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© IPA, 2006 - 1st Annual Convention Proceedings, 1972
PROCEEDINGS INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION First Annual Convention, June 1972
CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON A NEW BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC TOOL IN THE OIL INDUSTRY (WITH EMPHASIS ON INDONESIA)
Abstract Calcareous nannoplankton. a group of ments contain 10,000,OOQ .OOQ.specimens per cc. microfossils that evolved rapidly during the late Fine sandy inner shelf sedimenrs will commonMesozoic and the Cenozoic eras, is a new and very reliable biostratigraphical tool. Its usefulness has been ly have thousands or tens of thousands specitested successfully during the drilling of the JOIDES* mens per cc Deep Sea Drillim Project and by some of the oil In addition, these ultra-microfossils* offer companies operating in the Gulf Coast Area, USA. same other advantages compared t o the plankStandard Calcareous Nannonplankton Zonations for the Paleogene and for the Neogene are tonic foraminifera : now available. These zonations have been proposed by 1 . short vertical range Martini & Worsley (1970), Martini (1970) and 2 . wide geographical distribution respectively. The study of calcareous nannoplankton 3. ease of preparation in Indonesia as a new biostratigraphic tool has only 4. ease of identification been started recently, however, some very encouraging results have been obtained in Central SuniaThese last two advantages are of prime tra. If similar results can be obtained from other parts interest t o the oil industry since one of the of the country, the prospect of this study in Indonesia will certainly be very bright. The role of the oil most important responsibilities confronting the industry in developing this field of study is very oil company paleontologist is the rapid identiimportant, since the oil companies have direct access fication of fossils encountered in routine to the basic data. examination of well samples. It is believed that establishing a standard zonation for Indonesia is not impossible. Once this is established, it will be beneficial to both the oil industry ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS and the academic institutions, and more imuortant it will be a major contribution to the study on the The author thanks P.T. Caltex Pacific Indostratigraphy of Indonesia.
* Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth
nesia for permitting this presentation and his colleagues in the Exploration Division in Rumbai for the constructive review of the manuscript.
INTRODUCTION CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON Until the late fifties little was known about calcareous nannoplankton. However, sonie paleontologists have envisioned that “when better understood, these coinparatively unknown organisms may show promise of becoming important in biostratigrauhic studies” (Hoffmeister, 1958, p.207) Since then a number of publications have stressed the usefulness of fossil calcareous nannoplankton as biostratigraphical indicators and several useful zonations have been established. At present the calcareous nannoplank t o n zonations are as good as the standard planktonic foraminifera1 zonations. The calcareous nannoplankton occur abundantly in marine pelagic and shelf environments. According to Hay and Mohler (1967) oceanic oozes may contain 10,000,000,000,000 specimens per cc., and shallower marine sediCalcarous nannoplankton consist predominantly of coccolithcphorids. Other fossil forms of unknown affinities such as discoasters, nannoconids, etc. are also included. All these organisms belong to the algal phylum (or division) Ctirysophyta, because of its golden brown plastid s, The cell is usually biflagellate, but in any cases it includes a haptomena (coiled organelle resembling flagella used for temporary attachment). Reference 1s made to Text Figure No, 1. Usually it consists of two large plastids, with pigments chlorophyl a anu c, color from fucoxanthin (a xanthophyll) and is uninucleate.
1) P.T. Caltex Pacific Indonesia, Rumbai less than 30 microns
44 INTERNA f ( A f t e r : PIENAAR .1969) .
Because of complications of more than one type of coccoliths on a single cell. Fossil remains are represented most often by isolated coccoliths. The application of nannofossils t o solve biostratigraphical problems has been emphasized by Bramlette and Riedel (1954). defined as the body of strata comprising the total horizontal and ver tical range of occurrence of a specified taxon.geologic periods until the present time.”. it is necessary t o define exactly the nature of the zone proposed. or palmella. and Discolithus rugosas Noel (with numerous pores). namely Schizosphaera punctulata Deflandre and Parhabdolithus liasicus Deflandre. 3. o r packet of cells. These include : 1. BIOSTRATIGRAPHY As stated by Hay & Mohler ( 1967) calcareous nannofossils have several peculiarities which make them uniquely suitable for use as biostratigraphic indicators. 2. 2. Characterized by S. They consist of two species. with one stage non-motile. they are extremely abundant in many samples.This zone is designated as “partial range zont:. Reference is made t o Text Figure No. Characterized by the firs$ appearance of Discolithus crassus Deflandre and Coccolithus opacus Stradner (first COCCOlith with a double rim). either a pelagic cyst of a benthic filament. 3. making age determinations and establishing regional dS well as intercontinental correlations. Thus far studied nannofossils have not been found in the Triassic or Paleozoic sediments. - . In order t o be most useful for the zonation. many groups have evolved very rapidly since the Lower Jurassic. This change represenf primarily a remarkable extinction of a large number of distinctive Cretaceous genera and species. Subsequent studies by several authors have demonstrated that nannofossils can be used successfully for delimiting biostratigraphic zones. Germany. liasicus. e. A fourth type of zone. one for the isolated coccoliths and another for those in which the entire cell is known. The oldest nannofossils that have ever been found were recovered from Lower Liassic (Jurassic) strata of Wurttemberg. The Concurrent Range Zone. although the oldest ones are found abundantly in the Lower Jurassic. Supporting evidence on this h a s been found in Europe. or at different stages in the life cycle. defined by theoverlapping ranges of specified taxa. Bigoti association. including guide fossil Stephandithion bigoti Deflandre which Itas delicate hollow starshaped elements that easily break into parts resembling certain letters of the alphabet. defined as the body of strata characterized by a certain assemblage of fossils without regard t o their ranges. Some workers have a very complex classification. Opacus association. etc. 1963). 2 . 1964). Coccolithus bri tannicus Stradner (with a typical transversal bridge). MESOZOIC NANNOFOSSILS The oldest nannofossils were revealed and reported from the Lower Lias (Jurassic) bf Germany (Stradner. Within the Jurassic strata Stradner has further recognized four nannofossils associations. 197 1>. Those studied thus far have a complex life cycle. Decorus association. Characterized by the development of some new forms. It has been playing an important role in formation of calcareous oceanic oozes since the Jurassic. The Assemblage Zone. Evidence of a great change in calcareous nannoplankton communities has been recorded between Maestrichtian and Danian (Bramlette. discoids or modified calcite platelets of characteristic form and microstructure. including Rhabdolithus aff dekorus Deflandre ( a dou ble rimmed coccolith with trumpet-like apical stem and central crossbars). Calcareous nannoplankton is an important part of the food chain in oceans. especially in warm waters. 3. which is a combination between range and assemblage zones k recognized b y Hay (in press. As has been pointed out by Shaw (1 9641.g. Dominated by double rimmed coccoliths. From then o n this group of organism has been flourishing through al1. classification isin a state of flux. & Martini. less frequently by entire coccospheres. Liasicus association. 4. 2 . essent ially there are three kinds of biostratigraphic zones: 1 . North America and North Africa.punctulata and P. E‘s and U’s. In this respect most authors follow the definition provided by t h e American Commission o n Stratigraphic Nomenclature (1961). The Kange Zone.45 The cell may be covered with coccoliths. a large number of species haiie worldwide dist nbu t ion . : 1.
demark zone limits .2 4 Note: Vertical lines -indicate the range of a species Horizontal lines .46 BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC ZONES m RANGE t I i CONCURRENT RANGE I* TEXT FIGURE No.
embergeri Noel and the lowest occurrence of the Nsteinmanni Kamptner. Roth (1970). Characterized by 3. Bukry(1971) reported three major evolutionary changes of the discoasters. The twelve zones established by Hay and Cepek (1969) in N. At the end of Maestrichtian the highly developed nannoplankton group suddenly disappeared and eventually was replaced b y a quite different group in the Danian. e. the abundance of highly developed nannoconids. The ”NP” denotes ’ Paleogene N ~ ~ n ~ : i i p l a n k tZoon nation”. through fewer but relatively broad-rayed in the Mid-Tertiary (Oligocene-Miocene) to finally very narrow-rayed species which occurred just before extinction in Late Pliocene time. Hay & CFpek (1969) have recognized twelve zones. Dauvillieri association. Characterized by 1.Eo cene).stainmanni Kamptner. In terms of calcareous nannoplankton t h e Mesozoic-Cenozoic boundary is very distinctive worldwide. ranging from massive and compact multi-rayed species in the early Tertiary (Paleocene. Within the Cretaceous System in Europe seven calcareous nannofossil associations were recognized by Stradner (1963). The zones thfough NN --2 1. consisting of 75 zones and numbered NP. the great abundance of Coccolithus pelagicus-Schiller and N. Bramlette and Riedel (1954). by t h e exceptionally large Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis Vekshina. This zonation is cssentially a refinement of Stradner’s last four associations. noconid species having ”globate cones’: such as N. 1 . Zugrhablithus intercisus Def landre and the related species Micula staurophora Veks hina . Turriseiffeli association.41 Due to poor preservation of nannoplankton remains during the Middle and Upper Malm (Middle Jurassic). Globulus association. It is noteworthy that the number of genera and species of calcareous nannoplankton increased abruptly in the Upper Cretaceouq. USA. N. dauvillieri Deflandre. Cothicus association. !964. Dominated by nan2. Of majar significance is the evolutionary trend of the discoasters which evolved very rapidly during the Cenozoic era. Hay. Cym bif or mis associa tion. a t least in part.bucheri. Staurophorus association. In recent years samples from continuous sections including material from type lucali:ies of some Tertiary stages and deep sea mres have b e m m e avdikabie. Mohler Roth? Schmidt and Boudreaux (1967). . Dominated by 5. CENOZOICN A N N O P L A N K T O N ZONATION The stratigraphic value of Cenozoic calcareous nannofossils are as good as that in Mesozoic. The rekdtively easy accessibility of basic data has made many workers t o be more actively engaged in the study of calcareous nannoplankton. the first c’lccurrence of Tetralithus gothicus Defiandre.and the ”Steinmanni” associations. Brainlette and Bukry(1969). However.Bukry (1971).1 1hrough NP. no association have as yet been revealed. Martini and Worsley (1 9 7 0 ) proposed a Standard Nrogene Calcareous Nannoplankton Zonation consisting of 21 zones. from the Cenomanian’s ” Turriseiffeli association” t o the Maestrichtian’s ”Cymbiformis association ”. etc. In North America.25.g. References are ma& t t . 1970). The usehlness of calcareous nannofossils for solving biostratigraphic problems of the Tertiary strata have been tested succesfully during the drilling of the JOlDES Deep Sea Drilling Project and also by many oil companies operating in the Gulf Coast Area. primarily in an attempt t o try t o establish zonations. Ch:ir:s Nos. Characterized by 6. 2 and 3. Martini (1955. the so-called Nannoconus steinmanni -or simply Steinmanni association. Among the major contributions t o the Cenoz oic Ca 1careo us N a nno p la n k t o n Zonation are those of Bramlettc and Sullivan (1961 ). Bramlette and Wilcoxon (19671. This zone is probably. in are numbered “-1 which the “ N N ” denotes ”Neugene Nannoplankton Zonation” Later Martini ( 1970) also proposed a Standrlrd Paleogene Calcareous Nannoplankton Zocation. first occurrence of Rhabdolithus turriseiffeli Deflandre. In ascending order t h e seven associations of Stradner are as follows: Steinmanni association. Marked by the 4. the topmost zone of the Jurassic is characterized b y “nannoconid~”. MarSini 3116 Worsley (1970). correlative with Worsley’s Parhabdolithus embergeri Zone of the Caribbean Sea. In Europe there is a missing link between the ”Bigot?’ . This zone is defined as t h e interval between the lowest occurrence of P. ranging from the Cenomanian t o the Maestrichtian. Reference is made t o Chart No. America were first recognized in the Gulf Coast Area. Characterized I.
A.1 DISTRIBUTION OF SOME IMPORTANT SPECIES OF CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON IN THE U P P E R CRETACEOUS (GULF COAST A R E A .48 ZONATION \ CHART No.S.) (Modified after: CEPEK 8 HAY 1969) w (3 a I v) . U.
49 AGE - W w z I 0 0 12 W 0 z w 0 0 W w 2 w 0 Q tl1 .2 ~ CALCAREOUS ~ NANNOPLANKTON E ~ ZONATION ~ I “-$Per : MAQTlNl 1970 1 ~ ~ .J c a*_. c STANUUHL ~ CHART No.
HUXLEY1 6-d 5 LAST P LACUNOSA T LAST D. DRUGGI N-j-NN N 3 ' .CARINATUS 2 DISCOASTER DRUGGI ZONE I T j LAST H TRUNCATA FIRST D.KUGLERI 1 LAST S.HAMATUS FIRST D HAMATUS 0 c3 X [L O - ZONE NN 7 DISCOASTER KUGLERI ZONE NN 6 DISCOASTER E X l L l S ZONE N 9 NN 5 SPHENOLITHUS HETEROMORPHUS N N N ~ C A T ~ N A S COALITUS T E R -- 9 DISCOASTER HAMATUS ZONE ~ ---_j FIRST C COALITUS -FIRST D.PENTARADlATUS LAST DSURCULUS 3 w 2 w Q a 3 -N - w 0 w -J N L! NN I I DISCOASTER QUINQUERAMUS ZONE NN 1 0 D -__ l S C O A s T . 0 J LAST T. . _ I _ DQUINQUERAMUS T - FIRST D QUINQUERAMUS LAST D. 8 NN 4 HELICOPONTOSPHAERA AMPLIAPERTA ZONE LAST S.50 J AGE w">W Z I 5j% 3= w ' FORAM' CALCAREOUS NANNOPLANKTON ZONES ZONES N 23 NN 211EMILIANIA HUXLEYI ZONE NN 2d GEPHYROCAPSA OCEANICA ZONE N 22 PSEUDOEMILIA LACUNOSA N 2 1 NN 1 8 DISCOASTER BROUWERI ZONE NNI~-DISCOASTER -____PENTARADIAT-.AMPLIAPERTA -- = . H.HETEROMORPHUS ZONE L A . Q E D ~N AD TU ~M cATORS FIRST E.BROUWER1 LAST D.BELEMNOS NN 3 SPHENOLITHUS BELEMNOS ZONE NN .
4 APPROXIMATE CORRELATION OF COCCOLITH ZONES RECOGNIZED IN SEDIMENTS RECOVERED ON LEG 7 I N THE TROPICAL PACIFIC (GUAM-HAWAII ) ( A f t e r : BUKRY .1971) .51 I I AG E (EUROPEAN STAGES^ COCCOLITH ZONE I s uB zo NE I I R E C E N T I - EMILlANlA HUXLEYI _---_-_-------- ASTIAN. I /B~RTONIAN &I LUTETIAN IMI~E~ --- I-------I SPHE NO L ITHUS D IST E N T U S SPHENOLITHUS PREDISTENTUS ------- DtSCOASTER BARBADIENSIS RETICULOFENESTRA UMBlL I C A CHART No. 9IACENZIAN - --- 0 (3 * z IMlDD4 R U P E L I A N UPPER PRIABONIAN.
The Paleogene Neogene boundary is by definition between the Chattian ( U p per Oligocene) and the Aquitanian (Lowermost Miocene). . a very useful biostratigraphical tool for accurate age determination is available. A question may arise. In the attached Chart No. This corresponds to the Globigeri. most of the Mid-and Late Tertiary zones are based on the discoasters. this group of nannofossils has evolved rapidly during the Cenozoic (Bukry. At present. ease of generic and specific identifiof calcareous nannofossils as new biostratigracation.g. most of the major oil companies . biostratigraphic zonation. In this regard the N-4 of Banner and Blow (1965) is correlative with NN. Recent studies have indicated that some species show preference for nearshore environments (e. ease of preparation for microscopic examination. reputation due to its high reliability. At any rate. that is. aroused the interest of the oil industry. have all the ”ingredients” of being excellent NANNOPLANKTONOLOGY A N D T H E OIL biostratigraphic indicators. calcareous nannoplankton. first and/or last occurrence of a certain species. Scyphos phaera and some of the Sphenolithus and Helicopontosphaera species. and sophisticated as that of spore these fossils extensively in addition and comand pollen. It would be extremely expensive for the oil industry if the Transmission and/or Scanning Electron Microscope (s) had to be used for this purpose. As has been mentioned earlier. . most of them have wide geographic the nannoplankton zonation of the Tertiary is distributions. like 1. Since all the nannoplankton species chosen as zonal marker can be ”easily” recognized by a normal petrographic microscope with adequate magnification. and academic institutions have provided themselves with up-to-date laboratory equipment and personnel to conduct the nannoplankton study. The zonal boundaries in these standard zonations are defined by nannoplankton datum planes.g. this In less than two decades the calcareous group of fossils offers the following adSnannoplankton has been widely used as stravantages: tigraphical indicators and gained worldwide a. an example of Calcareous Nannoplankton Zonation used by the JOIDES Leg 7. noplankton is not as expensive complicaArea. Isthmolithus recurvus which is rare or completely absent in the tropical region). research consultants. nology has entered the oil industry in the last fewyears. as well as intercontinental correlations. the planktonic foraminifera. live or fossil. 4. the discpaster group is the one that has been used extensively for the zonation.52 Another extensive use of the nannofossils has been contemplated by the JOIDES Deep Sea Drilling Project. Zygrhablithus bijugatus). 1971). about 1000 X. In this regard nannofossils have been used for age determinations. or simply called nannoplanktod. usually large and easily recognizable.from Hawaii t o Guam (which is closest to Indonesia) is fhown. biostratigraphically? The answer is short and simple: because they deserve it. the shidy of calcareous nanthe oil companies operating in the Gulf Coast 2. It is advantageous that these standard nannoplankton zonations are based only on species that can be identified by transmitted light (polarized) with a normal petrographic microscope. or show influence of both (temperature and facies). In addition INDUSTRY to their biostratigraphic importance. noides datum in terms of the Standard Planktonic Foraminifera1 Zonation. Althongh it is not as simple plementary to the foraminifera. At preseht b. The study of calcareous nannoplankton. As a mattel of fact. it can be said that the proposed zonation will certainly cover most.1 of Martini (1 970). Why? Firstly. The success of calcareous nannofossils as ”new” biostratigraphical tool in the JOIDES Project and the Gulf Coast Area. why in such a rhtively short time have the nannofossils gained such an international reputation.g. if not all. many species have very short ranges. the marine environments in the Tertiary strata. S i n c e then(ca. such as Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopes. are controlled by water temperature (e. D u e t o its simple forms. Many of them have even purchased more sophisticated instruments. as good as the Standard Planktonic Foraminifec.. usually they are extremely abundant rai Zonation. ?he first recognition of the usefulness e. phic tool by the oil industry has come from Secondly. e. in many samples.1965) they have been using ted.
until 1954 when Bramlette and Riedel published their classical paper entitled “Stritigraphic value of Discoasters and some other microfossils related t o Recent Cocc. In recent years nannoplanktonology ha5 emerged conspicuously all over the world as new and very reliable biostratigraphic indicators. but results are unpublished. foraminifera. All these types of lithology are favorable for the occurrence of calcareous nannoplankton. in Indonesia. Calcareous nannoplanktcn studies have indicated that some nannofossils were found in those virtually barren samples rhis gave 3. By t h e late fifties the first priority on foraminiferal study was put on planktonic .1 thru P . Only very few papers dealing with this subject have been published. This is very useful for zonations and intercontinental correlations.23. he was t o o early for his time. Prior t o World War 11. Only then the world woke up and the study of what is now called calcareous nannoplankton has been rejuvenated. Unfortunately. The problem was that the economically important Lower Miocene strata were proven t o be poor in foraminiferal content and occasionally devoid of any other fossils. the chance of finding nannofossils is good. The distribution of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata is limited t o a number of locations scattered throughout t h e country. poor o r are completely barren of foraminifera o r other fossils. provided that the strata are of marine origin. Because they are found in open sea environments. Several years ago in Central Sumatra the calcareous nannoplankton study was “resumed”. the Indonesian Archipelago is for the greater part built u p of sedimentary rocks of t h e Cenozoic age. on account of their ultra-micro sizes. maintenance and operating costs are similar t o those required for the study of forami nifera. it is necessary at least t o have high quality optical equipment (polarized petrographic microscope preferably with camera attachment) to study these fossils. In recent years the emphasis of foraminiferal study in t h e field of economic paleontology has changed from “Larger” t o “small” (4 . In fact he is considered as the first worker who ever really made a taxonomic study of the discoasters. West Indies. Based on the above discussion i t is believed that the usefulness of calcareous nannofossils as biostraphic indicators has been well proven. shale. and probably the most important reason is that occasionally the economically important strata contain few. Tan in 1927 -. using numerical classification. the most commonly used stratigraphic method of correlation and age determination was Van der Vlerk‘s “Letter Classification” based on larger foraminifera. These two factors are most interesting economic paleontology.193 1 published several papers on the “discoasters”. For Indonesia this study is also considered as “ n e w ” if the pioneering studies by Tan Sin Hok in the late twenties were overlooked.olithophorids”. in 1968 Banner and Blow established a Standard Planktonic Foraminifera1 Zonation. Most of the Cenozoic sediments are of marine origin and are predominantly. Thirdly. The Paleogene zones were numbered P . Many workers have made elaborate studics from many parts of t h e world that are In essence supporting the zonation prgposed by Bolli. In such cases the best alternative appears t o be using nannoplankton. Experience has indicated that even in samples virtually barren of fora minifera. Therefore. Several oil companies have been actively engaged in this study and are using local zonation for their respective operations. clayshale and fine grained sandstone. their practical application in the oil industry will be undoubtedly very promising and encouraging. In 1957 Bolli published his famous and classical planktonic foraminiferal zonation of the Mid-Tertiary strata of Trinidad. However.53 and inexpensive as the formanifera either. The capital investment is reasonably inexpensive for the oil industry.1 thru N . The practical application of the planktonic foraminiferal zonation for the Cenozoic is academically not very well known. Eventually. planktonic foraminifera have very wide lateral distribution.50/150 microns) foraminifera. and the Neogene numbered N .22 in which the “P” denotes the Paleogene Planktonic Foraminiferal Zone. considering that it had been started by Tan Sin Hok in 1927. in which “ N ” indicates the Neogene Planktonic Foraminifera1 Zone.l 5 0 / 5 0 0 microns) and “micro” (@ . Nobody ever paid enough attention to what he did. NANNOPLANKTON I N INDONESIA Stratigraphically.
28. Gulf Coast Ass. & MARTINI.. 7. No.. 3. 385 . & Riedel. vol. vol. A nonexclusive report by Dennis I.W.. BUKRY. Geol. Coccolith Stratigraphy Leg 7 Deep Sea Drilling Project.. E.. & WILCOXON.399 BRAMLETTE.54 spark of optimism to further use the calcareous nannoplankton as a new biostratigraphical tool. 1967. 129 . 2. 1967. BRAMLETTE. both in the industrial as well as in academic circles. 1971. pp 91 .. 5 .. Washington D. Micropal. so that eventually a “standard” calcareous nannoplankton zonation for the Tertiary of Indonesia can be established. & Pal. 3. No. Micropal.188. 5 . Calcareous Nannoplankton and biostratigraphic subdivision of the Upper Cretaceous. 291-322. P. vot. M.W.N. & HAY. 4. 3. The Petroleum Geology and evaluations of the Sedimentary Basins of Indonesia. pp. Tulane Studies in Geol.336.N.W... Calcareous Nannofossils from the JOIDES Blake Plateau cores. which will be of substantial importance for the oil industry in addition and complementary to the planktonic foraminifera. Stratigraphic value of Discoasters and some other Microfossils related to Recent Coccolithophores. 7. Trans. 1966. Micropal. and revision of Paleogene Nannofossil Zonation. Singapore 10. W.W. . 1970. Eclogae Geologicae Helvetiae. 17. vol. S . ROTIi.P. & WADE. The calcareous nannoplankton zonation may be in the future become one of the most important stratigraphic classification methods for Indonesia. ~ . J. System of high resolution probabilistic biostratigraphy with Calcareous NannofossiIs. MOHLER. Discoaster evolutionarytrends.. Some new and stratigraphically useful calcareous nannofossils of the Cenozoic. D. Middle Tertiary Calcareous Nannoplankton of the Cipero Section.. If studied thoroughly the prospective results are very bright and most encouraging for both the industrial and academic world. 197 1. HAMILTON. CONCLUSIONS 1.A.. J. F. pp. D. vol..8 No. 1969. Trinidad. pp. MOHLER. 4..C.R. 59. vol 10.665. No. “he great change in Calcareous Nannoplankt on fossils between the Maestrichtian and Danian.. HAY.. Tulane Studies in Geol. vol. West Indies. No. BUKRY.I. pp. 3. 1964. 1971). Establishing a standard calcareous nannoplankton zonation for the Cenezoic in Indonesia is quite possible. Reference is made to the attached Idealized Stratigraphic Column. 197 1. pp. vol. M. R. provided that enough studies by both the industrial and academic institutions can be done..R. 43 - 52. SOC. vol. D. AAPG Bull. The results obtained thus far in Central Sumatra should be an incentive t o conduct nannoplankton studies elsewhere in Indonesia. Pal.403. Coccolithophorids and related Nan noplanktonof the Early Tertiary of California. Journ. BUKRY. V O 45. M. & SULLIVAN.W.N. Calcareous nannoplankton is a very useful new stratigraphical tool. 19. & Pal. D. 3. 648 .E. pp. W. Central Sumatra (Modified after Hamilton and Holliss. W. 323 . 1969.142. N.- HAY. in terms that it is used in addition and complementary to the foraminifera.N. No. pp. pp. H. HAY. (in press..1. 196 1. Holliss & Associates.p..H. (from Hawai to Guam). 3. Calcareous Nannofossils from Nal’chik (NW Caucasus). 131 .49. 101 . P. On establishing a REFERENCES AMERICAN COMMISSION ON STRATIGRAPHIC NOMENCLATURE.P.W. GARTNER. Hopefully. & HOLLISS. Initial Report. 1954.. 1 . M. Calcareous Nannoplankton Zonation of the Cenozoic of the Gulf Coast and . the study of calcareous nannoplankton will be canied out by many others.R. H. SCHMEDT. No. 197I). 1 pp. M.. & BRAMLETTE. 1961 Code on Stratigraphic Nomenclature.N. 379 . Text Figure No. Tulane Studies in Geol. BRAMLETTE. M.111.121. CEPEK.E. If this can be realized it will certainly be a substantial contribution to the stratigraphic studies in Indonesia. No. - BRAMLETTE. & BOUDREAUX. W. 2. p.
8. I 0 Oil showloil Scale .Common .Diogrammotic TEXT FIGURE N o . Blue to gro clay.. 3 .( DESCRIPTK Red 8.I D E A L I Z E D STRATIGRAPHIC COLUMN CENTRAL SUMATRA Modified after : N.. I.ranges. nonno.clay sbat Some thin ss R .ronges conIurrent B comdementarv Jonno.Rare C A .RANC REMARKS ? e l a t h e obundance: .solely time narker.W.. H a m i l t o n & D. RANG JANNO..varicolo FORAM. H o l l i s s (1971) AGE ILITH.Abundant @ Gas show R R I C I Middle Miocene -I-=I I -- -- orom.
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