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SEETHI SAHIB MEMMORIAL POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE TIRUR

SEMINAR REPORT ON

GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION

SUBMITTED BY: MOHAMMEDALI.P REG NO:11050136

DEPT.OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my deep gratitude to almighty, the supreme guide, for bestowing his blessings up on me in my entire endeavor. I would to like to express my sincere thanks to MR.SNM BASIL, Head of Department of Automobile engineering for all his assistance. Finally, I would like to thank all the faculty members of the department of automobile engineering and my friends for their constant support and encouragement.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[2]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

ABSTRACT
For years engineers have known that if they could build a petrol engine that worked like a diesel engine in other words, one in which fuel is injected directly into the cylinder and the stratified, rich mixture right near the spark plug is ignited they would have an engine that achieved both the fuel efficiency of the diesel engine and attained the high output of a conventional petrol engine. However development of such an engine has been impeded by petrols poor combustibility. Diesel engines operate on a thermodynamic cycle, meaning that as long as sufficient temperature is reached, through ignition will occur regardless of the air/fuel mixture condition. In order to achieve combustion with petrol, gaseous fuel and air must be mixed to form just the right air/fuel mixture, and prcis control of position and timing of the air/fuel mixture is necessary to ensure delivery of this mixture to the very limited space between the spark plug electrodes in the very specific timing of ignition. The gasoline direct injection engine is able to achieve this through technology that enables precise control over the air/fuel mixture. In conventional engines, fuel and air are mixed outside the cylinder but in the GDI engine, petrol is directly injected into the cylinder, eliminating many of the hitherto restrictions on combustion control, such as the impossibility of adding fuel after the induction valves were closed. By achieving prcis combustion control that is free of restrictions, the GDI delivers a previously unseen combination fuel economy and power.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[3]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION COMPONENTS OF THE GDI THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GDI AND MPI TRANSITION OF FUEL SUPPLY OUTLINE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GDI ENGINE CONCLUSION REFERENCE

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[4]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

INTRODUCTION
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology has received considerable attention over the last few years as a way to significantly improve fuel efficiency without making a major shift away from conventional internal combustion technology. In many respects, GDI technology represents a further step in the natural evolution of gasoline engine fueling systems. Each step of this evolution, from mechanically based carburetion, to throttle body fuel injection, through multi-point and finally sequential multi-point fuel injection, has taken advantage of improvements in fuel injector and electronic control technology to achieve incremental gains in the control of internal combustion engines. Further advancements in these technologies, as well as continuing evolutionary advancements in combustion chamber and intake valve design and combustion chamber flow dynamics, have permitted the production of GDI engines for automotive applications.Mitsubishi,Toyota and Nissan all market four-stroke GDI engines in Japan.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[5]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

GASOLINE DIRECT INJECTION (GDI)


In conventional engines, fuel and air are mixed outside the cylinder. This ensures waste between the mixing point and the cylinder, as well as imperfect injection timing. Gasoline direct injection engine generates the air fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. During the induction stroke only the combustion air flows through the open intake valve. The fuel is then directly injected into the combustion chamber by the fuel injector. But in the GDI engine, petrol is injected directly into the cylinder with precise timing, eliminating waste and inefficiency.

COMPONENTS OF THE GDI:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

HIGH PRESSURE PUMP HIGH PRESSURE PIPE LINES FILTER COMMON RAIL INJECTORS SENSORS ENGINE CONTROL UNIT (ECU)

HIGH PRESSURE PUMPS:


A fuel pump is a frequently (but not always) essential component on a car or other internal combustion engine device. Many engines do not require any fuel pump at all, requiring only gravity to feed fuel from the fuel tank through a line or hose to the engine but Dept. of Automobile Eng [6] SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

in non-gravity feed designs, fuel has to be pumped from the fuel tank to the engine and delivered under low pressure to the carburetor or under high pressure to the fuel injection system. Often, carbureted engines use low pressure mechanical pumps that are mounted outside the fuel tank, whereas fuel injected engines often use electric fuel pumps that are mounted inside the fuel tank (and some fuel injected engines have two fuel pumps: one low pressure/high volume supply pump in the tank and one high pressure/low volume pump on or near the engine).

Fig1 cross section of electrical pump In many modern cars the fuel pump is usually electric and located inside of the fuel tank. The pump creates positive pressure in the fuel lines, pushing the gasoline to the engine. Placing the pump in the tank puts the component least likely to handle gasoline vapor well (the pump itself) farthest from the engine, submersed in cool liquid. Another benefit to placing the pump inside the tank is that it is less likely to start a fire. Though electrical components (such as a fuel pump) can spark and ignite fuel vapors, liquid fuel will not explode. And therefore submerging the pump in the tank is one of the safest places to put it.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[7]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

In most cars, the fuel pump delivers a constant flow of gasoline to the engine, fuel not used is returned to the tank.

HIGH PRESSURE LINES:

Fig 2 high pressure lines The Common Rail High Pressure (HP) pipe is made up of a formed pipe with sealing interfaces at both ends with fastening screws or nuts. The pipe assembly transports fuel at high pressure between pump, rail and injectors, remaining completely sealed and resistant to pressure changes. The assembly provides a minimum pressure loss against all internal and external influences, such as temperature, corrosion, and engine fluids.

FILTERS:
Due to the high injection pressures involved in a Common Rail system, the cleanliness of fuel is critical. One of the most important system components is the fuel filter

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[8]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

which acts as the engines first line of defence. Effective filtration and petrol fuel conditioning are essential to protect the Common Rail fuel injection equipment from water and particle contamination. As little as 2 microns of dirt can completely damage the filter components and cylinder lining.

Fig 3 exploded view of the filter.

Fuel filter is located along the fuel lines, either in the engine compartment or underneath the car by the fuel tank. It is the responsibility of the fuel filter to trap large particles in the fuel in order to prevent them from getting into the engine. Because of the tremendous force behind the up-and-down motion of the engine's pistons, which compress the air-fuel mixture so that it will burn more efficiently, any large particles in the fuel could potentially cause serious damage to the engine. Large particles in the fuel also have the ability to clog fuel injectors, depriving a cylinder of precious fuel and requiring that the injector be cleaned or replaced. Therefore, maintaining a clean fuel filter is imperative to the performance of a car's engine. Dept. of Automobile Eng [9] SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

COMMON RAILS:

Fig 4 common rail

Common rail [1p425] direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. It features a high-pressure (over 1,000 psi) fuel rail feeding individual valves. Modern common rail systems, whilst working on the same principle, are governed by an engine control unit (ECU) which opens each injector electronically rather than mechanically. In common rail systems a high pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure up to and above 2,000 bars. The term "common rail" refers to the fact that all of the fuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is nothing more than a pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure. This accumulator supplies multiple fuel injectors with high pressure fuel. This simplifies the purpose of the high pressure pump in that it only has to maintain a commanded pressure at a target (either mechanically or electronically controlled). The fuel injectors are typically ECUcontrolled. When the fuel injectors are electrically activated a hydraulic valve (consisting of a nozzle and plunger) is mechanically or hydraulically opened and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders at the desired pressure. Since the fuel pressure energy is stored remotely and the injectors are electrically actuated the injection pressure at the start and end of injection is very near the pressure in the accumulator (rail), thus producing a square injection rate. If the accumulator, pump, and plumbing are sized properly, the injection pressure and rate will be the same for each of the multiple injection events. Common rail engines require no heating up time and produce lower engine noise and emissions than older systems. Dept. of Automobile Eng [10] SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

INJECTORS:
The solenoid-operated fuel injector is shown in the figure7 below. It consists of a valve body and needle valve to which the solenoid plunger is rigidly attached. The fuel is supplied to the injector under pressure from the electric fuel pump passing through the filter. The needle valve is pressed against a seat in the valve body by a helical spring to keep it closed until the solenoid winding is energized. When the current pulse is received from the electronic control unit, a magnetic field builds up in the solenoid which attracts a plunger and lifts the needle valve from its seat. This opens the path to pressurized fuel to emerge as a finely atomized spray. The amount of fuel supplied to the engine is determined by the amount of time the fuel injector stays open. This is called the pulse width, and it is controlled by the ECU. The injectors are mounted in the intake manifold so that they spray fuel directly to cylinder.A pipe called the fuel rail supplies pressurized fuel to all of the injectors.[1p436]

Fig 5 cross section of the nozzle tip.

Fig 6 cut section of the injector

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[11]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

ENGINE SENSORS: In order to provide the correct amount of fuel for every operating
condition, the engine control unit (ECU) has to monitor a huge number of input sensors.

MASS AIR FLOW SENSOR - Tells the ECU the mass of air entering the engine OXYGEN SENSOR - The device measures the amount of oxygen in the exhaust gas and sends this information to the electronic control unit. If there is too much oxygen, the mixture is too lean. If there is too little, the mixture is too rich. In either case, the electronic control unit adjusts the air fuel ratio by changing the fuel injected. It is usually used with closed loop mode of the ECU.

THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR - Monitors the throttle valve position (which determines how much air goes into the engine) so the ECU can respond quickly to changes, increasing or decreasing the fuel rate as necessary

COOLANT TEMPERATURE SENSOR - Allows the ECU to determine when the engine has reached its proper operating temperature

VOLTAGE SENSOR - Monitors the system voltage in the car so the ECU can raise the idle speed if voltage is dropping (which would indicate a high electrical load)

MANIFOLD ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SENSOR - Monitors the pressure of the air in the intake manifold. The amount of air being drawn into the engine is a good indication of how much power it is producing; and the more air that goes into the engine, the lower the manifold pressure, so this reading is used to gauge how much power is being produced.

ENGINE SPEED SENSOR - Monitors engine speed, which is one of the factors used to calculate the pulse width.

CRANK ANGLE SENSOR - Monitors the position of the piston and gives the information to the ECU. Accordingly the ECU adjusts the valve timing.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[12]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

ENGINE CONTROL UNIT:


This unit is the heart of electronic injection system which is responsible for metering the quantity of fuel supplied to each cylinder. The electronic control system consists of various engine sensors, Electronic Control Unit (ECU), fuel injector assemblies, and related wiring. The ECU determines precisely how much fuel needs to be delivered by the injector by monitoring the engine sensors. The ECU [1p399] turns the injectors on for a precise amount of time, referred to as injection pulse width or injection duration, to deliver the proper air/fuel ratio to the engine. The operating data are measured at different locations of the engine by sensors and then transmitted electrically to the electronic control unit. Which computes the amount of fuel injected during each engine cycle .the sensors used are for manifold pressure engine speed and temperature at intake manifold .the amount of fuel injected is varied by varying the injector opening time only.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[13]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF THE GDI ENGINE


Ultra-low fuel consumption that betters that of even diesel engines Superior power to conventional MPI engines

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NEW GDI AND CURRENT MPI


For fuel supply, conventional engines use a fuel injection system, which replaced the carburetion system. MPI or Multi-Point Injection, where the fuel is injected to each intake port, is currently the one of the most widely used systems. However, even in MPI engines there are limits to fuel supply response and the combustion control because the fuel mixes with air before entering the cylinder. Mitsubishi set out to push those limits by developing an engine where gasoline is directly injected into the cylinder as in a diesel engine, and moreover, where injection timings are precisely controlled to match load conditions. The GDI engine achieved the following outstanding characteristics.

Extremely precise control of fuel supply to achieve fuel efficiency that exceeds that of diesel engines by enabling combustion of an ultra-lean mixture supply.

Very efficient intake and relatively high compression ratio unique to the GDI engine deliver both high performance and response that surpasses those of conventional MPI engines.

For Mitsubishi, the technology realized for this GDI engine will form the cornerstone of the next generation of high efficiency engines and, in its view, the technology will continue to develop in this direction.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[14]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

TRANSITION OF FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM

OUTLINE
(1) MAJOR SPECIFICATIONS

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[15]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection (2) ENGINE DIAGRAM

Seminar Report 13

TECHNICAL FEATURES

Upright straight intake ports for optimal airflow control in the cylinder Curved-top pistons for better combustion High pressure fuel pump to feed pressurized fuel into the injectors High-pressure swirl injectors for optimum air-fuel mixture

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE GDI ENGINE:


1. LOWER FUEL CONSUMPTION AND HIGHER OUTPUT (1) OPTIMAL FUEL SPRAY FOR TWO COMBUSTION MODE Using methods and technologies unique to Mitsubishi, the GDI engine provides both lower fuel consumption and higher output. This seemingly contradictory and difficult feat is achieved with the use of two combustion modes. Put another way, injection timings change to match engine load For load conditions required of average urban driving, fuel is injected late in the compression stroke as in a diesel engine. By doing so, an ultra-lean combustion is achieved due to an ideal formation of a stratified air-fuel mixture. During high performance driving conditions, fuel is injected during the intake stroke. This enables a homogeneous air-fuel mixture like that of in conventional MPI engines to deliver higher output.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[16]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

ULTRA-LEAN COMBUSTION MODE Under most normal driving conditions, up to speeds of 120km/h, the Mitsubishi GDI engine operates in ultra-lean combustion mode for less fuel consumption. In this mode, fuel injection occurs at the latter stage of the compression stroke and ignition occurs at an ultralean air-fuel ratio of 30 to 40 (35 to 55, included EGR). SUPERIOR OUTPUT MODE When the GDI engine is operating with higher loads or at higher speeds, fuel injection takes place during the intake stroke. This optimizes combustion by ensuring a homogeneous, cooler air-fuel mixture that minimized the possibility of engine knocking.

(2) THE GDI ENGINES FOUNDATION TECHNOLOGIES There are four technical features that make up the foundation technology. The Upright Straight Intake Port supplies optimal airflow into the cylinder. The Curved-top Piston controls combustion by helping shape the air-fuel mixture. The High Pressure Fuel Pump supplies the high pressure needed for direct in-cylinder injection. And the High Pressure Swirl Injector controls the vaporization and dispersion of the fuel spray.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[17]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

These fundamental technologies, combined with other unique fuel control technologies, enabled Mitsubishi to achieve both of the development objectives, which were fuel consumption lower than those of diesel engines and output higher than those of conventional MPI engines. The methods are shown below. IN-CYLINDER AIRFLOW The GDI engine has upright straight intake ports rather than horizontal intake ports used in conventional engines. The upright straight intake ports efficiently direct the airflow down at the curved-top piston, which redirects the airflow into a strong reverse tumble for optimal fuel injection.

FUEL SPRAY Newly developed high-pressure swirl injectors provide the ideal spray pattern to match each engine operational modes. And at the same time by applying highly swirling motion to the entire fuel spray, they enable sufficient fuel atomization that is mandatory for the GDI even with a relatively low fuel pressure of 50kg/cm2.

OPTIMIZED CONFIGURATION OF THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[18]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

The curved-top piston controls the shape of the air-fuel mixture as well as the airflow inside the combustion chamber, and has an important role in maintaining a compact air fuel mixture. The mixture, which is injected late in the compression stroke, is carried toward the spark plug before it can disperse. Mitsubishis advanced in-cylinder observation techniques including laser-methods are utilized to determine the optimum piston shape. 2. REALIZATION OF LOWER FUEL CONSUMPTION (1) BASIC CONCEPT In conventional gasoline engines, dispersion of an air-fuel mixture with the ideal density around the spark plug was very difficult. However, this is possible in the GDI engine. Furthermore, extremely low fuel consumption is achieved because ideal stratification enables fuel injected late in the compression stroke to maintain an ultra-lean air-fuel mixture. An engine for analysis purpose has proved that the air-fuel mixture with the optimum density gathers around the spark plug in a stratified charge. This is also borne out by analyzing the behavior of the fuel spray immediately before ignition and the air-fuel mixture itself. As a result, extremely stable combustion of ultra-lean mixture with an air-fuel ratio of 40 (55 , EGR included) is achieved as shown below.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[19]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

(2) COMBUSTION OF ULTRA-LEAN MIXTURE In conventional MPI engines, there were limits to the mixtures leanness due to large changes in combustion characteristics. However, the stratified mixture of the GDI enabled greatly decreasing the air-fuel ratio without leading to poorer combustion. For example, during idling when combustion is most inactive and unstable, the GDI engine maintains a stable and fast combustion even with an extremely lean mixture of 40 to 1 air-fuel ratio (55 to 1, EGR included)

3) VEHICLE FUEL CONSUMPTION FUEL CONSUMPTION DURING IDLING The GDI engine maintains stable combustion even at low idle speeds. Moreover, it offers greater flexibility in setting the idle speed. Compared to conventional engines, its fuel consumption during idling is 40% less.

Fuel Consumption During Cruising Drive Dept. of Automobile Eng [20] SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

At 40km/h, for example, the GDI engine uses 35% less fuel than a comparably sized conventional engine.

Fuel Consumption In City Driving In Japanese 10E15 mode tests ( representative of typical Japanese urban driving ), the GDI engine used 35% less fuel than comparably sized conventional gasoline engines. Moreover, these results indicate that the GDI engine uses less fuel than even diesel engines.

EMISSION CONTROL Previous efforts to burn a lean air-fuel mixture have resulted in difficulty to control NOx emission. However, in the case of GDI engine, 97% NOx reduction is achieved byutilizing high-rate EGR (Exhaust Gas Ratio) such as 30% that is allowed by the stable combustion unique to the GDI as of a newly developed lean-NOx catalyst.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[21]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

Newly Developed Lean NOx Catalyst (HC Selective Deoxidization Type)

VEHICLE ACCELERATION In high-output mode, the GDI engine provides outstanding acceleration. The following chart compares the performance of the GDI engine with a conventional MPI engine.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[22]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection 3. REALIZATION OF SUPERIOR OUTPUT (1) BASIC CONCEPT

Seminar Report 13

To achieve power superior to conventional MPI engines, the GDI engine has a high compression ratio and a highly efficient air intake system, which result in improved volumetric efficiency. IMPROVED VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY Compared to conventional engines, the Mitsubishi GDI engine provides better volumetric efficiency. The upright straight intake ports enable smoother air intake. And the vaporization of fuel, which occurs in the cylinder at a late stage of the compression stroke, cools the air for better volumetric efficiency.

INCREASED COMPRESSION RATIO The cooling of air inside the cylinder by the vaporization of fuel has another benefit, to minimize engine knocking. This allows a high compression ratio of 12, and thus improved combustion efficiency.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[23]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

(2) ACHIEVEMENT ENGINE PERFORMANCE Compared to conventional MPI engines of a comparable size, the GDI engine provides approximately 10% greater outputs and torque at all speeds.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[24]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

CONCLUSION

The gasoline direct injection engines can be widely used in modified cars which prefer the power of the car and also to ordinary cars which prefer better fuel efficiency .In the era of high petrol consumption and heavy air pollution the adaptation of gasoline direct injection can play a vital role which gives a total answer to the scenario. The initial cost of the engine can be affordable to the common man when the engine is used or produced in greater number .Another is the compression ratio and also the fuel efficiency which is more than that of ordinary diesel engines. Also is the less amount of pollution which is due to the fewer amounts of unburned fuels due to the injection inside the manifold.

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[25]

SSM PTC Tirur

Gasoline Direct Injection

Seminar Report 13

REFERENCES

www.howstuffworks.com www.mitsubhishimotors.com www.delphi.com www.audiworld.com

Dept. of Automobile Eng

[26]

SSM PTC Tirur