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I

FRMfIS THE SOLOMOI R. GlGGEnEIM MISEUM. IN MW VORR COLLABORATION WITH THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO .

New York.Published by The Solomon R. 1963 All Rights Reserved Library of Congress Card Catalog Number: 63-21154 Printed in The Netherlands . Guggenheim Foundation.

Guggenheim. its The Museum. sets a fruitful a source of particular gratification and precedent for similar collaborative ventures in the future. Harry F. thereby implements quality stated policy to exhibit modern art of exceptional and significance regardless of national origins or stylistic categories. Guggenheim Foundation . The Art Institute of Chicago. That we should be joined in this endeavor by one of the great museums is in this country.The Solomon R. President. Guggenheim Museum is honored to present the first American Museum retrospective exhibition by the distinguished British painter Francis Bacon. The Solomon R.

E. VICE PRESIDENT ARNASON. ART ADMINISTRATION ELEANOR.THE SOLOMON R. COVNTESS CASTLE STE^VART A. GUGGENHKIM. ALBERT H. B. CHAL'NCEY NE^VHN MRS. M'ETTACH MEDLEY G. VICE PRESIDENT. H. GUGGENHEIM FOtrNDATlON TRUSTEES HARRY F. PRE^SIDENT THIELE. HENRV OBRE DANIEL CATTON RICH MICHAEL F. WHELPLEY CARL ZIGROSSER .

FREEHLING D. YOUNG EDWARD BYRON SMITH ALLAN McNAB JOHN MAXON LOUISE LUTZ Treasurer Director of Administration Director of Fine Arts Assistant Secretary TRUSTEES JAMES W. J. YOUNG MRS. THOMAS PURCELL Treasurer. MARSHALL EVERETT ARTHUR STANLEY M. ALSDORF HOMER JR. TIFFANY BLAKE Honorary President Honorary Vice President SAMUEL A.THE ART INSTITUTE OF CHICAGO OFFICERS •WILLIAM McCORMICK BLAIR President PERCY LEIGH B. WOOD FRANK H. ECKHART BLOCK Senior Vice President Vice President FRANK HUBACHEK Vice President Vice President GEORGE B. III AVERY BRUNDAGE PERCY B. CUSHMAN B. EARLE LUDGIN BROOKS McCORMICK WILLIAM McCORMICK BLAIR FOWLER McCORMICK BLOCK ANDREW McNALLY WILLIAM A. McSWAIN ECKHART FIELD. BISSELL LEIGH B. BENNETT. Chicago Park District . WOODS GEORGE B. B. LIVINGSTON EDWARD H. B. HUBACHEK EDWARD BYRON SMITH M. Chicago Park District JAMES H. MARX EX OFFICIO RICHARD ALVIN L. DALEY Mayor of the City of Chicago WEBER GATELY P. JR. J. SUZETTE MORTON ZURCHER HONORARY TRUSTEES ROBERT ALLERTON RUSSELL TYSON MRS. Comptroller of the City of Chicago President. GRAFF FRANK B.

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To approach the essence of Bacon's work. Bacon thus be. to Popes and to businessmen. refers to the Gospel and to Van Gogh . These and other issues are forced upon us by Bacon's relentless art. A consideration of pictorial space and its relation to our prevailing reality. with a degree of interchangeability) is intelligible shown in an environment that natural or man-made. we must come to terms. Guggenheinq Museum in New York and The Art Institute of Chicago.Francis Bacon. and his scene. Messer. once confronted. blurred and veiled though sense of this term it may is remains recognizable. he more difficult to "understand" than many abstract painters. his propositions are most uncomfortable. we cannot turn away. The great reward held out to us is that through the comprehension of Francis Bacon's blurred vision. Curator of this Museum. with any number of complex thoughts of which a few may be summarized as follows: The relation of Bacon's images to his formal pursuits. there no release from commitment. is the figure (saintly. Director. because Francis Bacon art. He is quite unable to afford such simple art. no lessening of the viewer's With him. Thomas M. to dogs and apes. is human or animal. The Solomon R. ever-recurring theme. He thereby forces us into questioning confrontations with basic attitudes. for presentation at The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum . is so demanding and so is incapable of fulfilling the hope for a comfortable tension. through his imagery. The Francis Bacon exhibition and the accompanving catalogue were prepared by Mr. This involves the subtle interplay between the artist's seemingly haphazard choice of subject matter and of the stylistic it means through which he brings to life. and taboos and by so doing necessarily hurts us before affording such relief as comes from widened understanding. intellectually or intuitively. prejudices. A consideration of Bacon's probing disposition which instinctively reaches for images and for analogous pictorial means that touch upon essentials. we shall see ourselves with greater clarity. pleasures as constitute to many beholders the obvious function of Instead Bacon strains is our viewing capacity to the utmost. An understanding of the meaning of ugliness in art and the realization that horror can be sublimated through formal perfection into the most satisfying of harmonies. Since. Lawrence Alloway. For Bacon gives us a graphic extension of known thereby leading us to rethink our placement as individuals in the world of our understanding. world view. we believe. Why should this be so? Chiefly. Recognizability notwithstanding. His painting — figurative in the ordinary for a return to old- — nevertheless unlikely to satisfy those who yearn time art. The underlying. to a back-swing of the pendulum from abstraction to a naturalistic mode. to male and female nudes.

Mr. and for the loan of existing color plates. H. The Solomon R. in particular. kindly obtained loans from European and. editor of the catalogue and. Curator. Fort Worth: The Joseph H. to David Sylvester for making available documentary material. Fischer was resourceful and helpful. Lawrence Alloway. to to James Thrall Soby and Sam Hunter for the kind loan of photographs. with Maurice Tuchman. London. collections My thanks are due to the folloidng for the contribution of color plates to the _Yeic catalogue: Ted Weiner. The Marlborough Fine Art Ltd.Art Ltd. Institute of York.ME\TS / am grateful to Ronald Alley for his abundant contribution to the bibliography. Hirshhom Foundation. I leant to thank the following members of the Museum's staff: Carol Fuerstein. Guggenheim Museum . Museo Civico di Torino and the Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. The Art Chicago. Marlborough Fine . compiler of the bibliography.\flWLEDI. London. and Richard Tooke of The Museum of Modem Art and Donna Topazia Alliata for assistance in obtain- ing photographs... R. Alice Hildreth who worked closely on the exhibition since its inception.l(K.

England Albright-Knox Art Gallery. and Mrs. J. Batley. Connecticut Urvater Collection. Stuttgart The Phillips Collection. New York The Museum of Modern Art. Ltd. Cooper. Torquil Norman. London Stadtische Kunsthalle. Helen Grigg. Paley. New Canaan. Leeds. Scotland Bagshaw Art Ulster Gallery. Turin London . New York Sainsbury. Washington. Hirshhorn Foundation. Northern Ireland Birmingham City Art Gallery. Mannheim The Joseph H. Biot. R. London Ltd. Marlborough Fine Art Galleria Galatea. London The Tate Gallery. Milan Geoffrey Gates. Collection. London Mr. and Mrs.. Omaha Miss Erica Brausen. Buffalo The Art Institute of Chicago. M. New York Mr. New York The Abrams Family Dr. England Arts Council of Great Britain. London Nicolo Dona Dalle Rose. Corrado Levi. New York New York Mrs. J. Forth Worth The Aberdeen Art Gallery. Harriott A. France Franklin Konigsberg. London Mr. Turin Mrs. Birmingham. Harry C. New York Staatsgalerie. Fox Fund The Detroit Institute of Arts City Art Gallery. and Joachim Jean Aberbach.. James Thrall Soby. Burden. England Museum. London William S. D. William A. New York Lady Caroline Citkowitz. Los Angeles Anthony Denney. and Mrs. Kasmin. Belfast. New York Dewey Bisgard.C.LEIDERS TO THE EXHIBITION Julian J. Belgium Ted Weiner.

be incon- clusive as well as indulgent. There also. The paintings have been treated as cultural symptoms. which. Chardin. based on a thorough historical knowledge: time provides a perspective for their judgments. Criticism of this kind makes for rather lively reading to be. and not simply the work of and not only Goya. . such as Kafka. breakdown. Because there are Popes that scream or solitary figures in hotel bedrooms. and Beckett. as an artist. assumes a comprehensive grasp of our culture. the reading of Bacon as the drama of a culture in is. Vuillard. The writers who are responsible for this see the present time in negative terms. the awkward fact that if works of art are treated as signals of the state of culture. so that Bacon becomes the laureate of Buchenwald. this To write about a contemporary artist in live in it. and Morandi must also be significant. Such writing derives from the original historical dramas of cultural historians use works of art to who embody moments method of crisis. however. all art is significant in this way. Thus. generalized moral lessons. In their hands. Literary parallels are constantly invoked.12 irrRODiiCTiOA A great deal of Bacon criticism has been devoted to a single aspect of his imagery. or crossroads of transition in is. — far more exciting and emotional than art critics can usually crisis manage Metaphors of night- mare. paths of decline. the Goya of the Early Space Age. and Bacon. The result is that Bacon. has been all dissolved. culture. rather than as individual expressions. Picasso. while we as participants. or inflated. the at least. and George Orwell (1984). they have been identified as allegorical personifications of Melancholy or Dejection. The meaning of our culture is incomplete until the future crisis tends to confers it. we may not have. mirrors held up to an age in pieces. in sermon A Portrait of the Artist as a young Man). Joyce (the abound. way. violent artists. into a cultural barometer.

as much an injurv as an exercise in foreshortening. In the fifth style. There is. time to try to write about Bacon as a painter. and thoroughly unexpected. it human meanings in the foreground. In has been his strateg}' to conceal his formal concerns behind the spectacle of human action. for instance. Manet's Execution of the Emperor Maximilian (Boston Museum of Fine Arts).13 Though one objects to reading Bacon's art in terms of a melodrama and of the human condition. He makes formal meanings resemble painful human The marks of painting. It is. its but he is also persistently aware of the past and models. he is an inveterate enemy of the idea of the dehumanization of use Ortega's phrase for a widely held approach to art in the 19th and 20th centuries. to On the contrary. experiences. rather than as documents or of a 20th century problem. however. predicament. and about his works as paintings. including conspicuous signs of improvisation. a link between Goya's this and Manet"s firing-squad paintings."^ himself from the fifth storey. what have you. when he like compresses a form. surelv linked with our idea of a victim. crisis. an acute sense of topical images. connections of kind are contained Bacon s art. the painter appears in a strong Art Xouveau painted by is Munch. a buried. \^ hen he blurs a it is face. rather than as an allegorist of Angst. of course. this does not mean he should be considered a detached esthetic artist. Central to Bacons art is a dual He has. though on his own terms. 1808. rendered with immediacv. it is true. connection is established be- tween an image of Van Gogh. . perhaps. in Persistent. become images of the movements of his figures or of their suffering. but also. linking with the tradition of painting. in the Study for Van Gogh. as well as a painterlv decision. it could be a wound. In the Van Gogh first series he not only alluded to Portrait of Van Gogh's The Road to to Tarascon. has alwavs put conspicuous fact. time-sense. ( He has. art. paraphrased I repeatedly Velasquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X Doria Gallery . A concise statement of this position is Cocteau's witticism in the dedication of Orphee: ''A painter mav throw splash'.Hence. and the figure of the sergeant of the firing squad on the right-hand side of Manet Portrait of s sketch. In the recent Three Studies for a Crucifixion. Bacon. as if Study for Van Gogh.. it though buried. is and the art-lover is of would onlv sav: 'That makes a prettv The assumption that human meaning negligible value compared to strictlv held formal values. the corpse in the central panel reminiscent of the bullet-pierced flesh of the corpses in Goya's Execution of May 3.

Tradition for a snowball which he slightly enlarges by rolling past to it re- him is not a little further on an established track. The Artist on the Road to Tarascon. an unpainted portrait by Munch. Manet quotation or in the stylistic reference as it were. Bacon's concern with tradition should not be translated immediately into the ceived picture of an individual in agreement with his inheritance. in The records of the past are available in the underground and personal ways: consider the irony and paradox involved to. There is. The Bacon is not a gallery of coherent prototypes which he modifies but whose dominance to tradition he does not question (the approach recommended by early 20th century classicists and conservatives) Tradition . to Bacon seems to be a shifting bundle of models and influences in a problematic relationship with recent experiences. Oil on canvas.14 Van Gogh. how- work which could only be known to Bacon in the form of a reproduction. Bacon's allusions to Velasquez's Pope Innocent ever. another X are well-known. 1888. a . Destroyed. August. 21^^ x 26".

1867. 105 x 120". Oil on canvas. Execution oi Maximilian. Sketch.iiiiwi -II jmcs^ Manet. 77 x 93". . Goya. Execution of May 3. Oil on canvas.Madrid. Museo Nacional del Prado. Boston. 1808 (detail). 1814. . .Museum of Fine Arts.

Oil on canvas. Galleria Doria Pamphili. Burden. (right) Bacon. Rome. 1953. than the presence of individual quotations from other artists. Cardinal Filippo Archinto. It is the history of art. Oil on canvas. Portrait of Cardinal Filippo Archinto. and Mrs. By Grand Manas it mean the central tradition of it European figure painting developed in the Renais- sance and as dominated all subsequent figure painting until the 20th century. Philadelphia. of the Grand Manner. The size of the canvas. Of greater consequence. probably. 60Vs x 46V2".16 remarkable painting by Titian in the John G. (center) Titian. 55% x 47%". their persistence in Bacon's art differentiates him from (left) Velasquez. This bizarre work seems one of the is formative factors in Bacon's Study After Velasquez. as it contains curiosities and puzzles. as a record of human action. Portrait of Pope Innocent X. . The face fades. Bacon's paintings preserve numerous allusions to the Grand Manner. rather than as a pure fountain- head. the placing of the figures within it. Johnson Collection. It represents a sitter. ner. in his work. M. 1650. and the hands are smeared through the material. William . Collection Mr. 1953.4. which absorbs Bacon. the gestures and poses of the figures depicted — all reveal an underlying structure of the Grand Manner format that has been thoroughly assimilated into a direct and natural way of working. Study after Velasquez's Portrait of Pope Innocent X. These echoes of the past are not academic simulacra of past models. as well as masterpieces. in which the face partially obscured by vertical folds of material. the right eye to be is divided. Philadelphia. John G. but with a transparent curtain hanging over half the painting. in a pose that anticipates the Velasquez. 46 x 36". I is the general reminiscence. Oil on canvas. Johnson Collection. New York. on the other hand.

for instance. freshly trapped. it the structure of the work itself still which is ambiguous. In this respect. His its paint creates the form but. although.whose head appears to have been sheared through. . they are parodied and damaged. it is questioned and undermined. unlike Dubuffet. The Grand Manner becomes. as a frame against which to work. Similarly in Bacon. which derives from Renaissance originals. sometimes a disreputable one. the It is format of the Grand Manner becomes merely a corral for wild beasts. even as the past is evoked by the structure of the paintings. without confidence in its absoluteness. To Bacon. through the s%veat and fruitiness of their paint. rests The interplay of flesh and dilapidation in de is Kooning on a Grand Manner infra-structure. the Grand Manner it. the umbrella shields a figure off. human. of which Grand Manner provides an ample and The two elements long-lived example.17 abstract painters. to intimacy. in fact. to use a word that is continually employed in 20th cen- tury criticism. with the surrogate of column and curtain. and the insertion of disturbing subjects into a pre-existing form. it. In the works is of Bacon. but. a form. with no desire to simplify. Within an heroic contour. in both. but primitivistic) tall . interlock. which conflate different objects or classes of objects. Instead of being the paradigm of order. Instead of the spatial coherence of the Grand Manner. In fact. and painterly cues are charged with fresh meanings. to one giving mystery. essential for Bacon to preserve a given and canonical form. at the same time. simultaneously. are poii-Raphaelite painters. The traditional composition and its heroic occupants are both raised and perpetuated. Surrealist images. A grand compositional display becomes a keyhole spatial. one giving body. grey studio behind them as the all De Kooning's Women preserved. the other. knowingly. the apparatus of the Grand Manner supports a drastically is changed iconography. for example. to strip off history and sophistication : they only want to make their own uses of it. figures fade against a black void. withholds complete definition. an umbrella used. Bacon can be compared figures are flat both Giacometti and de Kooning. and de Kooning (the Women. a basic seated pose. while transforming it partially. is. cutting the top of the skull The . In two early paint- ings by Bacon. This act of preserving. The use of orderly form. seen early in his 1938 Queen of Hearts. It is partly the continuation of a past tradi- tion in a confident and viable form. or are pressed forward by a flat color plane. The regular stanzas and the classic structure of the line in his poetry divulged subjects and emotions foreign to the decorum usually associated with his structure. It also. are so-called. intimate and to unanticipated images. Within the format of the Grand Manner. The point that all three painters. the reduction of the forms of this tradition to act as a container for an unexpected content. produces an art which is highly ambiguous. a figure will be painted in an elliptical or perfunctory manner. at times. Grand Guignol. has analogies with Baudelaire. Giacometti. is indispensable. the effect is of a puzzle rather than of ambiguity. eroding and subverting the but not removing He needs both the symbol of order. against which he can work. and its opposite. not to Dubuffet (whose human and Giacometti's sitters are withered paraphrases of Baroque portraiture. not the abstract paintings).

The movements of the body in fight. Similarly. Bacon asserts the presence of latent homosexual meanings within the tableaux of the the Grand Manner. or a telephone booth. with fair frequency. is set for instance. heads loom in . the table at am writing. He abandons human the objective ground plane of the Renaissance and organizes space around his figures. Van Dyck and Le Brun. Bacon's nudes. In the Renaissance. seem to be trespassed upon. in scenes of such violence. Bacon sensitive to this definition of space as the area that an individual can move in or reach. memories and his followers are strong. Or the artist himself (who becomes subjectively with the spectator) seems engaged in the acts of his figures. Curtains drop. Looking at the 16th century's heroic nudes hard for us to separate the painted or carved figures from human anatomy. and the Cross to define the area of human movement. but preserving an ancient fagade. canopies. the males that It is Bacon paints imply homosexual content. build. not a matter of recovering. rather than coopidentified eratively posing for the artist. reached areas of the world. Our experience of what is distant. Bacon has used thrones. The tradition of Michelangelo's homosexuality Sistine vault.18 incongruity of the umbrella. of the muscles rise. Bacon's men exercising singly or in pairs. the socially-sanctioned and culturally normal homosexuality poet. related. now. to the which appears a to us as though covered by gymnasts. in their residual Renaissance structures. cages. his athletes take on the attributes of muscle-eroticism rather is than Neo-Platonism. The figures. like fruit rotting in a bowl without outward change. a chair. Michelangelo's nudes are swung into a new context. should not block our fact that umbrellas memory of the were used. say. As in Baudelaire the traditional theme changes within like a known form. Separated from iconography. a special One definition of of the ways in which Bacon relates to the Grand Manner involves man and space. touchable. good at selective tasks. link with the modern tendency it is to take nudity in art literally. often derived from motion studies of late 19th century males by Eadweard Muybridge. the bed on which we spend so much of our lives . outwards from the active agent. suppression. A potential of human reality within the ideal figures has been released. in Baroque art. to protect the sitters of. The space beyond amorphous or inaccessible. The recurring is image is of a human being pinned to an intimate area of use. the human body was defined as a solid. couches. booths. close is different from our experience of what and Bacon is (despite occasional landpersistently conceived in scapes) is basically a painter of near forms. often at or athletes (their the expense of the symbolism originally identified with Mars or Vulcan physical well-being a code for virtue). The cradle within which which I the child is set. adding resonance to the shocking image. set in measurable space. or a Cross to which these islands of man's use is One has been nailed. evoke of Michelangelo the Grand Manner unmistakably. subthis ject to physical laws. is The on or spectator's relation to Bacon's pictorial space highly participative. or house adapted internally for different generations of inhabitants. His human image relation to intimate. beds. after bourgeois of. A covert and bizarre art historical reminiscence up. As figures. space were highly adaptive and competent. a Greek On the contrary. able to is and love.

Chapman and Hall. .^'-'^- ^.rijiS^^*™* mL. 1901. -^A'." London.19 Photographs from Eadweard Muybridge's "The Human Figure in Motion.

Bacon often turns the painting. in the Zoologiske Museum. Some of his images of tality recall the verisimilitude of death and decay presented in natural history is museums Europe. Also in the early 50s he used Marius Maxwell's Stalking Big Game With a Camera indirectly. bodies are cut off by the frame. as a rule. The use of elaborate presentational devices by Bacon is not immune to our special self-consciousness in the 20th century. To quote Panofsky again: the "variety of human movements" state to another. nose. The events may be staged. there "a group of African scavenger birds feasting upon the head of a dead zebra. recognizing the rhetorical functions of dress and gesture. as "the result of a continuous transition this from one Bacon has made theme his own. a series of photographs or a comic strip. in Equatorial Africa. For instance. What would kill. knowledge links with the visual sophistication of the 20th century audience. and mouth. consciously. It is still important to determine the function of photographs in Bacon's art. Erwin Panofsky has pointed out treatises that typical Renaissance on perspective "devote much time and space to the construction of regular and semiit regular solids. also. so that we feel a constant sense of privacy invaded and of personal involvement. is. because the particiself- pants know that they occupy a goldfish bowl. with matter oozing out of eyes. "^ This compound of an with a shocking image of corruption is artificial presentation Baconian. in the Vatican. but at the same time. is the historical relation of photography to art? Obviously the belief that it it or that had killed. repeating the image with small changes. figurative painting satisfied only a few early 20th century . and maggots competing with the birds. as if Here Bacon producing some of his most he were like aiming at a masterpiece. occurs within the prepared scene. morin which is constant in his work. Oslo. and of the of present history means themselves. incidentally. He used a of the injured nurse in The Battleship Potemkin in 1949 and subsequently around 1950 he began using motifs from the motion studies of Muybridge. The Popes of 1951 quote not only from Velasquez's Innocent X but." whereas the was difficult "to cope with interest human body because human body of its utter irregularity. with his studies of transitional human move- ments flickering through the wrecked Grand Manner. into a tableau. The fact of his frankness about the mechanics involved does not stop them from working. "^ This is the point at which Bacon's in the starts. from a photograph of Pope Pius Xll carried on a sedia gestatoria through a room This group of paintings ous. a demonstration.""* was rarely depicted In fact. episodes.20 close-up. Thus. though. On the contrary. the first series is showing successive. In the theme of death. though mysterifully realized works. We have become sceptically aware of the process of communication technical itself. a display. of architectural features and of scenery. his fact.

derived to real life. Bacon simulates the grainv qualitv of photographs. What photography did was to enlarge the scope of figurative painting by carry- ing the human image . some of them pooiiy effect. like an assassination. I overdeveloped and producing a rather disagreeable displayed some engravings bv Mar- cantonio. We had a feeling of repulsion. in his work. A processional image becomes a scene of assault. having examined in places photographs of nude models. Delacroix recognized this clearly: "After built. occur within the context of the Grand Manner. especially when . . polemicists. wrestlers become lovers: figures in a room look like celebrities whose names and faces we can no longer keep together. out of classical idealism. and their lack of naturalness: and we these things despite the virtue of style. . their felt man- nerism. circa 1951.21 Clippings in Bacon's studio. almost of disgust. Thus. blurred forms and mysterious some extent from photographs. at their incorrectness."' Bacon's use of photographs is fully in line with this reading of photographs as non-hierarchic and un-planned fragments of gestures.

to his critics. is A change in Bacon's color-range and paint-handling related to this development. inasmuch as the purpose and context of the action may be missing. Thus. each is phase of which partially visible. sculpture Unique is Forms of Continuity in Space (1913). 1962. His earlier paintings are monochromatic. bodies. though Bacon's interest in motion did not change. Instead of metallic surfaces. frozen at a brief moment. perhaps. with each form retaining. What Bacon Boccioni's "ideal reconstruction of continuity" without the reference to machinery which geometrizes Boccioni's work. but a consistent parallel with an artist who preserved the Grand it. have a potential for mystery. In 19. when arrested in time. based on black and a restricted number of colors. in Bacon's work. though the whole form is never questioned. motion is expressed by the compression of bounded and continuous forms. In his earlier work Bacon used this property of photographs subvert the clarity of pose of figures in traditional painting. diffused by atmospheric chiaroscuro. he developed a style of unpremeditated gesture. however. The link with Manet is not casual. share and So important is the theme of motion that Bacon's development can be. instead of fraying as they moved is in time. clearly revealing a sympathy with Manet. perhaps. but they were and in place.^ In the sliding and squeezing of anatomies there niscence of a remi- Umberto Boccioni's bronze gives us. Previously the whole figure was seen its integrity. which shocking but obscure. as pictures. his is way of handling it did. from photographic sources. often appear as momentous and extraordinary. based on the expressions and movements that we manifest unknowingly. Forms are evoked by partial glimpses. it were. of figures is indicated mainly From 1949 to 1956 the movement by blurring the edges and opening the planes of forms. Later. a turning head is indicated not by being smeary and blurred. In place of the convention of explicit gestures in art. Manner format while painting improvisa- tionally (and. as in the Three Studies for a Crucifixion. There is plenty of space for the implied free movement to take place.56. dis- cussed in terms of a change in his approach to the problem. casually) within Bacon's paintings from 1945 to 1949 reveal. for instance) Human actions. intact The limbs might be hazy. There a new sharpness of contour in and solidity (or. like accident or atrocity all photographs. of the inadvertently all and obscurely revealing. though deeply to human and anonymous. motion. continuity) of planes. thus. bits of the world in his imposing Both texture and gesture derive. Uncaptioned news photographs. is arrived at by using photography's huge repertory of visual images for objects and events.^ which permits connections between widely scattered phenomena (a human head and an ape's. The effect is of spatial fullness and of the occupancy of space by mobile and fugitive figures. are corkscrewed or dilated by successive movements. . The is evasive nature of his imagery. It possible that some reference to Futurism is may be contained in the later figures. at least. but by being twisted. however blurred or transparent. the figures are pulpy and vulnerable. for instance. depositing.22 processed for reproduction.

By 1959 an unprecedented of color puts. Variations of this way of painting are consistent until clarity 1956 when richer color and more unified planes appear. For instance. 30. 34) . With the 50s comes an increasing lightness in the paint. London. the light. 1823. 31. stickily-textured surface. IIW' high.23 on the whole. with apparent suddenness. 32. repeatedly. the formerly shado^vy figures of Bacon into the light of day. in variations which are not necessarily resolvable into References back and forth between different versions of the basic images. but without revealing an ideological change between the 1950 and 1962 versions. to them over and over asain. a progressive move from a dense. as it were. (see Catalogue Nos. a kind of parched morse-code over dry canvas. the various paintings of the Crucifixion add to one another. and of literal effects of ioreshortening. perhaps. best viewed as a cluster of images. He on an image. William Blake Life Mask. to a consistent painterly style. which hesitates between painterly and sculpturesque form. National Portrait Gallery. create a denser layer of meaning than any of the works singly. and then use a logical procedure. which he has invented and elaborated. His work is. Although Bacon's work reveals change when viewed chronologically. returnins. Plaster. In 1952 this to be dry and dabbed on. combined with Bacon's use shows that the figures resemble cripples. Deville. which tends grazed and flicked into being. he of those artists wall hit is not one whose work needs to be seen in sequential order for it its full realization. so that forms are of painting manner became sparser.

it is continually checked by correspondence to its model. therefore. nor does he pursue compounds of for instance. as subject to accelerations of time's Through motion studies. abhorrent. the point of which gives meaning to everything else. which he all abandon. Bacon always presupposes. a beauty and suffering. Just as he stretches but does not preserves the Grand Manner as a normative framework. is a blot it causes in the other parts of the on a painting and a cavity in a statue productive of the worst possible effect. who has certainly inherited this association. Although the monstrousness of the subject may be brought The out. He neither projects "the dreams of painters. are closely linked to his content. but. for Bacon. but solid. The way he manipulates is the paint is insepa- rable from the impression of flesh and mortality with which he preoccupied. destroys bodies. his grotesque imagery. and not merely as If reflexes to an historical moment. is human and ner. and figure to inspire compassion in its was. can be. My point is not that Bacon not a painter of grotesque and gruesome effects. so he keeps the human contour legible through forms in motion becomes metaphoric of the way time. at deformations. One function of his use of photographs interference with the Grand Man- we read Bacon is the interference as evidence of life in line with that and the human presence in the painting. which seems to be separating from the head and admitting sight of the skull. apart from the violent and repulsive contortions face. It "Imagine Laocoon's mouth open.24 Lessing has discussed the problem of the scream in art: "The simple opening of the mouth. treated his figures and objects in a stylized and disembodied manner. it one characterizes Bacon as a painter of the grotesque must be with certain reservations. much like Fuseli who. Lawrence Alloway . canon of Lessing. "a blot. within the spatial art of painting. Death reality is." in free-wheeling imagination. He is not a painter of fantasy that transcends earthly reality or makes jokes out of it. leads directly to his sense of the factual. Bacon's figures are represented in action."'^ chiefly with the crass representation of ugly. his free handling identifies the paint with human flesh. process.'^" tinually violates the clear that Bacon's human image art. and aims to convince us of. He is not. but that these effects occur within the context of art. It is Now it is ugly. In the small paint- ings of heads. before. Let him scream." It imagery of is kind which called forth the criticism mentioned earlier. human and other forms in a metamorphic game. also. a substantial core to his paintings. In fact. The imagery of in longer periods. though he invented a personal iconography of terror and nocturnal effects."' see. The scream little is a recurring theme of Bacon's is somethis times an early painting seems to be more than a mouth. sordid and horrifying aspects of Bacon. grotesque and realistic. branch of the theory of the grotesque^' which stresses the preservation of a basis in visual. observable fact. Bacon arrives an imagery of death. and we con- gladly avert our eyes from a painful spectacle. technical means by which Bacon represents motion in time. and judge. Erich Auerbach has pointed out that "in the 19th century the work 'realism' was associated life. simultaneously.

Wolfgang Kayser. E. Meridian. . closer t:i Bacon's chimpanzee paintings of 1953 and 1955 than anything in Marius Maxwell. Eugene Delacroix. Tate Gallery. New York. 10. B. The Journal of Eugene Delacroix." Curator. Mark Roskill in his "'Bacon as a Mannerist. These are: a blurry photograph of a chimpanzee (p. 1959) Thus the photographic media can give a sense of immediacy while denying our sense of location. Ronald Alley suggested. Pointed out by Ibid. Indiana. University of Indiana Press. Dover. New York. 1961. seen in London in 1952. 9. 2. New York. 11. Jean Cocteau. Laocoon. 6. p. New York. 8. Examples of the kind of photograph that Bacon has used are found in Amedee Ozenfant's Foundations oj Modern Art (new edition. 1940. 3. 59) and a man carrying a monkey (p. A. Hess has reported de Kooning's observation that "a glance at a newspaper photograph or television report shows an incident in a city street that also might be happening in an open field or Hollywood bowl" Willem de Kooning. p. Five Plays. New York. Saturday. 1961. New York. Entry. 5. T. The Grotesque: Art and Literature. 7. vol. Ibid. Erwin Panofsky. . The Codex Huygens and Leonardo da Vinci's Art Theory." which he kindly allowed nie to read in manuscript. 2. 314. Crown. 1948. 5). An Essay Upon the Limits of Painting and Poetry. 8. 1963. Paar. 1952). a possible source book. "Sir Austin Chamberlain as seen in a Distorting Mirror" (p. Institute. p. New York. that the Albright-Knox Art Gallery's Man with Dog. referred to Balla's Leash in Motion. 1953. p. 174. Erich Auerbach. no. 12.25 XOTES 1. p. 1959. "Realism and Romanticism in Museum Exhibits. Translated by Walter Pach. 1853. 13. 174)." Scenes from the Drama of European Literature. Braziller. Warburg 4. 1963. in his excellent notes to the catalogue of the Francis Bacon exhibition. 6. May 21. Noonday. London. 1962. ( . "The Aesthetic Dignity of the 'Fleurs de Mai'. 14. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing.

4. 57% x 50%". New York. 57ys x 50%". 60 x 48". England. HEAD VI. 32 x 27". Lent by Galleria Galatea. Batley. 9. HEAD IV.WORKS 1^ THE nilllllTlOW The following paintings will be shown only in New York: Nos. 78 x 52". England. FRAGMENT OF A CRUCIFIXION. London. 2. Lent by Bagshaw Art Gallery. 1949. x 26%". Turin. 1. 5. France. II. 1945-1946. 32% Collection Geoffrey Gates. 57 x SOVa". 7. Turin. FIGURE IN A LANDSCAPE. Oil on canvas. Purchase. 8. Oil on canvae. Oil on canvas. Leeds. New York. 23. London. Biot. 1949. Oil and tempera on canvas. HEAD II. 1950. 1949. PAINTING. Oil on canvas. 47% x40%" 3. Collection Ulster Museum. THE MAGDALENE. Belfast. . PAINTING. 1V/& x 52". Oil on canvas. Collection Mrs. 6. 1945-1946. 1945. Collection 1946. Lent by The Trustees of The Tate Gallery. 10. 1945-1946. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. 1950. Oil on canvas. STUDY FOR THE HUMAN FIGURE AT THE CROSS Collection Corrado Levi. 36% x 30%". Collection The Arts Council of Great Britain. Northern Ireland. Collection City Art Gallery. Helen Grigg. of The Museum Modern Art. MAN WITH A CAR. 14. 5. 7. 29.

Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. 78 x 54". C. 60 x 46". 78 x 54". Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. London. Fox Fund. STUDY FOR NUDE. Oil on canvas. London. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. London. 1953. Oil on canvas. 19. 77% x 54V2". and Mrs. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd.. Oil on canvas. STUDY OF A BABOON. (Study after Velasquez) 1954. 1951. 20.27 11. 1952. Anthony Denney. London. The Detroit Institute of Arts. x 45%". Buffalo. 1954.. Oil on canvas. TWO FIGURES. Oil on canvas. The Art Institute of Chicago. The Pliillips Collection. MAN WITH DOG. Oil on canvas. Collection Albright-Knox Art Gallery. Scotland. Oil on canvas. 16. 78 x 54". Burden.. Oil on canvas. Collection The Aberdeen Gallery. Oil on canvas. 50ys x 48" 27. London. Mannheim. Collection Mr. William A. 78 x 54". 1951. James Thrall Soby. 13. 1951. STUDY OF A FIGURE IN A LANDSCAPE. 60 x 461/2". Oil on canvas. 1953. Oil on canvas. 591/2 x 451/2". Harriott A. Lent by The Trustees of The Tate Gallery. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. London. Washington. 78 x 54". 12. STUDY FROM THE HUMAN FIGURE. 59% Ltd. Collection 1952. 19%". 78 x 54". 22. STUDY FOR NUDE. . 78 x 54". Oil on canvas. D. 1951. LANDSCAPE. 14. 1952. 17. 18. 28. STUDY OF A DOG. POPE. London. Oil on canvas. 21. 23. 1954. New York. Private Collection. 221/2 x 26. STUDY FOR A PORTRAIT. ELEPHANT FORDING A RIVER. PORTRAIT. Collection Stadtische Kunsthalle. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art London. 24. Oil on canvas. Collection 1953. POPE WITH FAN CANOPY. London. New Canaan. Connecticut. Milan. 78 x 54". STUDY FOR PORTRAIT. Collection 1954. 1952. Oil on canvas. 26 x 22".. Oil on canvas. POPE SHOUTING. 25. SPHINX. 15. 60 x 46". 1952. HEAD SURROUNDED BY SIDES OF BEEF Collection .. 1954. 1952. 54 x 42". Collection Nicolo Dona Dalle Rose. M.. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd.

Oil on canvas. 60 x 461/2". Cooper. 1955. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT #9. The Abrams Family Collection. England. 78 x 54". New Canaan. I (After the Life Mask of William Blake). J. Hirshhorn Foundation. Oil on canvas. Stuttgart. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. 32. 1959. R. 1956.. 59% x 451/2". 34. 1955. 43. Lent by Kasniin Ltd. Omaha. 44. Oil on canvas. 46. Oil on canvas. 38. 1956. 41. Oil on canvas. Belgium. LYING FIGURE #3. and Mrs. 1959. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT Collection II (After the Life Mask of William Blake) . 1957. Oil on canvas. New York. STUDY FOR FIGURE V. Los Angeles. RECLINING FIGURE. London. 24 x 20". V. Oil on canvas. SELF-PORTRAIT. 24 x 20" Collection Miss Erica Brausen.28 29.. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art London. MAN IN BLUE I. London. Ltd. 24 x 20". Lady Caroline Citkowitz. Birmingham City Art Gallery. 60 x 46". HEAD OF MAN— STUDY OF DRAWING BY VAN GOGH. The Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation. London. and Mrs.. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. ARAB AND CHILD. Oil on canvas. 1955. 35. London. FIGURES IN A LANDSCAPE. 1957. 1959. New York. 1955. Dewey Bisgard. Oil on canvas. 78I/2 x 56i/s". J. SEATED MAN. 78 x 56".. 1957. New York. 39. 60 x 46%". Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. CHIMPANZEE. 1955. Collection 1958. 1956. James Thrall Soby. 60 x 461/2". 37. 42. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. 36. Collection Staatsgalerie. 77% x SSVs". . 33. 45. Oil on canvas. 30. New York. Harry C. ORANGE BACKGROUND. Birmingham. and Joachim Jean Aberbach. 60 x 47". STUDY FOR PORTRAIT Collection Dr. Oil on canvas. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT OF VAN GOGH Collection HI. Hirshhorn Foundation. New York. Oil on canvas. 61% x SSVs". Collection Mr. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT OF VAN GOGH Collection The Joseph H. I. 241/2 x 20". The Joseph H. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT OF VAN GOGH Collection Mr. 78 x 56". Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. London. Sainsbury. Urvater Collection. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT III (After the Life Mask of William Blake). Connecticut. Collection Julian J. 1956. 77% x 55%". 31. New York. 1959. Collection 1956. 26ys x 24ys". STUDY FOR PORTRAIT Collection IV (After the Life Mask of William Blake). 40.

Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. Lent by The Trustees of The Tate Gallery. 64. Collection Julian J. Sainsbury. Oil on canvas. and Joachim Jean Aberbach. Collection Mr. London. London. Oil on canvas. each 78 x 57". 57. LYING FIGURE #2. New York. 1959. 1962. 19 x 18". 1. London. Oil on canvas. 54. Oil on canvas. 53. Co'lection 1962.. R. THREE STUDIES FOR A CRUCIFIXION. STUDY FOR SELF-PORTRAIT. 78 x 56". Oil on canvas. .. Lent bv Marlborouah Fine Art Ltd. 1962. 78 x 57". 78 x 55%". 61.. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. R. London. STUDY FOR THREE HEADS. CoUecticn William S. 1959. Collection ^Ir.29 47. 78 x 57". LANDSCAPE NEAR MALABATA. 59. Oil on canvas. 1963. Torquil Norman. 78 x 57". London. 49. London. -MAN DRESSED IN RED OX DAIS. FROM PHOTOGRAPHS. London. UV2". 52. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT OF P.. LYING FIGURE \^ITH HYPODERMIC SYRINGE. MAN AND CHILD. Fort Worth. TWO FIGURES IN A ROOJI. 78 x 57 Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. TWO FIGURES. London. 1963. Collection Julian J. Oil on canvas. 73 x 58". 65 x 57". L. 78 x 58". 4. New York. HEAD OF . Lent by The Trustees of The Tate Gallery. Oil on canvas. 78 x 57". London. 51. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. 78 x 57". London.Aberbach. 1963. and !Mrs. 60.MAN NO. Collection Mrs. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. Oil on canvas.. 1962. 15 x J. RECLINING WOMAN. 1961. New York. Oil on canvas. Paley. 62. 1961. London. 1963. COUCH. 1959. 56. 1959. 48. 63. 65 x 56". 50. 78% x 55%". J. TURNING FIGURE. 1963. New ^ork. STUDY FOR PORTRAIT ON FOLDING BED. Collection Franklin Konigsberg. 58. London. Oil on canvas. Lent by Marlborough Fine -\rt Ltd. Oil on canvas. 1960-1961. Oil on canvas. Sainsbury. and Joachim Jean . Rome.. Lent by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd.. 1961. Oil on canvas. SEATED FIGURE. HEAD OF MAN NO. Ted Weiner. WOMAN ON RED Private Collection. 1563. 55. and Mrs. each 14 x 12". 78 x 56".

1945-1946. Figure in a Landscape. 1945. (below) .30 i. {above) 2. Study for the Human Figure at the Cross II.

. The Magdalene. 1945-1946.31 3.

.32 4. Man with a Car. 1945-1946.

Paintine. 1949. Head II. 6. 1946. .33 5.

. Head IV. 1949.34 7.

1949. .35 8. Head VI.

jaaM^ . Painting. (above right) . 1951. Fragment of a Crucifixion. iv?v^^^^^^^^^^^^^H HI 11. . 1950. ^ iWiiMTrnr ' • — ^B / ^ak'v^^^Hf 1 -S^i ysi^B 9. (above left) 10. 1950. Study for Nude.i 36 " [ • 1 :.

37 12. . 1951. Pope with Fan Canopy.

38 13. . 1951. Pope.

.39 14. 1951. Pope Shouting.

1952. Study for Nude.40 15. .

(above) 17. (below) . 1952.41 16. Study of a Dog. 1952. Study for a Portrait.

42 p _v"'-' : \ \- ^ \ • / ^ \^\' r > > i 18. Study of a Figure in a Landscape. 1952. .

^ w»- i««. Hi-^gr- im \ iiwfiiiii^ 19.43 f^4 -' i . Landscape. 1952. -. .

.44 20. Elephant Fording a River. 1952.

45

21.

Study for Portrait. 1953.

46

22.

Two

Figures. 1953.

47

23.

Study of a Baboon. 1953. (above)
Study from the

24.

Man
26.

with Dog. 1954. (above)

25.

Human

Figure. 1954. (below)

Portrait. 1954. (below)

48

27.

Head Surrounded by

Sides of Beef ( Study after Velasquez). 1954.

Man in Blue I. 1955. 29. . 1954. Sphinx.49 28.

top) 31. Study for Portrait IV (After the Life Mask of William Blake). 1956.50 32. (opposite page. Study for Portrait II (After the Life Blake). 30. 1955. (opposite page. 1955. (opposite page. 1955. Study for Portrait III (After the Life Mask of IPilliam Blake). bottom) . center) 34. Study for Portrait I (After the Life Mask of William Mask of William Blake).

.

. 19o5.52 33. Chimpanzee.

1956. Figures in a Landscape.53 35. .

Study for Portrait of I an Gogh III.36. Study for Portrait of Fan Gogh I. 1957. (below) . (above) 39. 1956.

Study for Portrait of J 'an Gogh V. 1957.55 40. .

1957. 1958. 37. Study for Portrait ff9. Self-portrait. 1956.41. . Study for Figure V. (above) 42.

Seated Man. 1956. (below) 45. Arab and Child. Lying Figure #3. (above) 44. 1959. (below) . (above) 43. Orange Background. 1959.57 38. Head of Man —Study of Draning by Van Gogh. 1959.

1959. 1959. 47. Reclining Figure. .58 46. Lying Figure §2.

59 48. Tuo Figures in a Room. . 1959.

Head of Man No. 1939. .60 49. 1.

. Head of Man No.61 50. 4. 1959.

. 1961.62 Seated Figure.

Reclining Woman. Woman on Red Couch. (above) 54. 51. 1961. . 1961.63 ^l^^»mti^r mm 1^/ \ ^^ *0w ^ L Be. ^^ \ ! V ii - ^1 ^ 1 1^ J 53. Two Figures. 1960-1961.

64 55. . 1962. Man Dressed in Red on Dais.

Study for Three Heads. 1962.65 56. .

66 (left panel) 57. Three Studies for a Crucifixion. 1962. (right panel) .

1962.67 57. (center panel) . Three Studies for a Crucifixion.

68 58. 1962. . Turning Figure.

1963. Man and Child. .69 S9.

from Photographs.70 60. 61. Study for Portrait of P. 1963. L. 1963. . Study for Self-portrait.

71 62. Study for Portrait on Folding Bed. 1963. .

Lying Figure with Hypodermic Syringe. .72 63. 1963.

1963. Landscape near Malahata.73 64. .

. Stephen. 'Case-History Painting' ". London. 1958. no. 1957. 53-55. Brussels. Le Jardin des Arts. no. p. Stephen.August. Wilson. 1951. 1961. vol. London. p. series 8. 1961. 1962. April. 1954. Paris. 1963. The Museum to of Modern Art. 27. Ronald. no. 1961. Luce. Hoctin. July. Francis.RAPH¥ STATEMENTS BY THE ARTIST Ritchie. 60-64. 58. 1961. 38-44. "Francis Bacon". D. 22-24. J. Februar)'. p. 5. "Francis Bacon as a Mannerist". Washington. Statement from unpublished interview with Time. p. "Eight Days in London". 7. "Francis Bacon". January. "Francis Bacon et la hantise de I'homme". September. 30-32. David. Magazine of Art. 142-147. Francis Bacon". Robert. 7. p. no. May. p. Sylvester. "The Iconoclasm of Francis Bacon". 1952. (Exhibition catalogue). p. London. "Portrait Gallery: Francis Bacon". London. no. no. 66. 1953. "The 1930 Look in British Decoration". 1957. p. H. Paris. 1957. 23-26. 12-25. p. 13-18. Horizon. vol. no. ** 'Der Tradition eine neue Wendung geben'. December. Art International. Spender. p. 1. 346-347. Michel. January. Studio. Sam. 11. 120-121. Howard. "A note on the development of Francis Bacon's painting". "Francis Bacon". Rubin. Reichardt. 1957. Paris. July 14. 164-169. January. Ziirich. "Francis Bacon". June. 33-35. Studio. 54. February. 47-58. Matthew Smith Bacon. C. p. p. "Une Imagerie (Bourree de Souvenirs) Francis Bacon". no. p. London. ARTICLES AUev. p. Roskill. London. 1952. Robert. 2. "The Observer Profile Sylvester. p. — . March. 161. January-February. vol. 1955. p. Cimaise. David. "Matthew Smith bv the — — Paintings from 1909 1952. p. 1950. 6. X. Spender. London. 1963. 20. The Tate Gallery. 1962. May 29. "Francis Bacon". 63-64. 9. "In Camera".A. 43. Helen. W. Series 10. no. "Francis Bacon. 12. Werk. Art News and Revieic. New York. January 23. Bacon". "Portrait of the Artist". "Francis Bacon: the . Jasia.Anatomy of Horror". 214. December. Mark. XX' Siecle. October 19. 11. 1954. World Review. Frank. 1930. New York. vol. London. 3. 140-141. 1955. Kunst. London. 23-26. Andrew Carnduff. : Lessore. Encounter. no. "The . 3.\rt of the Impossible: Interview with David Sylvester".6IIILI0(. May 5. p. 69. 1962. "Francis — 2. Sunday Times. Ragon. JFeltwoche. A Painter's Tribute". Robert. "Francis Bacon". London. p. Hunter. London. The Observer W eekend Review. Paris. 48. GrifEn. Sunday Times Magazine. Cimaise. April. Ein Gesprach mit dem Maler Francis Bacon". vol. p. vol. 1. p. 11-15. London. "Der Maler Francis Bacon". vol. 184. 1961. Melville. vol.C. new series. no. The Neic Decade: 22 European artist Painters and Sculptors. The London Magazine. Melville. no. p. Quadrum. Current Biography yearbook. 45. c. 1. 1963. 419-423. London. Britain Today. p. 1949 jMelviUe. May 27. Winterthur.

London. Venice. June 14. 1954. Munro] "Bacon. Melville. "Mr. Sylvester. Newton. October 20-November 14. London. Sam. Sutton. Scott at Jackson Gallery". Heron. 1952. London. June-July. New York. D. 71. London. November Hilly. No catalogue. catalogue note on Bacon by David Sylvester. Stockholm. London. London. no. Konstrevy. 22. 1954. Gasser. News and London. 1949. 44. 1954. 53. "Mr. 1952. vol. "Round the London Galleries". vol. vol. "The Painting of Francis Bacon". 1952. Michael. London. December-January. Francis Bacon". p. London. Catalogue. "Art". 54. The Listener. Revieiv. CATAtOGI ES. February. p. Wallis. John. Architectural Revieiv. Winterthur. 1949. October 15. 1952-53 Hanover Gallery. 30. Hepworth. 1954. London. p. Catalogue: Francis Bacon Paintings: Robin Ironside Colored Draivings. 115. Connoisseur. 1953. No catalogue. Martha Jackson Gallery. New York. 43. 6. p. 41. Soby. New 52. December 16. Architectural Review. June 26. "Apparitions of Evil: Mr. S. 1954. p. p. David. York.. November Durlacher Bros. 62. G. 1953. M. vol. 1949 Hanover Gallery. "Mr. Beaux Arts Gallery". "Reality Plus". 133. Eric. "Nightmare". Saturday Review. & Architecture. London. 16. Andrew. December 18. 1953. 1951. Russell. Beaux Arts Gallery. October 19. Art News. London. December 23. Winterthur. H. James. K. 1949. p. U. Sunday Times. 131. January. London. New York. vol. "Francis Bacon: 'An Acute Sense of Impasse' ". Freud organized by The British Council. Robert. 3. BEVIEWS All entries are one-man exhibitions unless otherwise noted. New York. vol. 36. 13. 1949. Gallery: Mr. "Double Bass and Piccolo". Group Exhibition. Time. 28. The Times. E. Werk. vol. 42-43. p. April. Art New Paintings". vol. "Master oi the Monstrous". December-January. Group Exhibition. Bernard. November 8-December 10. XXI 11 Biennale. New August. vol. Neiv Statesman and Nation. The Times. February. "Francis Bacon". Middleton. Neic Statesman and Nation. No catalogue. York. Sunday Times. Art News. London. Nevile. W. Art Digest. November 21. The Observer. p. January. p. London. 1953. vol. 171. Art Neivs and Review. 4. London. Sylvester. vol. 52. "Exhibition. October 12-November 6. [Hilton Kramerl '"British trio at Martha Jackson Gallery". 1952. Denys. Patrick. The Times. vol. Los Angeles. 11-12. 34. Entries cover revieu-s of exhibitions through Tate Gallery Retrospective. January 3. "Work in Progress". Francis Bacon". 29. 1954. vol. Scott". November "Snapshots from Hell". H. January. New York. Art News. "Francis Bacon". London. p. April. at Hanover Gallery". p. . "Exhibition at Hanover Gallery". 55 (Supplement). vol. 1954 Hanover Gallery. Michael. "Francis Bacon". Francis Bacon's New Paintings: Extraordinary Use of Photographs". p. 173. p. New 7. James Thrall. [Dorothy Gees Seckler] "Exhibition Fitzsimmons. 1953. vol. vol. p. 1950 1951-52 Hanover Gallery. 62-63. October 15. Vernis. London. "Brev Fran London. Hammer. vol. David. London. 48-49. p. 1952. London. "Anmerkungen zur XXVII Biennale in Venedig". 1962. Apollo. Werk. Berger. 51. New York. "British Art. 51. Beaux Arts Gallery. p. Exhibitions of Bacon. p. 337. Francis Bacon". 11. Nevile "Francis Bacon". January 5. 28-29. 1952. 1952. vol. September-October. December 14. p. The Listener. 55. Nicholson. 33. 1954. London. New York. "Art News from London. Bacon. October. November. (American edition). December 3. December 29. The Observer. C. 20. "Mostly Bacon". Arts at Durlacher". Bacon's Paintings: African Animals". [Eleanor C. London. 39. 1040. 1953. New York. Francis Bacon's Boles. New York. 1953. The Times. 1952. London. "Exhibition "Hanover Middleton. London. 132-133. Art Digest. John. January 7. — — "Survivors". p. Hepworth. Hunter.75 EXHIBITIONS. 4. Catalogue covering exhibitions of Bacon and Hanover Gallery. Kern. Bacon's Paintings". 1951. Wallis. November 13. 53. 1952. 1954. New York. Time.

June 9-July Catalogue. V Bienal. p. Jules. 1. The Listener. "Austellung Francis at the Hanover Gallery". Manchester. 7. March 21-April 26. February 17-March 5. July 9. London. 1955. January. Barbara. 1955. 8. note by David Sylvester reprinted from catalogue of L'Obelisco. 6. June-July. Arts. no. Hitchens p. 1960. Feigen Gallery. December. "Across the Channel". no. 2. The Sunday Telegraph. Catalogue with introduction by Toni del Renzio (reprinted from Galleria dell'Ariete catalogue) 1959 Hanover Gallery. "Dr. Art News and Review. vol. group exhibition: New Images of Man. "London Commentary: exhibition Spira. Stephen. 158. September. Anthony.A. 1961. Lawrence. John. p. 18-19. University of California at Catalogue: Francis Bacon — Hyman Bloom. Russell. p. Sao Paulo. London. Cologne. April 6. 1960. 27. Art News and Review. Sylvester. March 30. p. Bowness. 1957. "The Baconian Van Gogh". 1955. London. March-April. Golding. 54. London. 10. Lebrun". Catalogue with introductions by Roland Penrose (in French) and David Sylvester (English and French). May 24-July 1. and Bacon featured in an artistic 'Entente Cordiale' ". London. 35. Arts. James. February 13-19. Denys. no. p. "Dramas in Paint". Catalogue with introduction by Robert Melville. p. Bloom. July 11-October 11. "Notes on Francis Bacon". David. Summer. p. 4. 7. Lawrence. London. January 23-February 10. Catalogue with introduction by Toni del Renzio. London. Hayter and Hepworth organized by The British Council. 76 1955 Hanover Gallery. and introduction by Sir John Rothenstein. Hoctin. Arts. Venice. 28-33. "On view at U. London. Museum of Modern 1960 The Art Art. Scott and Sutherland. Paris. 1947-1958. 21. Art Neivs. Heron. May 7.) The Institute of Contemporary Arts. 1958 Galleria Galatea. W. New York. no. 13. March 21-April 26. 66. 1957. Lawrence. London. 17. Arts. vol.L. Die Weltkunst. Spender. May 1. Catalogue with introduction by L. 46. 12. Milan. Art News. "Art News from London. 59. May. 4. Burr. 1955. vol. Francis Bacon". vol.C. (Title originally "Horror". 162. 27. Sutton. "Exhibition of 1961 Strauss. May 27. "London: new canvases Hanover Gallery". Galerie Rive Droite. Recent Paintings at Marlborough Gallery". Ziirich. "Los Angeles: Bacon. 1960. 1955. March. Alloway. Robert. vol. vol. Robert. 1959. Alloway. vol. "The Paintings of Mr. Alloway. 1960. AUoway. 1960. vol. 46. April. 1957. Nottingham University. January 24. p. 7. February 5.31. "Bacon's Turning Point: exhibition at the Marlborough Gallery". Domus.". Rome. 4. 34. p. 360. 1961. n Documenta. Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. Patrick. Art International. 56. p. 1960. "Charm". The Financial Times. "Art News from London". 1962. 423. p. Turin. p. Lawrence. New York. 67. "Exhibition at the Marlborough Gallery". York. vol. p. 1960. The Times. 1962. "Lust for Death". London. no. Richard L. 6. 6. . at the vol. 48. vol. 9. London. June. vol. p. London. Studio. 1957. Art News and Review. 5. 1957. catalogue text on Bacon by Robert Melville (in Portuguese and English). February 23. Burlington Magazine. Charles. Retrospective exhibition organized by The Tate Gallery (circulating thereafter). p. Catalogue. Hanover Gallery. Art News and Review. Catalogue: II Documenta. April 16. September 30-November 29. 20. Alan. London. "Round the London Galleries". (Should be numbered vol. 1955. London. on Bacon. p. G. New York. Exhibitions of Bacon. 1959. 12. John. vol. 14. 271. 187. Catalogue with introduction by Helen Lessore. Melville. Retrospective exhibition. "Francis Bacon". Kassel. [Luigi Carluccio] Galleria dell'Ariete. Art News and Review. 1961. Paris. John. "Francis Bacon at Nottingham". Malerei. Alloway. 270. Galleries. Lawrence. New York. New New York. Nottingham. as "Charm". The Manchester Guardian. "Francis Bacon: Russell. London. The Listener. 5. 7. 2-3. 12. Reply by David Sylvester. Chicago. New York. April 9. p. p. no. 127.. C. 6. New York. 1. 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Marcel. p. p. "The Private Obsessions of Francis Bacon". 8-12. Reichardt. "Reg Butler and Francis Bacon". 60-62. 1954. 12. Spender. Heron. introduction by Luigi Carluccio. Boulogne. Francis Bacon". 1955. Mav 29. vol. Spiel. Marcel. 10. 146-152. p. 20. D. The Listener. Lucie-Smith. Basel. London. 1959. 1959. July. 10. p. The Museum Modern Art. Burlington Magadne. The Museum of Modern Art. 27. Modern Art and the New Past. Kunsthaus. ""La mostra di Bacon alia Tate". M. 61. Josef. Catalogue with introduction by Stephen Spender (in English and German) Galleria Civica d'Arte Moderna. 16. 323. 10. "'Zwei Englische Maler". May 29. Thames & Hudson. 36. June 2-16. Turin. vol. July 14. 314.. Anita. 1956. "Bacon. p. James Thrall. Soby. Saturday Revieiv. June 5. Herbert. 1962. London. 1962. "'Spate Expressionisten". The Museum of Sek. November. Spender. voL 104.) Smith. ""Francis Bacon". Peter. ""Exhibition in London". Geneva. 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Mates Jean Xceron Business Administrator Administrative Assistant Office Glenn H.STAFF Director Thomas M. Loggin Building Superintendent Head Guard George J Sauve . Gleason Jr. Connolly Peter G. Messer Curator Associate Curator Assistant Curator Lawrence Alloway Louise Averill Svendsen Daniel Robbins Public Affairs Evelyn von Ripper Sally Membership Registrar Ann Merz Arlene B. Dellis Orrin Riley and Saul Fuerstein Conservation Photography Custodian Robert E. Easton. . Viola H. Manager Agnes R.

5. 1964 3000 copies of this catalogue. 20 Oliver Baker: No. Turin: No.C. 21 7. 1963~January. 1. D. Washington. 32 Galleria dell'. 57 Museo Civico di Torino: Nos. 4 The following color plates were lent by: The Tate Gallery. Mates: Nos. London: Victor Amato: jVo. have been produced by Fred M. London: ?ios. Kleeberg Associates in October 1963 for the Trustees of The Solomon R.Ariete. 9 The Tate Gallery. 40. 21.: No. Leeds: No. 19..All photographs but the jollouing were made by Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. Elna Wilkinson : No. 3. 5S The An Institute of Chicago: No. 52. 29. 6. 16. 18 Hanoier Gallery. Guggenheim Foundation this exhibition of on the occasion of Francis Bacon . 26 Galleria Galatea. 13 City Art Gallery.xhibition 63/6 October. Milan: No. 45 34 os. London: Nos. Soichi Sunami: A p. 33 E. S. 27 The Detroit Institute of Arts: No. 41 Sam Hunter: Robert E. 35 The Phillips Collection. London: Nos. 12. designed by Herbert Matter.

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Y . N. NEW YORK 28. GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM 1071 FIFTH AVENUE.THE SOLOMON R.

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