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# Fieldwork No. 1 PACING 1. Objective(s): To determine the unknown distance by individual pacing. 2.

Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Gain individual pace factor 2.2 Test the accuracy of the students in pacing out a given distance. 3. Discussion: Pacing is other method of measuring the distance by simply having pace factor. This method will only requires the student to walk on the prefer distance by their natural walk form one point to another. By doing this king of method, it will give you the distance but not as accurate as others because it will depend on the person doing the fieldwork. 4. Resources: 2 Range Pole 1 Steel tape

5. Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Designate the prefer distance being pace by the students. Place markings as A as the starting point and B as the end point of the distance. Place the range pole on the end point. It will be the aid for the students to travel on straight path. Each student should take turn in pacing the course AB. It should be done in their most natural unaffected manner and simultaneously counting until the entire course is finished. Record this as Trial 1. 5. For the succeeding trials, repeat step 4 in order to comply with the requirement of the professor.

## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

Fieldwork No. 2
MEASURING ON EVEN GROUND

1. Objective(s): To measure the horizontal distance by keeping both ends of the chain at the same elevation. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.3 To take note that all distances are presumed to be horizontal distances. Obtain the relative elevation of a point using the engineers transit and leveling rod. 2.4 To test the students analysis in thinking alternative methods of measuring on even ground when special cases occur. 3. Discussion: This dictates that every field measurement taken be either measured horizontally or, if not, reduced to a horizontal distance mathematically. When the difference in elevation along the measurement becomes too great for level chaining, other methods are called for. One option, break chaining, involves simply breaking the measurement into two or more measurements that can be chained level. This works well for measurements along a gentle slope where a reasonable distance can be measured. 4. Resources: 1 Steel tape

5. Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mark the line at both ends and at intermediate points as necessary. Have a hand level to maintain the horizontal position of the chain. Suspend the plumb bob from the chain in a manner that it is directly above the ground. Measure the distance between the points. When the slope becomes so steep, vertical surface must be measured across the chaining points. Apply trigonometry.

## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

Fieldwork No. 3
STANDARDIZATION OF TAPE

1. Objective(s): To apply corrections in taping operation in field. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.3 Gain proficiency in taping. 2.7 Calculate and apply a range if corrections to taped measurements in order to remove systematic errors from readings. 3. Discussion: In field we are not expecting to always have a good weather condition. This standardization of tape will help in determining the errors present in such work. That standardization is as follows, correction due to sag, incorrect tape length, slope, temperature, pull. In dealing with this kind of fieldwork, calibrated instruments should strictly visible. All data will vary on your instrument. It can give you a precise and accurate data but it can also give you hard time while doing this work. 4. Resources: 1 Steel tape 2 marking pins chalk

5. Procedure: 1. First, make sure that the tape is well calibrated. 2. Hold firmly the tape from one point to the end point. This will serve as your set distance. 3. In getting the distance, do not pull the tape too much it may cause greater damage. Let there be corrections such as sag, pull, temperature etc.

## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

Field No. 4
Area of a Lot Bounded By a Curve, Offsets at Regular Interval

1. Objective(s): To measure the area of a lot whose boundaries have curves 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Come up with a precise measurement of the area of the lot 2.2 Learn to utilize the use of offset distance. 3. Discussion: This field method of determining areas of lots bounded by river, creek or estero and of those bounded by lake, pond, coastline, and the like, are very useful for determining approximate areas in preliminary surveys. It is not, however, acceptable for approval by the Bureau of Lands. This method may be classified as a simple engineering survey, not an isolated land survey as stated in the Philippine Land Surveyors Manual. Computations: Rule. Multiply the distance along the course of each Intermediate offset from the first by the difference between the two adjacent offsets, always subtracting the following from the preceding. Also multiply the distance of the last offset from the first by the sum of the last two offsets. The algebraic sum of these products, divided by two, is the required area (From R.E Davis) 4. Resources: 1 Steel Tape 11 Marking Pins 2 Range Poles or flags 5. Procedure:

In the lot ACDEFB, offsets are erected on the long side AB. The curve is subdivided into more or less straight segments such as AC, CD, DE, EF, and FB. Offsets are constructed from such points on side AB as G, H, I, and J, thus erecting offsets GC, HD, IE, and JF. Distances of these offsets along AB are usually at unequal intervals. 10

## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

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8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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Field No. 5 Measuring on Uneven Ground 1. Objective(s): To come up with the actual inclined distance between two defined points. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Determine the inclined distance between two points where there is a significant change in elevation from one point to another. 2.2 Analyze and solve problems involving inclined distances. 3. Discussion: There are three principal methods for this problem: by breaking the tape; by slope distance and vertical angle; and by slope distance and difference in elevation. 4. Resources: 1 Steel Tape (25 or 50 M.) 11 Marking Pins 2 Range Poles 1 Plumb bob 1 set of Engineers transit

5. Procedure:

Breaking the Tape In taping uphill, the rear tapeman holds the pluimb bob, but in measuring downhill, the front tapeman uses the plumb bob. Suppose that the taping is uphill as shown. The front tapeman goes uphill along the line holding the zero end of the tape and the marking pins. When the tape is fully reeled off, the rear tapeman signals the front tapeman to stop. Then, the front tapeman comes down along the line leaving the tape on the ground. The front tapeman selects a full meter mark, say 13 M. mark, such that both can conveniently hold
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the page segment horizontal. The front tapeman stays to one side of the line, holds a marking pin and is aligned by the rear tapeman. The front tapeman faces the rear tapeman and both stretch the tape horizontally with the rear tapeman steadying the 25 M. mark over the beginning of the line with plumb bob. The front tapeman now places a marking pin on the ground and calls back the meter mark held by him and signals all right. Front tapeman and rear tapeman both go uphill leaving the tape on the slope. The rear tapeman then holds the meter mark formerly held by front tapeman, and the procedure is repeated until the full tape length is used. The tape is again dragged along the line by the front tapeman and the measurement is similarly continued until the whole line is measured. The tape is then reversed, that is, the zero end is dragged forward down hill by the front tapeman. Rear tapeman steadies the tape on the ground, while the front tapeman holds the tape with the plumb bob a few inches from the ground. When plumb bob becomes steady, front tapeman suddenly drops the plumb bob.

Slope distance and vertical Angle. The slope distance is measured with the tape lying wholly on the ground and on the grade line in a manner measuring on even ground is performed. Then, the vertical angle is measured with a GTS. (This part of the procedure is supposed to be done by the instructor as the students at this stage of the course are not yet acquainted with the transit.) A clinometers, an instrument which may be fabricated and simpler to use, may be used by the student in measuring the vertical angle instead of the transit.

Slope Distance The slope distance is measured both uphill and downhill, in the same manner as in measuring on level ground. By differential leveling with an engineers level and Philadelphia metric leveling rod, the instructor determines the difference in elevation. The tape should as much as possible be on the grade. The horizontal distance is computed by the Pythagorean Theorem.
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7. Conclusion:

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## 8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance):

Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:
Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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## 4. Resources: 1 Surveyors Compass 2 Range Poles 11 Marking Pins 1 Steel Tape

5. Procedure: 1. Set and level the compass at sta. 1. 2. Align the sighting vanes approximately with the range pole set at sta. 5, and look through the rear sighting vane (with the slit) and bisect the range pole with the hair line of the front sighting vane. 3. Read and record the back or reversed bearing of 1-5. 4. Turn the compass towards sta. 2 and bisect the range pole at sta. 2. 5. Read and record the forward bearing of 1-2. 6. Measure and record the distance 1-2. 7. Transfer the compass to sta.2 and hence forward to all following stations until repeating the same procedure.

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## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

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8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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Field No. 7 DETERMINATION OF MAGNETIC DECLINATION 1. Objective(s): Determine the magnetic declination with the surveyors compass. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.5 Determine the mean declination for the place of observation for the hour of observation 2.6 Solve problems related to magnetic declination 3. Discussion: Magnetic declination is the angle between the true meridian and the magnetic meridian. It is either to the east or to the west. Thus, if the magnetic north point is 100 east of true north, the declination is 100E, and if the magnetic north point is 100 west of true north the magnetic declination is 100W In the Philippines, however, there is no West Declination but only East declination and it averages about 100E although there is a slight variation in values at different parts of the Philippines. The Bureau of Lands keeps tabulated values of such declination for the entire archipelago. Computation: Four assumptions relative to the occurrence of errors of the theory of probability: Errors of small magnitude are more frequent than errors of large magnitude. Positive and negative errors of equal magnitude are equally likely to occur. The probability of every large errors occurring is small. The mean of an infinite number of observations is the true value. The residual (V) of an observation is the difference between an observed value of a measured quality and value of the mean. Let r = the probable error of an observation ro = the probable error at the mean. V = the residual And n = the number of observations. Then, If the number of observation is continuously increased, the probable error will continually decrease until at infinite number of observations, such probable error reduces to zero. Therefore, a series of repeated independent observations produces a more reliable and accurate results than a single observation.

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## 4. Resources: Surveyors Compass Watch

5. Procedure: 1. The compass is first adjusted before performing this field operation. 2. Set the compass over the south end of a true meridian that has been determined by astronomical observations. 3. Sight along the line, that is, S to N, and clamp the compass circle until the needle reads zero. 4. By means of the compass tangent screw, move the compass circle until the needle read zero. 5. From the declination are or circle read the declination to the nearest minute, if a vernier of one minute accuracy is provided for; if not, approximate the reading to within a tenth of a degree. 6. Take 10 similar observations. If possible, take these observations at about the same time in the same place for several days, each observation being done every minutes 7. Determine the mean declination for the place of observation for the hour of observation. Refer to computations.

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## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

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8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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Field No. 8 DIFFERENCE IN ELEVATION BETWEEN ANY TWO GIVEN POINTS 1. Objective(s): To determine the difference in elevation between two identified points with a single set-up of the engineers level without reference to any datum plane. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Gain proficiency in getting the rod reading of a certain point (backsight and foresight) 2.2 Obtain the relative elevation of a point using the engineers transit and leveling rod. 2.3 Analyze problems in relation to difference in elevation between two points 3. Discussion: It was previously shown that when the instrument is set up such that it is equidistant from any two points where rods reading are taken, three errors due to refraction and curvature of the earth, and the line of sight not perpendicular to the vertical axis. Practical application is in directing the progress of any construction where elevations or differences in elevations are necessary. It may also be used in transferring the elevation of a point to the next point with a single instrument set-up, and with a length of sight of from about 5.00 M. to about 120 M. If a target is used on a leveling rod such as operation may be used in road, highways, and railroads irrigation canals, and dam construction. 4. Resources: 1 set of Global Total Station

5. Procedure: 1. Set the level conveniently so that rod readings may be taken from both points A & B, and is approximately equidistance from the two given points 2. Set a leveling rod at A and take a rod reading; also take a similar rod reading at B 3. The difference in elevation between A and B is equal to the difference between the two read readings, provided that the instrument is in proper adjustment.

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## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

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8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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Field No. 9 DIFFERENTIAL LEVELING / BENCH MARK (SINGLE RODDED) 1. Objective(s): To establish the changes in elevation between points on a traverse. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Obtain an idea on how to generate a contour map 2.2 Compute for the relative elevation of a point 2.3 Identify the differences in elevation between specified points 3. Discussion: Differential leveling is the process of determining the difference in elevation between two or more points some distance apart. It requires a series of set ups of the instrument along a general route and, for each set up, a rod reading back to the point of known elevation and forward to a point of unknown elevation are taken. The basic equipment used in differential leveling include a graduated leveling rod and a leveling instrument such as a dumpy level, automatic level, or an engineers transit. These leveling instruments are used to establish a horizontal line of sight and to measure the vertical distance between the line of sight and the point on which the rod is held. 4. Resources: 1 set of Global Total Station (GTS)

5. Procedure: 1. 2. 3. 4. Set the level between the benchmark and TP1. Take the B.S. at BM502 and record. Measure the B.S. distance by pacing. Revolve the instrument about its vertical axis and take the F.S. distance by pacing. Compute immediately for the elevation of TP1. Elev. BM502 + B.S. at BM 502 = H.I. of the first set up. 5. Then , H.I. F.S. at TP1 = elev. TP1. 6. Transfer the level approximately between TP1 and a properly selected TP2. 7. Take a B.S. at TP1 and a F.S. at TP2, and measure the B.S. and F.S. distances.

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## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

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8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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Field No. 10 DIFFERENTIAL LEVELING (DOUBLE RODDED) 1. Objective(s): To determine the changes in elevation between points on a traverse. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Measure the changes in the elevations between points on a traverse 2.2 Determine the mean elevation of a point with respect to an established/known point. 3. Discussion: This method is used in establishing a bench mark in long level lines, of say several or more kilometers. In this method, both halves of the level loop are carried as the survey progresses. Hence, no repetition of the whole procedure is necessary when an error is detected along the survey. This is, therefore, more advantages for long level lines than single-rodded leveling when it becomes necessary to repeat the survey of the whole line when the error of closure is greater than the allowable error as per Bureau of Coast and Geodetic Survey vertical control specification. It is, therefore, recommended that for any long level line, double rodded leveling should be resorted to for its obvious convenience. It should be clearly noted that although the procedure is Double Rodded, only one leveling rod should be used. However, two rods of guaranteed equal lengths may also be used. It is preferable to use only one rod. Computation:

Elev. + B.S. = H.I. H.I. F.S. = ELEV. Check in the accuracy of computation: Add all B.S. for the low TP. Add all F.S. for the low TP. The difference between the sums of B.S. and F.S. equals the difference in elevation between BM 1 and BM 2 computed from low turning points. Similar check is done for the high turning points as illustrated in the preceding sample computation.
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When selecting the low and high turning points, they should be near each other, say not greater than about 1.00 M. apart. The low and the high T.P. should have a difference in height of not less than 30 centimeters for best results. 4. Resources: 1 set of Global Total Station (GTS)

5. Procedure: 1. Set the level at the convenient place within a practical sighting distance, say about 100 M. from BM1 and take a B.S. 2. Select two turning points near each other, one low and the other high about the same distance from the level as the level is from the bench mark B.M.1. 3. Then take two F.S. first from the low T.P. and from the high T.P. 4. Immediately after entering the field data for this first set-up in the field book, compute for the H.I and the elevation of TP1-L and TP1-H. 5. Transfer the instrument midway between TP1 (low and high) and the following selected TP2 (low and high). 6. Take a B.S. at TP1, first from the low and then from the high turning point. 7. Revolve the level in the direction of TP2, and take a F.S. from the low and then from the high turning point. 8. Compute for the H.I. from both low and high backsights, and compare these two computed values which, for an acceptable accuracy, must differ within a fewmilimeters. 9. For the succeeding set-ups until the second bench mark to be established, procedure is to be followed. 10. At the end of the line, a single F.S. is observed with the leveling rod on BM 2. 11. With two H.I.s for the last set-up and a single F.S. to BM2, two elevations for BM2 are then computed and the most probable value of the elevation of BM2 is the mean of these two computed elevations.

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## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

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8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:

Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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Field No. 11 Reciprocal Leveling 1. Objective(s): To determine the difference in elevation between points by means of reciprocal leveling. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Measure the difference in elevation between points 2.2 Analyze problems related to differences in elevations. 3. Discussion:
Reciprocal leveling is used wherever it is desired to transfer elevations from one side to another side of a very wide gap where ordinary leveling procedures will fail. Such a wide gap may be a deep canyon, wide ravine, or a river. It is, however, a requirement for practical purposes that the two distant points must be intervisible and that the distance must be within the range of practical ordinary sighting. The errors in leveling automatically eliminated by this procedure are namely: (1) effect of reaction, (2) curvature of the earth, and (3) the line of sight of the instrument slightly not perpendicular to the vertical axis. It is, therefore, recommended that whenever similar field conditions are encountered in leveling, reciprocal leveling should be resorted to. In making independent observations, it is necessary that the level bubble should be displaced a few divisions and the target moved a few centimeters for each observation. The bubble is then centered again and the red target is reset. It is therefore more convenient to place any two opposite foot screws along the line so that only this pair may be manipulated for displacing and centering the level bubble for every independent observation. Since the F.S. distances are usually great, it is therefore recommended that this problem be performed early in the morning, late in the afternoon or during cloudy days in order to avoid the effect of the boiling of the air. The field procedure must be executed preferably using a leveling rod with target.

## 4. Resources: 1 set of Global Total Station (GTS)

5. Procedure:
1. Set the about 5.00 M. behind BM 5, the set-up being in the line with BM 5 and BM 6. 2. The foot screws are arranged so that a pair of opposite foot screws is in line with the two bench marks. 3. Level the instrument and then take 5 B.S from BM 5, each observation being made independent by disturbing slightly both the target and bubble position each time a new observation is to be taken. 4. Transfer the leveling rod to BM 6 and take 10 independent F.S. 5. Transfer the level and set it similarly behind BM 6, and repeat the same procedure as when the level was setup behind BM 5. 6. The mean difference in elevation between BM 5 and BM 6 is then computed and the corrected elevation of BM 6 is calculated as shown under the sample computations. Further leveling operation may be continued from BM 6 to wherever more bench marks are necessary. 35

## 6. Data and Results:

7. Conclusion:

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8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance): Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:
Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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Field No. 12 Profile Leveling 1. Objective(s): To determine the difference in elevation between identified points by means of profile leveling. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Obtain the relative elevation of point using the GTS and leveling rod with the aid of profile leveling procedure. 2.2 Analyze problems in relation to difference in elevation between points 3. Discussion: This survey operation is used in many major engineering projects, such as railroad, highway and road location and construction, irrigation systems, water supply systems, bridge site investigation, dam site survey and construction, tunnel surveys, mine workings, port and harbor development, etc. The accuracy of the completed elevations of the B.M. and T.P. could be checked from the allowable error of a third order leveling, and that is, the allowable error of closure = 12 mm where K is the total distance along the line of sight expressed in kilometers. The intermediate foresights (I.F.S.) however, have no checks. It is, therefore, very necessary that great care should be exercised in taking rod readings for I.F.S. to the nearest hundredths of a meter only. Since the level stays longer at a set-up, it is therefore suggested that the setting of the instrument must be firm, movement around the instrument must be minimized, and the instrument must be manipulated carefully. 4. Resources: 1 set of Global Total Station (GTS)

5. Procedure:
1. The GTS Party sets stakes or station hubs at every 20 M. (Full Stations) and at every change in grade (Plus Station if the stationing is not divisible by 20). Station witness stakes about 45 cm. long are driven about20 cm. to one side of the station hub, which is set to mark the station hub almost flush to the ground. The station number is written to read downward on the side of the witness stake facing the beginning of the line with a lumber crayon. 2. The level is set at least 10 M. to one side of the proposed center line so that a maximum number of stations may be sighted for taking I.F.S., say from station 5 + 000 to 5 + 120 in the example. It should be noted that more stations within the instruments practical sighting distances must be used in actual practice in order to minimize the number of set-ups. 3. If a bench mark is near enough for reading a leveling rod, a B.S. is taken. If the available B.M. is quite far, then a B.M. is established near the beginning of the line, from which the first B.S. of the profile leveling is taken. 4. Then, intermediate foresights (I.F.S) are taken from as many center line points (stations) up to within practical limits of sighting. 5. A turning point (T.P.) is then conveniently selected (any firm and permanent point) about at least 10 M. from the proposed center line, and a F.S. is taken. 6. The instrument (engineers level) is transferred forward, and procedures 3 and 4 are repeated. Similar procedures are followed until the end of the line is reached. 7. The last step is to close the level circuit to the starting B.M. at the beginning of the line. 38

7. Conclusion:

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## 8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance):

Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference:
Quirino, Salita, Bagcal, Neric., (2003) Field Manual in Elementary Surveying 2nd Edition, Royal Publishing House Inc.

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Field No. 13 Setting the Global Total Station (GTS) 1. Objective(s): To properly set up the Global Total Station (GTS) efficiently and with caution. 2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.3 Know how to handle the instrument properly so as to keep its accuracy and proper calibration upon use. 2.4 Keep the instrument secured from harm before, during and after use. 2.5 Be acquainted with the knowledge on how to properly set up the transit in the shortest time possible. 3. Discussion: General Handling Precautions Before starting work or operation, be sure to check that the instrument is functioning correctly with normal performance. Do not submerge the instrument into water. The instrument can not be submerged underwater. The instrument is designed based on the International Standard IP66, therefore it is protected from the normal rainfall. Setting the instrument on a tripod. When mounting the instrument on a tripod, use a wooden tripod when possible. The vibrations that may occur when using a metallic tripod can effect the measuring precision. Installing the tribrach. If the tribrach is installed incorrectly , the measuring precision could be effected. Occasionally check the adjusting screws on the tribrach. Make sure the base fixing lever is locked and the base fixing screws are tightened. Guarding the instrument against shocks. When transporting the instrument, provide some protection to minimize risk of shocks. Heavy shocks may cause the measurement to be faulty. Carrying the instrument. Always carry the instrument by its handgrip. Exposing the instrument to extreme heat. Do not leave the instrument in extreme heat for longer than necessary. It could adversely affect its performance. Sudden changes of temperature. Any sudden change of temperature to the instrument or prism may result in a reduction of measuring distance range, i.e when taking the instrument out from a heated vehicle. Let instrument acclimate itself to ambient temperature.
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Battery level check. Confirm battery level remaining before operating. Taking the battery out. It is recommended not to take the battery or external battery out during the power is on. All the data stored is possible gone at that time. So please do your assembling or taking the battery out after the power is off. Do not hold the lower part of display unit. When you take out the instrument from a carrying case, or keep into the case, please hold the hand grip and base of the instrument. Please do not hold the lower part of the display unit. WARNING There is a risk of fire, electric shock or physical harm if you attempt to disassemble or repair the instrument yourself. Cause eye injury or blindness. Do not look at the sun through a telescope. High temperature may cause fire. Do not cover the charger while it is charging. Risk of fire or electric shock. Do not use damaged power cable, plug and socket. Laser beams can be dangerous, and can cause eye injury's if used incorrectly. Never attempt to repair the instrument yourself. (Only for Laser plummet type) Cause eye injury or blindness. Do not stare into beam. (Only for Laser plummet type) Risk of fire or electric shock. Do not use a wet battery or charger. May ignite explosively. Never use an instrument near flammable gas, liquid matter, and do not use in a coal mine. Battery can cause explosion or injury. Do not dispose in fire or heat. Risk of fire or electric shock. Do not use any power voltage except the one given on manufacturers instructions. Battery can cause outbreak of fire. Do not use any other type of charger other than the one specified. Risk of fire. Do not use any other power cable other than the one specified. The short circuit of a battery can cause a fire. Do not short circuit battery when storing it. 4. Resources: 1 set of Global Total Station (GTS)

5. Procedure: Setting Instrument Up For Measurement Mount the instrument to the tripod. Level and center the instrument precisely to insure the best performance. Use tripods with a tripod screw of 5/8 in. diameter and 11 threads per inch, such as the Type E TOPCON wide- frame wooden tripod. 1. Setting up the Tripod First, extend the extension legs to suitable lengths and tighten the screws on their midsections.
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2. Attaching the Instrument on the Tripod Head Place the instrument carefully on the tripod head and slide the instrument by loosening the tripod screw. If the plumb bob is positioned right over the center of the point, slightly tighten the tripod screw. 3. Roughly Leveling the Instrument by Using the Circular Level 1. Turn the leveling screws A and B to move the bubble in the circular level. The bubble is now located on a line perpendicular to a line running through the centers of the two leveling screws being adjusted. 2. Turn the leveling screw C to bring the bubbleto the center of the circular level. 4. Centering by Using the Plate Level 1 Rotate the instrument horizontally by using the Horizontal motion/clamp screw and placthe plate level parallel with the line connectinleveling screws A and B, and then bring the bubble to the center of the plate level by turning leveling screws A and B. 2 Rotate the instrument 90 (100g) around its vertical axis and turn the remaining leveling screw or C to center the bubble once more. 3 Repeat the procedures 1 and 2 for each 90 (100g) rotation of the instrument and check whether the bubble is correctly centered for allfour points. 5. Centering by Using the Optical Plummet Tel escope Adjust the eyepiece of the optical plummet telescope to your eyesight. Slide the instrument by loosening the tripod screw, place the point on the center mark, and then tighten the tripod screw. Sliding the instrument carefully not to rotate that allows you to get the least dislocation of the bubble. 6. Completely Leveling the Instrument Leveling the instrument precisely in a similar way to 4. Rotate the instrument and check to see that the bubble is in the center of the plate level regardless of telescope direction, then tighten thetripod screw hard.

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7. Conclusion:

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## 8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance):

Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference: TOPCON POSITIONING SYSTEMS, INC. Electronic Total Station Manual., TOPCON CORPORATION

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Field No. 13A Determination of Height of a Flagpole Using Global Total Station (GTS) 1. Objective(s):
1. To determine the height of a flagpole using zenith angle and/or vertical on the basis of computation. 2. To determine the height of a flagpole using the vertical angle method. 3. To determine the vertical and horizontal method.

2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs): The students shall be able to: 2.1 Determine the height of a flagpole using the GTS 2.2 Obtain proficiency in setting up the Global Total Station (GTS) 3. Discussion: General Handling Precautions Before starting work or operation, be sure to check that the instrument is functioning correctly with normal performance. Do not submerge the instrument into water. The instrument can not be submerged underwater. The instrument is designed based on the International Standard IP66, therefore it is protected from the normal rainfall. Setting the instrument on a tripod. When mounting the instrument on a tripod, use a wooden tripod when possible. The vibrations that may occur when using a metallic tripod can effect the measuring precision. Installing the tribrach. If the tribrach is installed incorrectly , the measuring precision could be effected. Occasionally check the adjusting screws on the tribrach. Make sure the base fixing lever is locked and the base fixing screws are tightened. Guarding the instrument against shocks. When transporting the instrument, provide some protection to minimize risk of shocks. Heavy shocks may cause the measurement to be faulty. Carrying the instrument. Always carry the instrument by its handgrip. Exposing the instrument to extreme heat. Do not leave the instrument in extreme heat for longer than necessary. It could adversely affect its performance. Sudden changes of temperature. Any sudden change of temperature to the instrument or prism may result in a reduction of measuring distance range, i.e when taking the instrument out from a heated vehicle. Let instrument acclimate itself to ambient temperature.
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Battery level check. Confirm battery level remaining before operating. Taking the battery out. It is recommended not to take the battery or external battery out during the power is on. All the data stored is possible gone at that time. So please do your assembling or taking the battery out after the power is off. Do not hold the lower part of display unit. When you take out the instrument from a carrying case, or keep into the case, please hold the hand grip and base of the instrument. Please do not hold the lower part of the display unit. 4. Resources:
1 Transit Hubs 1 Leveling rod 1 Steel tape 1 Range Pole

5. Procedure: ANGLE MEASUREMENT I. Measuring Horizontal Angle Right and Vertical Angle Make sure the mode is in Angle measurement. Operating procedure 1 Collimate the 1st target (A) 2 Set horizontal angle of target A at 0 00' 00". Press the [F1](0 set) key and press the [F3](YES) key. 3 Collimate the 2nd target (B). The required V/H angle to target B will be displayed. Reference : How to Collimate Operation Collimate A [F1] [F3] Collimate B Display V : 9010'20" HR: 12030'40" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 H ANGLE 0 SET > OK? --- --- [YES][NO] V : 9836'20" HR: 16040'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P2

1 Point the telescope toward the light. Turn the diopter ring and adjust the diopter so that the cross hairs are clearly observed. (Turn the diopter ring toward you first and then backward to focus.) 2 Aim the target at the peak of the triangle mark of the sighting collimator. Allow a certain space between the sighting collimator and yourself for collimating. 3 Focus the target with the focusing knob.
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*If parallax is created between the cross hairs and the target when viewing vertically or horizontally while looking into the telescope, focusing is incorrect or diopter adjustment is poor. This adversely affects precision in measurement or survey Eliminate the parallax by carefully focusing and using diopter adjustment. II. Switching Horizontal Angle Right/Left Make sure the mode is Angle measurement. Operating procedure 1 Press the [F4] key twice to get the function on page 3. Operation [F4] twice Display V : 9010'20" HR: 12030'40" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 TILT REP V% P2 H-BZ R/L CMPS P3 H ANGLE 0 SET > OK? --- --- [YES][NO] V : 9010'20" HL: 23929'20" H-BZ R/L CMPS P3

2 Press the [F2](R/L) key. [F2] The mode Horizontal angle Right (HR) switches to Left (HL) mode. 3 Measure as HL mode. Every time pressing the [F2](R/L) key, HR/HL mode switches. III. Measuring from the Required Horizontal Angle A. Setting by Holding the Angle Make sure the mode is angle measurement. Operating procedure 1 Set the required horizontal angle, using Horizontal tangent screw. 2 Press the [F2](HOLD) key. 3 Collimate the target. 4 Press the [F3](YES) key to finish holding the horizontal angle.*1) The display turns back to normal angle measurement mode. Operation Display angle [F2] Collimate [F3]

Display V : 9010'20" HR: 13040'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 H ANGLE HOLD HR= 13040'20"> SET ? --- --- [YES][NO] V : 9010'20" HR: 13040'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1

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B. Setting a Horizontal Angle from the Keys Make sure the mode is Angle measurement. Operating procedure 1 Collimate the target. 2 Press the [F3](HSET) key. Operation Collimate Display V : 9010'20" HR: 17030'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 H ANGLE SET HR: INPUT --- --- ENTER 1234 5678 90.-[ENT] V : 9010'20" HR: 7040'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1

[F3]

3 Input the required horizontal [F1] angle by using keys. *1) For 70.4020 example :7040'20" When [F4] completed, normal measuring from the required Horizontal angle is possible. *1) To enter Alphanumeric characters, see Section 2.6 How to Enter Alphanumeric characters .

IV. Vertical Angle Percent Grade(%) Mode Make sure the mode is Angle measurement. Operating procedure 1 Press the [F4]( ) key to get the function on page 2. 2 Press the [F3](V%) key. *1) Operation [F4] Display V : 9010'20" HR: 17030'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 TILT REP V% P2 V : -0.30 % HR: 17030'20" TILT REP V% P1

[F3]

*1) Every time pressing the [F3](V%) key, the display mode switches. When the measurement is carried out over 45 (100%) from the horizontal, the display shows <OVER>.

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V. Repetition Angle Measurement Repetition angle measurement can be done by horizontal angle right measurement mode. Make sure the mode is Horizontal Angle Right measurement. Operation procedure Operation 1 Press the [F4]() key to get the [F4] function on page 2. 2 Press the [F2](REP)key. 3 Press the [F3](YES) key. [F2] [F3] Display V : 9010'20" HR: 17030'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 TILT REP V% P2 REPETITION ANGLE > OK? --- --- [YES][NO] REP-ANGLE COUNT[ 0] Ht: 000'00" Hm: 0SET V/H REL HOLD REPETITION ANGLE INITIALIZE > OK? --- --- [YES][NO] REP-ANGLE COUNT[ 0] Ht: 000'00" Hm: 0SET V/H REL HOLD REP-ANGLE COUNT[ 1] Ht: 4510'00" Hm: 4510'00" 0SET V/H REL HOLD REP-ANGLE COUNT[ 1] Ht: 4510'00" Hm: 4510'00" 0SET V/H REL HOLD REP-ANGLE COUNT[ 2] Ht: 9020'00" Hm: 4510'00" 0SET V/H REL HOLD REP-ANGLE COUNT[ 4] Ht: 18040'00" Hm: 4510'00" 0SET V/H REL HOLD [Example] 4 measurement REPETITION ANGLE Exit > OK? --- --- [YES][NO]
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4 Collimate the target A and press the [F1] (0SET) key. 5 Press the [F3] (YES) key.

## Collimate A [F1] [F3]

6 Collimate the target B using the horizontal clamp and tangent screw. Press the [F4](HOLD) key. 7 Recollimate target A using the horizontal clamp and tangent screw, and press the F3](REL)key. 8 Recollimate target B using the horizontal clamp and tangent screw, and press the [F4](HOLD) key. 9 Repeat 7 to 8 to measure the desired number of repetitions.

## Collimate B [F4] Collimate A [F3] Collimate B [F4]

10 To return to the normal angle mode, press the [F2](V/H) key or [ESC] key.

[ESC] or [F2]

V : 9010'20" HR: 17030'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 Horizontal angle can be accumulated up to (360000'00" minimum reading) (horizontal angle right). In case of 5 second reading, horizontal angle can be accumulated up to +359959'55". Error will be displayed when the results differ from first measurement by more than 30". VI. Buzzer Sounding for Horizontal Angle 90 Increments When the horizontal angle falls in the range of less than 1 of 0, 90, 180 or 270, the buzzer sounds. Buzzer stops only when the horizontal angle is adjusted to 00000, 900000 , 1800000 or 2700000. This setting is not memorized after powering off. Refer to 16 SELECTING MODE to set the initial setting (memorized after powering off). Make sure the mode is Angle measurement. Operating procedure 1 Press the [F4]( ) key twice to get the function on page 3. 2 Press the [F1](H-BZ) key. The data previously set is hown. 3 Press the [F1](ON) key or F2](OFF) key to select the buzzer ON/OFF. 4 Press the [F4](ENTER) key. Operation [F4] twice [F1] [F1] or [F2] [F4] Display V : 9010'20" HR: 17030'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 H-BZ R/L CMPS P3 H-ANGLE BUZZER [OFF] [ON] [OFF] --- ENTER H-ANGLE BUZZER [ON] [ON] [OFF] --- ENTER V : 9010'20" HR: 17030'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1

## 11 Press the [F3](YES) key.

[F3]

VII. Compasses ( vertical angle) Vertical angle is displayed as shown below. Operating procedure 1 Press the [F4]() key twice to get the function on page 3. Display V : 9810'20" HR: 17030'20" 0SET HOLD HSET P1 H-BZ R/L CMPS P3 V : - 810'20" 2 Press the [F3](CMPS) key. *1) [F3] HR: 17030'20" H-BZ R/L CMPS P3 *1) Every time pressing the [F3](CMPS) key, the display mode switches.
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7. Conclusion:

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## 8. Assessment (Rubric for fieldwork Performance):

Performance indicator Identify the procedures involved in designing the fieldwork Develop a protocol to conduct a fieldwork Beginner 1 Fails to design a fieldwork following procedures Acceptable Proficient 2 3 Designs a fieldwork Designs a fieldwork satisfying the minimum exceeding the requirements of the requirements of the procedures procedures Score

Develops a protocol to Develops a protocol to Fails to develop a conduct a fieldwork conduct a fieldwork protocol to conduct a satisfying the minimum exceeding the fieldwork requirements minimum requirements Total Score Mean score=(Total Score/2) Percentage Score= (Total Score/6) x 100%

Reference: TOPCON POSITIONING SYSTEMS, INC. Electronic Total Station Manual., TOPCON CORPORATION

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