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# Conduction 1) An electric wire having a diameter of 1.5 mm and covered with a plastic insulation (thickness=2.

5mm) exposed to air at 300 K and h0= 20W/m2K. The insulation has a k of 0.4 W/m.K. It is assumed that the wire surface temperature is constant at 400K and is not affected by the covering. a. Calculate the value of the critical radius b. Calculate the heat loss perm of wire length with no insulation c. Repeat b for insulation being present 2) A thick-walled tube of stainless steel(A) having a k=21.63 W/m.K with dimensions of 0.0254m ID and 0.0508m OD is covered with a 0.0254-m-thick layer of an insulation(B), k=0.2423 W/m.K. The inside-wall temp of the pipe is 811 K and the outside surface of the insulation is at 310.8K for a 0.305 m length of pipe, calculate the heat loss and also the temperature at the interface between the metal and the insulation. 3) A plane wall is composed of an 20 cm layer of refractory brick (k=1.3 W/mK) and a 5 cm later of insulating material with k for the insulatig material varying linearly as k = 0.034 +0.00018 t where t is the temperature in degree C. The inside surface temperatue of the brick is 1100 degree C and the outside surface temperature of the insulating material is 38oC. Calculate the temperatue at the boundary of the brick and insulation. 4) A large sheet of glass 50 cm thick is initially at 150 oC throughout. Is is plunged into a stream of running water having a temperature of 15oC. How long will it take to cool the glass to an average temperature of 38oC? For glass: k=0.70 W/mK; p=2480 kg/m3, Cp= 0.84 kJ/kg.K 5) A long steel rod 0.305 m in diameter is initially at a temperature of 588K. it is immersed in an oil bath maintained at 311K. the surface convective coefficient is 125 W/m 2K. Calculate the temperature at the center of the rod after 1h. The average physical properties of the steel are k=38 W/m.K and alpha=0.0381 m2.h. 6) What length of time is required to heat a 2.5 cm diameter, 5 cm long copper cylinder (k=380 W/mK) from 16 deg C to 93 deg C iin a furnace whose temperature is 315 deg C? the value of h at the cylinder surface is 204 Kj/h.m2K and its thermal diffusivity is 0.186 m2/s. 7) A slab of meat 25.4 mm thick originally at a uniform temperature of 10deg C is to be cooked from both sides until the center reaches 121 deg C in an oven at 177 deg C. The convection coefficient can be assumed constant at 25.6 W/m2K. Neglect any latent heat changes and calculate the time required. The thermal conductivity is 0.69 W/m2K and the thermal diffusivity 5.85 x 10-4 m2/h. Use the Heisler Chart.

8) In orange growing areas, the freezing of the oranges on the trees during cold nights is economically important. If the oranges are initially at a temperature of 21.1 deg C, calculate the center temperature of the orange if exposed to air at -3.9 deg C for 6 hours. The oranges are 102 mm in diameter and the convective coefficient is estimated as 11.4 W/m2K. The thermal conductivity k is 0.431 W/mK and a=4.68x 10-4 m2/h. neglect any latent heat effects. 9) A large piece of aluminum that can be considered a semi-infinite solid initially has a uniform temperature of 505.4K. The surface is suddenly exposed to an environment at 338.8K with a surface convection coefficient of 455W/m2K. Calculate the time in hours for the temperature to reach 388.8K at a depth of 25.4 mm. The average physical properties are a=0.340 m2/h and k-208W/mK. 10) A cylincrical steel shaft 10 cm. in diameter and 2.4 m long is heat treated to give it desired physical properties. It is heated to a uniform temperature of 600 deg C and then plunged into an oil bath which maintains the surface temperature at 150 deg C. Calculate the radial temperature profile at 2 min and at 3 min after immersion. 11) A current of 250 A is passing through a stainless steel wire having a diameter of 5.08 mm. The wire is 2.44 m long and has resistance of 0.0843 ohm. The outer surface is held constant at 427.6 K. The thermal conductivity is k 22.5 W/m K. Calculate the center-line temperature at steady state.

Convection 1) A bare stainless-steel tube having an outside diameter of 76.2 mm and an E of 0.55 is placed horizontally in air at 294.2K. The pipe surface temperature is 366.4K. Calculate the value of hC + hr for convection plus radiation and the heat loss for 3m of pipe. 2) A vertical cylinder 76,2 mm in diameter and 121,9 mm high is maintained at 397,1 0K. At its surface. It losses heat by natural convection to air at 294,3 K. Heat is losses from the cylindrical side and the flat circular and at the top. Calculate the heat loss neglecting radiation losses. Use the simplified equation of table 4.7-2 and those equation for the lowest range of NGr NPr, the equivalent L to use for the top flat surface it 0,9 times the diameter. 3) Repeat Problem 4.3-3 for heat loss in the double window. However include a convective coefficient of h=11.35 w/m2K on one outside surface of one side of the window and an h of 11.35 on the other outside surface. Also calculate the overall U. 4) Convection, Conduction, and Overall U. A gas at 450 K is flowing inside a 2-in. steel pipe, schedule 40. The pipe is insulated with 51 mm of lagging having a mean k = 0.0623 W/m K. The convective heat-transfer coefficient of the gas inside the pipe is 30.7 W/m2 K and the convective coefficient on the outside of the lagging is 10.8. The air is at a temperature of 300 K. a. a. Calculate the heat loss per unit length of 1 m of pipe using resistances. b. Repeat, using the overall Uo based on the outside area Ao. 5) A rectangular furnace with inside dimensions of 1.0 x1.0 x 2.0 m has a wall thickness of 0.20m. The k of the walls is 0.95 W/m.K. The inside of the furnace is held at 800K and the outside at 350K. Calculate the total heat loss from the furnace. 6) A large piece of aluminum that can be considered a semi-infinite solid initially has a uniform temperature of 505.4K. The surface is suddenly exposed to an environment at 338.8K with a surface convection coefficient of 455W/m2K. Calculate the time in hours for the temperature to reach 388.8K at a depth of 25.4 mm. The average physical properties are a=0.340 m2/h and k-208W/mK. 7) A large slab of beef is 45.7 mm thick and is at an initial uniform temperature of 37.78 oC. It is being chilled at the front surface in a chilled air blast at -1.11 deg C with an convective heat-transfer coefficient of h=38.0 W/m2K. The rear face of the meat is insulated. The thermal conductivity of the beef is k=0.498 W/m 2K and a=4.64x10-4 m2/h, using a numerical method with five slices and M=4.0, calculate the temperature profile after 0.27 h. Since there is a convective resistance, the value of N must be calculated. Also equation (5.4-7) should be used.

8) Water at an average of 70oF is flowing in a 2-in. steel pipe schedule 40. Steam at 220oF is condensing on the outside of the pipe. The convective coefficient for the water inside the pipe is h=500 btu/hft2. oF and the condensing steam coefficient on the outside is h=1500. a. Calculate the heat loss per unit length of 1 ft pipe using resistances b. Repeat , using the overall Ui based on the inside area Ai c. Repeat using Uo 9) A hydrocarbon oil having the same physical properties as the oil in Example 4.5-5 enters at 1750F inside a pipe having an inside diameter of 0.0303 ft and a length of 15 ft. The inside pipe surface temperature is constant at 3250F. The oil is to be heated to 2500F in the pipe. How many lbm/h oil can be heated? 10) Cold water at -28.90C and 1 atm is recirculate at a velocity of 0.61 m/s over the exposed top flat surface of a piece of frozen meat. The sides and bottom of this rectangular slab of meat are insulated and the top surface is 254 mm by 254 mm square. If the surface of the meat is at -6.o C, predict the average heat transfer coefficient to the surface. As an approximation assume that either Eq. (4.6-2) can be used. 11) Air at a pressure of 101.3 kPa and a temperature of 188.8 k is flowing over a thin, smooth flat plate at 3.05 m/s. The plate length in the direction of flow is 0,305 m and is at 333.2 K. Calculated the heat transfer coefficient assuming laminar flow.

Radiation 1) A space satellite in the shape of a sphere is travelling in outer space, where its surface temperature is held at 283.2K. The sphere sees only outer space, which can be considered as a black body with a temperature of 0K. The polished surface of the sphere of the sphere has an emissivity of 0.1. Calculate the heat loss per m2 by radiation. 2) A piece of paper is left on top of a projector in an air-conditioned room whose wall and air temperatures are at 17C. The paper is 11 by 8.5 square inches and the heat from the projector is maintaining the papers temperature at 40C. Find the heat transferred by radiation. Assume emissivity does not vary with temperature. 3) A horizontal oxidized steel pipe carrying steam and having an OD of 0.1683 m has a surface temperature of 374.9K and is exposed to air at 297.1K in a large enclosure. Calculate the heat loss for 0.305 m of pipe from natural convective plus radiation. For steel pipe, use and E of 0.79. 4) Calculate the net heat transfer by radiation to a loaf of bread in an oven at a uniform temperature of 177C, if the emissivity of the surface of the loaf is 0.85, using eqn. (5.11). Compare this result with that obtained by using eqn. (5.13). The total surface area and temperature of the loaf are respectively 0.0645 m2 and 100C 5) Two parallel black plates 0.5 by 1.0 m are spaced 0.5 m apart. One plate is maintained at 1000oC and the other at 500oC. What is the net radiant heat exchange between the two plates? 6) A horizontal heated plate of dimensions 1.0m by 1.0m is heated to 50.0oC. The air over the plate is at a temperature of 25oC. What is the total heat flux from the plate to the air? The emissivity of the plate is 0.89. 7) A small oxidized horizontal metal tube with an OD of 0.0254m (1 in.), 0.61m (2ft) long, and with a surface temperature at 588K (600oF) is in a very large furnace enclosure with fire-brick walls and the surrounding air at 1088K (1500 oF). The emissivity of the metal tube is 0.60 at 1088K and 0.46 at 588K. Calculate the heat transfer to the tube by radiation using Si and English units. 8) Two parallel gray planes which are very large have emissivities of E1=0.8 and E2=0.7; surface 1 is at 1100oF (866.5K) and surface 2 at 600oF(588.8K). Use English and SI units for the following: a. What is the net radiation from 1 to 2? b. If the surfaces are both black, what is the net radiation?

9) A bare stainless-steel tube having an outside diameter of 76.2 mm and an E of 0.55 is placed horizontally in air at 294.2K. The pipe surface temperature is 366.4K. Calculate the value of hC + hr for convection plus radiation and the heat loss for 3m of pipe. 10) Two very large and parallel planes each have an emissivity of 0.7. Surface 1 is at 866.5K and surface2 is at 588.8K. Use SI and English Units. a. What is the net radiation loss of surface 1? b. To reduce this loss, two additional radiation shields also having an emissivity of 0.7 are placed between the original surfaces. What is the new radiation loss? 11) A small, cold package having an area A1 and emissivity E1 is at temperature T1. It is placed in a warm room with the walls at T2 and an emissivity E2. Using Equation (4.1145), derive the view factor for this and the equation for the radiation heat transfer.