows some spin, but it is noted that the amount of spin is reduced a lot when compared to that of No control. From Fig. 11, it is found that vehicle stability can be improved only by the rear motor control. To achieve better performance, the EHB must be applied at the right side of the wheels. Simulation results using the EHB are shown in Fig. 11. In the simulation, the rear motor control is applied with the EHB, and the braking force by the EHB module is applied only for the right-side wheels to generate the required direct yaw moment. As shown in Fig. 11, the sideslip angle and yaw rate for the rear motor control with EHB (Motor + EHB) follow the control targets, showing reduced errors when compared to those of the Motor only. Correspondingly, the vehicle trajectory (e) follows the target trajectory closely, while the vehicle attitude is maintained without spin. When the yaw rate error (c) becomes positive, the motor generates the tractive force needed to reduce understeer.

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When the yaw rate error becomes negative, the motor carries out the regenerative braking to reduce oversteer. As shown in Fig. 11(f), the dynamic behavior of the vehicle for each case can be monitored by using the ADAMS animation tool. B. Single-Lane Change Simulation Fig. 12 shows the simulation results for a single-lane change. In the simulation, a sine-wave steering input (a) is applied at 80 km/h constant velocity under the slippery road condition of = 0.2. Fig. 12 shows (b) the yaw rate, (c) the yaw rate error, (d) the sideslip angle, and (e) the vehicle trajectory. The sideslip angle and yaw rate for No control come out of the target

value. The sideslip angle and yaw rate for Motor only show improved response, but they still have some errors in following the target value. It is noted that the vehicle stability control with Motor + EHB follows the target value most closely. As shown in Fig. 12(c), the yaw rate error shows either a positive or negative value, which means that the vehicle experiences the understeer or oversteer motion. Corresponding to the yaw rate error, the rear motor generates the tractive force or regenerative braking force, respectively. The dynamic behavior of the vehicle for a single-lane change can be monitored by using the ADAMS animation tool, as shown in Fig. 12(f). From Figs. 11 and 12, it is found that the vehicle stability control logic suggested in this paper demonstrates a satisfactory

735

performance. Compared to the EHB-only braking, the vehicle stability enhancement algorithm using the regenerative braking plus EHB is able to provide improved vehicle stability and additional improvement in fuel economy due to regenerative braking. V. C ONCLUSION Vehicle stability control for a 4WD HEV has been investigated using rear motor and EHB controls. A fuzzy-rule-based control algorithm was proposed, which generates the direct yaw moment to compensate for the errors of the sideslip angle and the yaw rate between the outputs of the desired value estimator and the actual vehicle model. Performance of the vehicle stability control algorithm is evaluated using ADAMS and MATLAB Simulink cosimulations. The ADAMS model calculates the actual vehicle behavior such as the yaw rate, sideslip angle, lateral acceleration, and vehicle velocity by considering the tire nonlinearity, suspension characteristics, and steering system. The MATLAB Simulink model calculates the axle torque by the rear motor and the EHB force at each wheel from the power train model and the control logic. It is found from the simulation results that the direct yaw moment generated by the rear motor control is able to provide improved stability compared with the vehicle performance without any control. In addition, better performance can be achieved by applying the rear motor plus the EHB control. It is expected that the vehicle stability control algorithm suggested in this paper is able to offer an additional improvement in fuel economy, owing to the regenerative braking energy, as well as improved vehicle stability. R EFERENCES

[1] D. Kim and H. Kim, Vehicle stability control with regenerative braking and brake force distribution for a four-wheel drive hybrid electric vehicle, Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. D, J. Automob. Eng., vol. 220, no. 6, pp. 683693, 2003. [2] C. Liu, V. Monkaba, C. Tan, C. Mckenzie, H. Lee, and S. Suo, Driveline torque-bias-management modeling for vehicle stability control, in Proc. SAE Conf., 2002, pp. 233234. Paper 2002-01-1584. [3] Y. Hori, Y. Toyoda, and Y. Tsuruoka, Traction control of electric vehicle: Basic experimental results using the test EV UOT Electric March, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 11311138, Sep./Oct. 1998. [4] K. Kin, O. Yano, and H. Urabe, Enhancements in vehicle stability and steerability with slip control, Jpn. Soc. Autom. Eng. Rev., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 7179, Jan. 2003. [5] M. Abe, Y. Kano, K. Suzuki, Y. Shibahata, and Y. Furukawa, Side-slip control to stabilize vehicle lateral motion, Jpn. Soc. Autom. Eng. Rev., vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 413419, Oct. 2001. [6] H. Jihua, J. Ahrned, A. Kojic, and J. Hathout, Control oriented modeling for enhanced yaw stability and vehicle steerability, in Proc. Amer. Control Conf., 2004, vol. 4, pp. 34053410. [7] L. Li, F. Wang, and Q. Zhou, Integrated longitudinal and lateral tire/road friction modeling and monitoring for vehicle motion control, IEEE Trans. Intell. Transp. Syst., vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 119, Mar. 2006. [8] M. Kabganian and R. Kazemi, A new strategy for traction control in turning via engine modeling, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 15401548, Nov. 2001. [9] S. Sakai, H. Sado, and Y. Hori, Motion control in an electric vehicle with four independently driven in-wheel motors, IEEE/ASME Trans. Mechatron., vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 916, Mar. 1996. [10] T. Ide, A. Udagawa, and R. Kataoka, Simulation approach to the effect of the ratio changing speed of a metal V-belt CVT on the vehicle response, Int. J. Veh. Syst. Dyn., vol. 24, no. 4/5, pp. 377388, 1995. [11] A. S. Elliott, A highly efcient, general purpose approach for cosimulation with ADAMS, presented at the MDI North Amer. User Conf., MI, 2000.

[12] T. D. Gillespie, Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. Warrendale, PA: SAE, 1992. [13] M. Green, How long does it take to stop? Methodological analysis of driver perception-brake times, Transp. Hum. Factors, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 195216, 2000. [14] T. Toyoshima, Y. Miyatani, Y. Sato, and S. Arai, Study of simulation technology for limit drivability, Jpn. Soc. Autom. Eng. Rev., vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 141148, Apr. 2002. [15] Y. Lee and S. Zak, Designing a genetic neural fuzzy anti-lock brake system controller, IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 198 211, Apr. 2002. [16] F. Tahami, R. Kazemi, and S. Farhanghi, A novel driver assist stability system for all-wheel-drive electric vehicles, IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 683692, May 2003. [17] E. Cox, The Fuzzy Systems Handbook. New York: Academic, 1994. [18] Road Vehicles: Lateral Transient Response Test Methods, 1988. ISO Std. 7401.

Donghyun Kim received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, in 2001, 2003, and 2007, respectively. He currently works as a Postdoctorate Fellow with the School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University. His main research interests include vehicle stability enhancement control, optimal power distribution and regenerative braking algorithms for four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, and in-wheel electric vehicles.

Sungho Hwang received the B.S. degree in mechanical design and production engineering and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, in 1988, 1990, and 1997, respectively. From 1992 to 2002, he was a Senior Researcher with the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul. He is currently an Associate Professor with Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, where he has also worked with the School of Mechanical Engineering. His research interests are in the areas of automotive mechatronics systems for fuel cell and hybrid electric vehicles and embedded systems for x-by-wire systems. Prof. Hwang is a member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American Society for Engineering Education, the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, the Institute of Control, Robotics, and Systems, and the Korean Fluid Power Systems (KFPS) Society. He has served as one of the directors of KFPS since 2005.

Hyunsoo Kim received the B.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, in 1977, the M.S. degree in mechanical engineering from Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul, in 1979, and the Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from the University of Texas, Austin, in 1986. From 2003 to 2005, he was a Chairman with the School of Mechanical Engineering. From 2005 to 2007, he was the Head of the Center for Innovative Engineering Education, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, where he is currently a Professor and the Dean of the College of Engineering. He is an Associate Editor for the International Journal of Automotive Technology. He is the author of numerous journal articles and patents. His main research interests include hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) transmission system design, regenerative braking and optimal power distribution algorithms for HEVs, vehicle stability control for HEVs, and in-wheel electric vehicles. Prof. Kim is the Chair of the Hybrid and Fuel Cell Vehicle Division, Korean Society of Automotive Engineers. He received the Best Paper Award from the Korean Science and Technology Foundation in 2001 and the Baekam Excellent Paper Award from the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1991.

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