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ISSN 2224-5804 (Paper) ISSN 2225-0522 (Online)

Vol.3, No.6, 2013-Selected from International Conference on Recent Trends in Applied Sciences with Engineering Applications

148

On Fixed Point Theorem in Fuzzy Metric Spaces

Pankaj Tiwari

1

, Rajesh Shrivastava

1

, Rajendra Kumar Dubey

2

1

Govt. Science & Comm. College Benjeer, Bhopal M.P., India

2

Govt. Science P.G. College, Rewa M.P., India

Abstract: - The Purpose of this paper, we prove common fixed point theorem using new continuity condition in

fuzzy metric spaces.

Keywords: - Compatible maps, R-weakly commuting maps, reciprocal continuity.

Mathematics subject classification: - 47H10, 54H25.

1 INTRODUCTION

The concept of fuzzy sets first introduced by Prof. Lofty Zadeh [20] in 1965 at University of California and

developed a basic frame work to treat mathematically the fuzzy phenomena or systems which due to in trinsic

indefiniteness, cannot themselves be characterized precisely. Fuzzy metric spaces have been introduced by

Kramosil and Michalek [7] and George and Veersamani [3] modified the notion of fuzzy metric with help of

continuous t-norms. Recently many have proved fixed point theorems involving fuzzy sets [1, 2, 4-6, 8-10, 14,

16-19]. Vasuki [19] investigated same fixed point theorems in fuzzy metric spaces for R-weakly commuting

mappings and part [12] introduced the notion of reciprocal continuity of mappings in metric spaces.

Balasubramaniam et al. and S. Muralishankar, R.P. Pant [1] proved the open problem of Rhoades [15] on the

existence of a contractive definition which generals a fixed point but does not force the mapping to be

continuous at the fixed point possesses an affirmative answer.

The purpose of this paper is to prove fixed point theorem in fuzzy metric spaces for using new continuity

condition in fuzzy metric spaces.

2 PRELIMINARIES

Before starting the main result we need some basic definitions and basic results

Definition 2.1: A fuzzy set A in x is a function with domain X and values in [0, 1]

Definition 2.2: A binary operation *: [0.1] → [0.1] is called a continuous t-norm of ([0.1], *) is an abelian

topological monoid with the unit 1 such that a * b ≤ C * d whenever a ≤ c and b ≤ d for all a, b, c, d

∈

[0, 1].

Example: Two typical examples of continuous t-norm are

(a) o ∗ b = ob, onJ

(b) o ∗ b = min(o, b)

Definition 2.3: A 3-tuple (x, M, *) is called a fuzzy metric space if x is an arbitrary (non-empty) set, * is a

continuous t-norm and M is a fuzzy set on

x

2

×[0,∞) satisfying the following conditions for each x, y, z

∈

x and t, s > 0

(¡1) H(x, y, u) > u;

(¡2) H(x, y, t) = 1, ∀ t > u, i¡ onJ only i¡ x = y;

(¡S) H(x, y, t) = H(y, x, t);

(¡4) H(x, y, t) ∗ H(y, z, s) ≤ H(x, z, t + s);

(¡S) H(x, y, . ): (u, ∞) → |u,1] is lc¡t continuous

(¡6)

( ) x y x t y x M

t

∈ ∀ =

∞ →

, 1 , , lim

Then M is called a fuzzy metric on X. A function M(x, y, t) denote the degree of nearness between x and y with

respect to t.

Example: (Induced Fuzzy metric) [3] every metric space indices a fuzzy metric space. Let (x, d) be a metric

space

Define a * b = ab

And

( )

( ) y x md kt

kt

t y x M

n

n

,

, ,

+

=

K, m, n, t

∈

R

+

. Then (x, M, *) is a fuzzy metric space if we put k = m – n = 1.

We get

( )

( ) y x d t

t

t y x M

,

, ,

+

=

The fuzzy metric induced by a metric d is referred to as a standard fuzzy metric.

Proposition 2.4 [21] in a fuzzy metric space (X, m, *), if a * a ≥ for all

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149

a

∈

[0, 1]. Then a * b = min {a, b} for all a, b

∈

[0, 1].

Definition 2.5 ([2]): Two self mappings F and S of a fuzzy metric space (x, M, *) are called compatible if

∞ → t

lim

M (FSx

n

, SFx

n

, t) = 1 when ever {x

n

] is a sequence in x such that

x Sx Fx

n

t

n

t

= =

∞ → ∞ →

lim lim

for some x in X.

Definition 2.6 ([19]): Two self mappings A and S of a fuzzy metric space (x, M, *) are called weakly

commuting if M (Fsx, SFx, t) ≥ M (Fx, Sx, t) ∀x in x and t > 0.

Definition 2.7 ([19]): Two self mappings A and S of a fuzzy metric space (x, M, *) are called point wise R-

weakly commuting if there exist R > 0 such that

M (Fsx, SFx, t) ≥ M (Fx, sx, t/R) for all x in X and t > 0.

Remark 1: Clearly, point R-weakly commutativity implies weak commutativity only when R ≤ 1.

Definition 2.8 ([1]): Two self maps F and S of a fuzzy metric space (x, M, *) are called reciprocally continuous

on x if

Fx Fsx

n

t

=

∞ →

lim

and

Sx Fx

n

t

=

∞ →

lim

when ever { x

n

] is a sequences in x such that

x Sx Fx

n

t

n

t

= =

∞ → ∞ →

lim lim

for some x in X.

Lemma 2.9 ([16]): Let (X, M, *) be a fuzzy metric space. If there exists k

∈

(0, 1) such that M(x, y, kt) > M(x, y,

t) Then x = y.

Lemma-2.10 ([2]): Let {y

n

} be a sequence in a fuzzy metric space (X, M, *) with the condition (6). If there

exists, k

∈

(0, 1) such that

M (Y

n

, y

n+1

, kt) ≥ M (y

n-1

, y

n

, t)

For all t > 0 and n

∈

N, Then {y

n

} is a Cauchy sequence in X.

The following theorems are basic theorems for our result

Theorem 2.11[1]: Let (A, S) and (B, T) be point wise R-weakly commuting pairs of self mappings of complete

fuzzy metric space (X, M, *) such that

1. AX

⊂

TX, BX

⊂

SX

2. M (Ax, By, t) ≥ M(x, y, ht), 0 < h < 1, x, y

∈

x and t > 0.

Suppose that (A, S) and (B, T) is compatible pair of reciprocally continuous mappings X. Then A, B, S and T

have a unique common fixed point.

Theorem 2.12[14]: Let (A, S) and (B, T) be point wise R-weakly commuting pairs of self mappings of complete

fuzzy metric space (X, M, *) such that

1. AX

⊂

TX, BX

⊂

SX

2. M (Ax, By, t) ≥ M(x, y, ht), 0 < h < 1, x, y,

∈

x and t > 0.

Let (A, S) and (B, T) is compatible mappings. If any of the mappings in compatible pairs (A, S) and (B, T) is

continuous then A, B, S and T have a unique common fixed point.

Remark 2: In [14], Pant and Jha proved that the theorem 2.12 is an analogue of the theorem 2.11 by obtaining

connection between continuity and reciprocal continuity in fuzzy metric space.

Lemma 2.13 [21]: Let (X, M,*) be a complete fuzzy metric space with a*a ≥ a for all aε[0,1] and the

condition(fm6). Let (A, S) and (B, T) be point wise R-weakly commuting pairs of self mappings of X such that

(a) AX

⊂

TX, BX

⊂

SX

There exists k ε (0, 1) such M (Ax, By, kt) ≥ N (x, y, t) for all x, y ε X, a ε (0,2) and t >0

Then the continuity of one of the mappings in compatible pair (A, S) or (B, T) on (X, M,*) implies their

reciprocal continuity.

3 MAIN RESULTS

Theorem 3.1: Let (x, M,*) be a complete fuzzy metric space a*a ≥ a, for all a ϵ [0, 1] and the condition

definition (3). Let (L, ST) and f (M, AB) be point wise R-weakly commuting pairs of self mappings of

x such that

3.1(a). L(x) ⊆ ST(x), M(x) ⊆ AB(x)

3.2(b). There exists k∈(0,1) such that

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt My ABx F t STy ABx qF t Lx ABx pF

kt My STy F kt ABx,Lx F kt My Lx F

2 , , , ,

, , * ,

2

+ ≥

For all x, y∈X and t > 0 where 0 <q, q < 1 such that p + q = 1.

Then A, B, S, T, L and M have a unique common fixed point in X.

Proof. Suppose x

0

∈ X. From condition (3.1.1) ∃ x

1

, x

2

∈ X such that

Lx

0

= STx

1

and Mx

1

= ABx

2

.

Inductively, we can construct sequences {x

n

} and {y

n

} in X such that

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y

2n

= Lx

2n

= STx

2n+1

and y

2n+1

= Mx

2n+1

= ABx

2n+2

for n = 0, 1, 2, ……

Step 1. Taking x = x

2n

and y = x

2n+1

in (3.1.5), we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mx ABx F t STx ABx qF t Lx ABx pF

kt Mx STx F kt Mx STx F kt Lx ABx F kt ,Mx Lx F

n n n n n n

n n n n n n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , , , *

1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2

2

+ +

+ + + + +

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt y y F t y y qF t y y pF

kt y y F kt y y F kt y y F kt y y F

n n n n n n

n n n n n n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , . , * ,

1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2

1 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2

2

+ − −

+ − − +

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) kt y y F t y y F q p kt y y F kt y y F kt y y F

n n n n n n n n n n

2 , . , . , * , ,

1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 + − − + − +

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) kt y n Fy t y n Fy kt y y F kt y y F

n n n n n n

2 , 1 2 . , 1 2 2 , ,

1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 + + − +

− − ≥

Hence, we have

( )( ) ( )( ) t y y F kt y y F

n n n n 2 1 2 1 2 2

, ,

− +

≥

Similarly, we also have

( )( ) ( )( ) t y y F kt y y F

n n n n 1 2 2 2 2 1 2

, ,

+ + +

≥

In general, for all n even or odd, we have

( )( ) ( )( ) t y y F kt y y F

n n n n

, ,

1 1 − +

≥

for all x, y ∈X and t > 0. Thus by lemma 2.1 {y

n

} is a Cauchy sequence in X. Since (X, F, ) is complete, it

converges to a point z in X. Also its subsequences converge as follows :

{Lx

2n

} → z, {ABx

2n

} → z, {Mx

2n+1

} → z and {STx

2n+1

} → z.

Step 1. Suppose AB is continuous.

As AB is continuous and (L, AB) is semi-compatible, we get

LABx

2n+2

→ LZ and LABx

2n+2

→ ABz.

Since the limit in Memnger space is unique, we get

Lz = ABz.

Step 2. By taking x = ABx

2n

and y = x

2n+1

in (3.1.5), we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mx ABABx F t STx ABABx qF t LABx ABABx pF

kt Mx STx F kt LABx ABABx F kt Mx LABx F

n n n n n n

n n n n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , * ,

1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2

2

+ +

+ + +

+ ≥

Taking limit n → ∞

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( )

( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt ABz z F t ABz z qF p

kt ABz z F t ABz z qF t ABz ABz pF kt z z F kt ABz ABz F kt ABz z F

, ,

2 , , , , . , * ,

2

+ ≥

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) kt ABz z qF p kt ABZ z qF p kt ABz z F , , , + ≥ + ≥

( )( ) 1

1

, =

−

≥

q

p

kt ABz z F

For k∈(0,1) and all t > 0. Thus we have

Z = ABz.

Step 3. By taking x = z and y = x

2n+1

in (3.1.5), we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mx ABz F t STx ABz qF t Lz ABz pF

kt Mx STx F kt Lz ABz F kt Mx Lz F

n n

n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , * ,

1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

2

+ +

+ + +

+ ≥

Taking limit n → ∞

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt z z F t z z qF t Lz z pF kt z z F kt Lz z F kt Lz z F 2 , . , , , . , * ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) q t Lz z pF kt Lz z F kt Lz z F + ≥ , , * ,

2

Noting that ( )( ) 1 ,

2

< kt Lz z F and using (c) in definition 2.2, we have

( )( ) ( )( ) q t Lz z pF kt Lz z F + ≥ , ,

( )( ) q t Lz z pF + ≥ ,

( )( ) 1

1

, =

−

≥

p

q

kt Lz z F

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For k ∈(0,10 and all t > 0. Thus, we have z = Lz = ABz.

Step 4. By taking z = Bz and y = x

2n+1

in (3.1.5), we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mx ABBz F t STx ABBz qF t LBz ABBz pF

kt Mx STx F kt LBz ABBz F kt Mx LBz F

n n

n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , * ,

1 2 1 2

1 2 1 2 1 2

2

+ +

+ + +

+ ≥

Since AB = BA and BL = LB, we have

L(Bz) = B(Lz) = Bz and

AB(Bz) = B(ABz) = Bz.

Taking limit n → ∞, we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Bz z F t Bz z qF t Bz Bz pF kt z z F kt Bz Bz F kt Bz z F 2 , . , , , . , * ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Bz z F t Bz z qF p kt Bz z F 2 , , ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Bz z F t Bz z qF p , , + ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) t Bz z qF p kt Bz z F , , + ≥

( )( ) kt Bz z qF p , + ≥

( )( ) 1

1

, =

−

≥

q

p

kt Bz z F

For k∈(0,1) and all t > 0.

Thus, we have z = Bz.

Since z = ABz, we also have

Z = Az.

Therefore, z = Az = Bz = Lz.

Step 5. Since L(X) ⊆ST(X) there exists v ∈X such that z = Lz = STv.

By taking x = x

2n

and y = v in (3.1.5), we get

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mv ABx F t STv ABx qF t Lx ABx pF

kt Mv STv F kt Lx ABx F kt Mv Lx F

n n n n

n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , * ,

2 2 2 2

2 2 2

2

+ ≥

Taking limit as n → ∞, we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mv z F t z z qF t z z pF kt Mv z F kt z z F kt Mv z F 2 , . , , , . , * ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) kt Mv z F q p kt Mv z F kt Mv z F 2 , , * ,

2

+ ≥

Noting that ( )( ) 1 ,

2

≤ kt Mv z F and using (c) in Definition 2.2, we have

( )( ) ( )( )

( )( ) t Mv z F

kt Mv z F kt Mv z F

,

2 , ,

≥

≥

Thus we have

Z = Mv and so z = Mv = sTv.

Since (M, ST) is weakly compatible, we have

STMv = MSTv

Thus, STz = Mz.

Step 6. By taking x = x

2n

, y = z in (3.1.5) and using step 5, we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mv ABx F t STz ABx qF t Lx ABx pF

kt Mz STz F kt Lx ABx F kt Mz Lx F

n n n n

n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , * ,

2 2 2 2

2 2 2

2

+ ≥

Which implies that, as n → ∞

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mz z F t Mz z qF t z z pF kt Mz Mz F kt z z F kt Mz z F 2 , . , , , . , * ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mz z F t Mz z qF p kt Mz z F 2 , , ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mz z F t Mz z qF p , , + ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) t Mz z qF p kt Mz z F , , + ≥

( )( ) kt Mz z qF P , + ≥

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( )( ) 1

1

, =

−

≥

q

p

kt Mz z F

Thus, we have z = Mz and therefore z = Az = Bz = Lz = Mz = STz.

Step 7. By taking x = x2n, y = Tz in (3.1.5), we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt MTz ABx F t STTz ABx qF t Lx ABx pF

kt MTz STTz F kt Lx ABx F kt MTz Lx F

n n n n

n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , * ,

2 2 2 2

2 2 2

2

+ ≥

Since MT = TM and ST = TS, we have

MTz = TMz = Tz and ST(Tz) = T(STz) = Tz.

Letting n → ∞, we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Tz z F t Tz z qF t z z pF kt Tz Tz F kt z z F kt Tz z F 2 , . , , , . , * ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) t Tz z qF p kt Tz z F , , + ≥

( )( ) kt Tz z qF p , + ≥

( )( ) 1

1

, =

−

≥

q

p

kt Tz z F

Thus, we have z = Tz. Since Tz = STz, we also have z = Sz.

Therefore, z = Az = Bz = Lz = Mz = Sz = Tz, that is, z is the common fixed point of the six maps.

Case II. L is continuous.

Since L is continuous, LLx

2n

→ Lz and L(AB)x

2n

→ Lz.

Step 8. By taking x = LLx

2n

, y = x

2n+1

in (3.1.5), we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Mx ABLx F t STx ABLX qF t LLx ABLx pF

kt Mx STx F kt LLx ABLx F kt Mx LLx F

n n n n n n

n n n n n n

2 , . , ,

, . , * ,

1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2

2

+ +

+ + +

+ ≥

Letting n → ∞, we have

( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Lz z F t Lz z qF t Lz Lz pF kt z z F kt Lz Lz F kt Lz z F 2 , . , , , . , * ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Lz z F t Lz z qF p kt Lz z F 2 , , ,

2

+ ≥

( )( ) [ ] ( )( ) kt Lz z F t Lz z qF p , , + ≥

( )( ) ( )( ) t Lz z qF p kt Lz z F , , + ≥

( )( ) kt Lz z qF p , + ≥ ,

( )( ) 1

1

, =

−

≥

q

p

kt Lz z F

Thus, we have z = Lz and using steps 5-7, we have

Z = Lz = Mz = Sz = Tz.

Step 9. Since L is continuous,

LLx

2n

→Lz and LABx

2n

→Lz

Since(L, AB) is semi-compatible,

L(AB)x

2n

→ ABz.

Since limit in Menger space is unique, so

Lz = ABz and using Step 4, we also have z = Bz.

Therefore, z = Az = Bz = Sz = Tz = Lz = Mz, that is, z is the common fixed point of the six maps in this case

also.

Step 10. For uniqueness, let w(w ≠ z)be another common fixed point of A, B, S, T, L and M.

Taking x = z, y = w in (3.1.5), we have

F

2

(Lz,Mw)(kt)

*

[F(ABz,Lz)(kt).F(STw,Mw)(kt)]

≥ [Pf(ABz,Lz)(t)+qF(ABz,STw)(t)].F(ABz,Mw)(2kt)

Which implies that

F

2

(z,w)(kt) ≥ [p +qF(z,w)(t)]F(z,w)(2kt)

≥ [p + qF(z,w)(t)]F(z,w)(kt),

F(z,w)(kt) ≥ p + qF(z,w)(t)

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( )( ) 1

1

, =

−

≥

q

p

kt w z F

Thus, we have z = w.

This completes the proof of the theorem.

If we take B = T = I

X

(the identity map on X) in theorem 3.1, we have the following:

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