Intro to NMR – quiz 5

The gradient is a 3-D extension of the derivative. The gradient operator acts on a scalar function of 3 space coordinates and returns a vector. In rectangular coordinates it is given by ∇ = ∂/∂x e1 + ∂/∂y e2 + ∂/∂z e3 When dotted with itself, it forms the laplacian ∇2 = ∇•∇ = ∂2/∂x2 + ∂2/∂y2 + ∂2/∂z2

Maxwell’s equations could be a course by themselves, but for the purposes of NMR we only need a few results from these equations to do practical work. It is always useful to be able to quickly make calculations from the “big four” which are ∇ • E = ρ/ε0 ∇•B=0 ∇ x E = -∂B/∂t ∇ x B = μ0 J + μ0 ε0 ∂E/∂t

Where ρ is the change density in some volume, J is the current density, E and B are the electric and magnetic fields, and ε0 and μ0 are constants.

By taking the curl of both sides of each curl equation, using the identity below, and substitution into the other two maxwell’s equations, show that in the absence of sources (J = 0 and ρ = 0), E and B obey the wave equations (∇2 – 1/c2 ∂2/∂t2)E = 0 (∇2 – 1/c2 ∂2/∂t2)B = 0 and solve for c, the speed of light in a vacuum, in terms of μ0 and ε0. You should use the identity ∇ x (∇ x A) = ∇(∇•A) - ∇2A

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