Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Sustainability in Science Engineering

Strengthening of RC slabs with cut-out openings using FRP composite materials – preliminary aspects of research program
FLORUT SORIN-CODRUT*, STOIAN VALERIU** *,**Department of Civil Engineering “Politehnica” University of Timisoara 2nd T. Lalescu, Timisoara, 300223 ROMANIA,
Abstract: - This paper presents some preliminary aspects regarding a research program that is in progress at the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara. The program deals with FRP composite based solutions for strengthening of reinforced concrete slabs with cut-out openings. Theoretical and experimental researches have been performed in order to determine the effectiveness of these strengthening solutions in the particular case of cut-outs created in the corners and on the edges of the slabs. The experimental program involves tests on four large scale elements. The first element will be a full slab and will serve as reference, while in each of the other three elements a different shape of cut-out will be created. A series of analytical and numerical calculations have been performed in order to study the behavior of the slabs in elastic and post elastic range, and to design the strengthening proposals. Key-Words: - reinforced concrete, slab, cut-out, opening, strengthening, FRP

1 Introduction
Nowadays, building engineering considers more and more the composite materials, especially the Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). The composite materials properties have made their use to prove a real success in a series of applications from local strengthening to highly complex works. The FRP composites are light, very highly resistant, corrosion proof and nonmagnetic. The basic principles in using FRP are grounded on the principles of using steel strengthening bars in reinforced concrete building structures, but with some changes made, in order to consider the composites` physicmechanical characteristics. Preferring composites in some applications instead of traditional steel or reinforced concrete based strengthening solutions is grounded on many reasons. The composites` very high corrosion resistance along with the short amount of needed construction time is probably the most important of all. One of the experimental programs that are in progress at the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara concerns the study of strengthening solutions that involve the use of FRP for reinforced concrete slabs with cut-outs. In many situations, openings are needed in slabs, in places that were not considered during the structural design of a building. This need emerges mostly due to a series of changes in functionality. There is also the case in which some openings were considered in the design process but due to changes in functionality or in destination, the loads to which the slabs are subjected become much higher. In either one of these previously mentioned

situations, the slab’s overall behavior becomes deficient, both as stiffness and strength. The area in which these effects are of most importance is the area around the cutout, where stresses are highly concentrated. Any situation from the two previously mentioned, does not only lead to alteration of stiffness and strength but also to an important change in the overall failure mode, leading to new and unexpected ones.

2 Similar studies performed previously worldwide
The interest in finding new solutions for strengthening reinforced concrete slabs using FRP composites was quite important for a series of researchers, experimental and theoretical programs being developed all around the world. Studies were made on one-way and two-way slabs with or without cut-out openings. Most of the researches on the reinforced concrete slabs strengthening were made on one-way ones. In some of those studies, the reinforced concrete slabs’ conduct was very similar to that of beams. The usual strengthening method presumes the disposal of the lamellas or sheets bonded on the tensioned side using resins. The sheets are mounted parallel to the long edge of the slabs, the same way as flexural strengthening of beams. There is also the possibility to prestress the sheets, complementarily to the simple procedure of bonding them. The main advantage of using the prestressed sheets consists of delaying the formation and propagation of cracks.

ISSN: 1790-2769


ISBN: 978-960-474-080-2

Different configurations for the lay-out of the strengthening materials were used. having dimensions of 2750x3950x120 mm. and then the ones that would be suited in real situations for inserting cut-outs were chosen. presumes the disposal of the lamellas or textures bonded on the tensioned side by using resins. A statistical study was previously conducted in order to determine which type of elements were used on a larger scale. Considering these two main aspects. The fourth element will have a circular cut-out opening with the diameter of 1280 mm and it will also be placed at one of the corners of the slab. Some of the configurations used by Tan & Zhao ISSN: 1790-2769 503 ISBN: 978-960-474-080-2 . The first element will be a full slab and will serve as reference. having dimensions of 1060x1540 mm and being created at one corner of the slab. The slabs were cast using C30/37 concrete and were reinforced with steel wire meshes at the inferior side (4 mm in diameter placed at every 100 mm) and with steel rebar at the superior one (6 mm and 10 mm bars). This slab was named RCS-RSC-01.1. Several papers that refer to large panels precast structures were studied. 2 the geometry. The purpose of the program is to design strengthening solutions that will restore the stiffness and strength for the elements with cut-out up to the level of the full slab. [5]. [13]. position and size of inferior reinforcement is presented for the full slab. while in each of the other three elements a different shape of cut-out will be created. the work conducted by Tan & Zhao [16] and Vasquez & Karbhari [17]. In two way reinforced concrete slabs. The reserve in using of FRP materials in strengthening of flexural structural members is the brittleness of such materials that can cause a decrease in their stiffness. Since the reproduced situations involved simple supported slabs. The strengthening method. being created on one of the short edges of the slab. In all of the previous research programs. 3 Experimental elements The experimental program consists in testing four reinforced concrete slabs up to failure. there is off course a difference. including some that deal with the behavior of panels with cut-outs subjected to inplane loads [4]. Enochsson [7] or Smith [14] being of high importance. the composite material being mounted parallel to both length and width of the slabs. covering a research area that has not yet been approached. using of FRP strengthening methods is justified by its unlaborious appliance. This method increases the capacity in both directions of the element. In Fig. the available research is not as extended. This particularity makes the use of composite materials in two-way reinforced concrete slabs strengthening to be considered as an optimal solution. In addition to the important increase in serviceability and flexural capacity. This slab was named RCS-RLC-01. with the larger dimension oriented parallel with the longer edges. the reinforcement being identical for the Fig. the superior reinforcement was designed mainly due to constructive reasons. For slabs with cut-out openings strengthened using FRP. The second element will have a large rectangular cut-out with dimensions of 1060x2750 mm. while the superior one was placed only along the edges. [6]. That is why they are susceptible rather to flexural than shear failure. the most common being the one in which the material is placed parallel to the edges of the cut-out.Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Sustainability in Science Engineering Generally speaking. The fourth slab was named RCS-CC-01. same as oneway reinforced concrete slabs. the cut-outs were created in the center of the tested slabs and none of the programs dealt with circular cut-outs. the research program conducted at the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara is innovative. The first element will be a full slab that will be tested unstrengthened and will serve as reference. The inferior reinforcement was laid on the entire surface of the slab. only several research programs being reported in literature. The configuration of the reinforcement was designed in order to simulate real situations that exist in a lot of buildings erected in Romania from large precast reinforced concrete panels. being named RCS-FS-01. The solution applied by all of the researches consisted in laying up CFRP or GFRP strips or sheets of fabrics around the cut-out and bonding them to the concrete surface using epoxy based resins on the tensioned side. In the third element a smaller cut-out will be sawn. the two-way reinforced concrete slabs are elements subjected to flexure with irrelevant shear effect. The elements are large scale ones.

The test setup can be observed in Fig.Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Sustainability in Science Engineering other three slabs. Several recommended test procedures and loading strategies were studied in order to determine the most appropriate one [2]. Geometry and inferior reinforcement of full slab Fig. Each edge of the experimental elements will rest on the steel beam on a width of 100 mm. [3]. 2. On top of these elements a steel beam will be mounted. the steel wire mesh reinforcement becoming the tensioned reinforcement. The applied loads. Configuration of the test setup Fig. In order to match the loads considered for the design. Using this system. the slabs will have to be mounted at a certain height above the floor of the laboratory. 3 the geometry of the three elements in which cut-outs have been created are presented. In Fig. the inferior side becomes the tensioned one. Geometry of the three slabs with cut-outs ISSN: 1790-2769 504 ISBN: 978-960-474-080-2 . even if they are not uniformly distributed on the entire surface of the slab. The existence of the superior reinforcement can be neglected in analytical and numerical models. A series of supporting elements were created from reinforced concrete beams and brick masonry. Fig. the slabs would have to be simply supported on all of the four horizontal edges and loaded gravitationally. off course with the exception of the cut-outs. since its presence does not influence in a major way the overall behavior and capacity of the slab. where reinforcement is missing. 4. the slabs should be subjected to uniformly distributed loads. 3. Taking this into account. they try to simulate as much as possible this kind of action. 4. 4 Loading and testing strategy The loading and testing strategy was considered in such a manner so it would be in accordance with the real situation of the slabs. In order to properly investigate and observe the cracks’ distribution and propagation on the inferior side.

This value is much lower than the ultimate strain provided by the producers. the maximum force that can be anchored (Nfa. For this particular experimental program.max = α ⋅ c1 ⋅ k c ⋅ k b ⋅ b ⋅ E f ⋅ f f ⋅ f ctm lb . This extra length will be provided since the steel reinforcement in the immediate vicinity of the cut-out is practically unanchored. being the accepted limit for elements subjected to flexure.5 mm 2 165000 MPa ⋅ 0. A series of different types of FRP materials with different characteristics can be used in the experimental program. the way the quantity of strengthening material was determined for slab RCSRSC-01 is presented below. the FRP composite material being the one that will provide the required strength in that area. As an exemplification. For a thickness of the lamella of 1. 5.max = E f ⋅t f c 2 ⋅ f ctm (5) Fs = F f (1) Af = f yd E f ⋅ε f As (2) (6) Inside formula (2).max = 1137 kN lb .max = 165000 ⋅ 1. fifteen transversal reinforcing steel bars and eleven longitudinal ones were eliminated.008 N fa . Display of the FRP on the inferior side of slab RCSRSC-01 ISSN: 1790-2769 505 ISBN: 978-960-474-080-2 . Fig.max) and the maximum anchorage length (lb. Thus. The design yield strength of reinforcement was assumed in computation with a value of 370 MPa. Since the diameter of one bar is 4 mm.2 mm. the required width is 45 mm respectively 32 mm on the two directions.2 mm.0 ⋅ 50 ⋅ 165000 ⋅ 2640 ⋅ 2. Af = 370 MPa 188. the total eliminated reinforcement area is 188. It was decided to use CFRP lamellas that have a modulus of elasticity of 165000 MPa and a thickness of 1. the width being 50 mm.max = 1. the length of the CFRP outside the cut-out being designed so that it will provide the necessary anchorage length. being considered the value at which debonding occurs.Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Sustainability in Science Engineering 5 Analytic design of FRP strengthening system The FRP strengthening material will be placed around the cut-out on the tensioned side of the element. The amount of FRP that will be placed around the cut-out is to be determined analytically by equalizing the traction force that would have been undertook by the steel reinforcement eliminated by creating the cut-out. the tensioned side is the inferior one.5 mm2 on the transversal direction and 138. N fa .2 = 185 mm 2 ⋅ 2.3 mm 2 165000 MPa ⋅ 0.8%. It was decided to use one lamella for each of the longitudinal and transversal direction. The above calculated area is needed around the cutout.008 370 MPa 138. considering at least 500 mm for the strengthening solution. No other special anchorages will be used. The necessary anchorage length was determined according to the procedure described in fib Bulletin 14 [5]. When creating the cut-out.0 ⋅ 0.9 The anchorage length will be grater than the 185 mm resulted from calculation.9 N fa .0 ⋅ 1.max) are given by the equations below (5) and (6). the strain in FRP composite is limited to 0.3 mm2 on the longitudinal direction. the needed anchorage being provided solely by the extra length of the CFRP. and the traction force that will be undertook by the FRP. (3) Af = (4) The area of CFRP that is required is approximately 55 mm2 on the transversal direction and 39 mm2 in the longitudinal direction. The way the CFRP is laid around the cut-out is presented in Fig. 5.64 ⋅ 1. corresponding to the data provided by the producer for the STNB type of reinforcement.

Composite joint for buildings placed in seismic areas theoretical and experimental studies.92 kNm/m. China 2007.x=4..60 kN/m2 the maximum bending moment has a value of mEd. V. Quasi-static Loading Strategy for Earthquake Simulation on Precast RC Shear Walls. pp 387-396. Romagnolo M... more than twice the value of the flexural capacity. plus the self weight of the slab. C. Greece. Fig.. Nagy T. For the RCSCC-01 slab. Stoian V..00 kN/m2. 2. 6 Numerical models for unstrengthened slabs A series of numerical models by means of finite element analysis were created. the slabs RCS-RLC-01 and RCS-CC-01 are to be strengthened.60 kN/m2. Fig. Distribution of mx bending moment in elements RCS-CC-01 and RCS-RLC-01 7 Conclusions Considering the characteristics of the experimental elements. considering a uniformly distributed load of p=6.60 kN/m2 the maximum bending moment has a value of mEd..y=4. The models revealed the necessity of a strengthening solution. Yantai –Beijing. proving the fact that the behavior of the slabs becomes deficient in case of sawing in a cut-out opening. Stoian V. also higher than the value of the flexural capacity. 193-201.x=7. [2] Dan D. considering a uniformly distributed load of p=6. Theoretical and experimental studies concerning the load bearing capacity of steel and composite joints. ACI Structural Journal. Using AXISVM and ABAQUS software.New and traditional material for building.75 kNm/m respectively mrd.85 kNm/m. For the RCS-RSC-01 slab. All of the maximum values of the bending moment for the slabs with cut-outs are reached in areas around the cut-out. analyses in elastic range were performed for the four unstrengthened slabs. considering a uniformly distributed load of p=6. 7. [4] Demeter I. [3] Dan D. 8 Acknowledgments The research work was granted to some extent by the Ministry of Education and Research through the CEEX and CNCSIS programs of the National University Research Council of Romania. Nagy T. higher than the value of the flexural capacity.x=6.60 kN/m2 the maximum bending moment has a value of mEd.. 2004.x=9. Daescu.. pp. Performance of one-way reinforced concrete slabs with externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer strengthening. 12th WSEAS International Conference on SYSTEMS. Romania 2006.. ISSN: 1790-2769 506 ISBN: 978-960-474-080-2 .. The self weight of the slab is g=3.00 kNm/m. 101. Dan D.. Proceedings of International Conference Steel . This capacity is reached for a full slab with the proposed geometry and simply supported along the four edges at a level of the uniformly distributed load of p=6. Nagy-György T. It covers a gap in the world wide knowledge of strengthening of reinforced concrete slabs with cut-out using FRP materials.Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Sustainability in Science Engineering In the same manner. pp 647-655. Distribution of mx bending moment in elements RCS-FS-01 and RCS-RSC-01 References: [1] Arduini M. 6. Nanni A. Stoian V. The flexural capacity of the slab determined analytically for the both directions at the inferior side is mrd.55 kNm/m. 9-th International conference on Steel. the research program is quite innovative. No. Space & Composite Structures.. Brasov. For the RCS-RLC-01 slab.

J.. [18] Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures. Fiber-reinforced polymer composite strengthening of concrete slabs with cutouts. September-October 2003. Composite Structures 60 (2003). V. Carolin A.. [9] Limam O. Axial loading strategy for experimental tests on precast RC walls subjected to in-plane seismic actions.Literature review. 2001.. Nagy-György T. 100.. Dăescu C. [8] Floruț S. Tomul 52(66). Challenges for Civil Construction (CCC 2008). 5. pp.... for Constr... 2005.. ISBN 978973-625-445-1. ISSN 1221-5848. pp 175-180. Strengthening of one-way spanning RC slabs with cutouts using FRP composites. [12] Nagy-György T.... A. M. pp. Experiment. 393-402 (September/October 2004). CFRP strengthening of concrete slabs. Timişoara.. 467-471. design and field application. ISSN: 1790-2769 507 ISBN: 978-960-474-080-2 . pp 49-56. pp 1578-1590. S. Volume 23.. Ed. Täljsten B. Karbhari V.. ACI 440.J. 2007.. C. Composite materials for construction (in Romanian).. pp 196-197 (+8 pg). Elsanadedy H..No.3. Nagy-György T. Issue 5. Stoian V.. 2002 [19] Technical Report on the Design and Use of Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement for Reinforced Concrete Structures. ISSN 1790-2769. pp. Nagy-György T.. 43-54. Kim S. Portugalia.. Licentiate thesis. Acta Technica Napocensis. Zhao H. Luleå University of Technology. Mosalam. may 2007. [11] Mosallam A.. Strengthening of two-way concrete slabs with FRP composite laminates. Demeter I.. Experimental and numerical analysis of two-way concrete slabs repaired with polymer composites. with and without openings. Nagy-György T. Construction and Building Materials. Issue 4. Composite Materials Elements and Structures for Construction. Romania.. Politehnica..T... 2009.. ISBN 978-960-6777-83-1. Porto. H. Editura Politehnica Timişoara. 2004. Stoian V. [17] Vasquez A. Nagy-György T. Stoian V. ISSN 12246026. pp 813-829. K. [5] Demeter I. Volume 8. [13] Sas G. [16] Tan K. Dan D. TG 9. ACI Structural Journal. Strengthening of openings in one-way reinforced-concrete slabs using carbon fiber-reinforced polymer systems.Proceedings of the 11th WSEAS International Conference on Sustainability in Science Engineering 2008.... M.. [14] Smith S. Timisoara. RC slabs strengthened with externally bonded FRP composite materials . Analytical and numerical models for predicting the behaviour of in-plane loaded precast RC wall panel experimental elements. [10] Mosallam. Civil Engineering... Buletinul Stiintific al UPT. Kreiner J.2R – 02. pg 11-16. Gergely J. Foret G. 2007.. fib Bulletin 14. Lancey T. FRP strengthened RC panels with cut-out openings. Haroun M. pp.. FRP composite materials for strengthening masonry and concrete elements (in Romanian). [7] Enochsson O. Compos. analysis. ISBN 978-972-752-100-5. apr 2008. [15] Stoian V.. 665-67. 51/II-2008. Center for Advanced Composites & Smart Systems for Repair and Rehabilitation. Ehrlacher A. Stoian V. RC two-way slabs strengthened with CFRP strips: experimental study and a limit analysis approach. [6] Demeter I. Construction and Building Materials 17 (2003).

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