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**Part-Winding Starting Improvement of Three-Phase Squirrel-Cage Induction Motor
**

M.V. Cistelecan*, H.B. Cosan** and M. Popescu*

*Research Institute for Electrical Machines (ICPE-ME), Bd. T. Vladimirescu 45, Bucharest, Romania **Department of Electrical Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey

Abstract–Partial-parallel-path-winding starting of threephase induction motors is used in order to reduce the starting currents in hard-load condition, as it is the case of special compressors application. In the paper, two possibilities of winding arrangement are analysed from the point of view of air gap field, taking into account the upper space harmonics of the rotating mmf. Using the Fourier analysis of the air gap field it is shown the best way to choose the parallel path connection, the pitch of the coils and the number of turns in order to minimise the noise during starting and to obtain satisfactory starting performance (torque and current). Examples are given for four-pole three-phase induction motors with odd number of slots per pole per phase in order to compare different winding arrangements.

free from noise problem, and dips in the torque curve are usually present with the connection that energizes only a part of the winding. The noise may be too objectionable for many equipments and the dip or reduction in torque at some speed may prevent the motor from reaching full speed if the parallel circuits are not properly designed. The problem of the part-winding starting is not at all a new one. Alger [3] and Courtin [4] have studied the fundamental conditions for separation of the winding paths in order to avoid the dips in the starting torque curve and the noise and vibration during starting. The general rules, proved experimentally and currently applied in the four poles motors, recommend the uniform distribution of the phase coils of the paths around the periphery of the armature as alternate groups connection [4]. Also, it is worth to mention that more recent papers [5, 12, 13] show that there are more improvements in the analysis method to be applied in order to obtain better performance regarding starting torques and starting currents obtained by part winding use. The topic can be found in some patents [6-9] disclosing specific procedure of winding arrangement, even if there are no sufficient theoretical clarification regarding the air gap mmf space harmonic content. In the paper the part-winding starting of the threephase induction motors is analysed from the air-gap magnetic field point of view regarding the winding factors of clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) rotating waves. A special attention is paid to even order space harmonics which compulsory appear in the single starting path air gap mmf when there is smaller number per pole per phase and the windings configurations are different from one pole to another. Two examples of analysis are presented for 4-poles, 36 slots three phase induction motor, both of them having the starting point the patent of Ghosh [7], in order to show how the mmf space harmonic content of the starting parallel path can be improved by either decreasing the even space harmonic, or cancelling them by special coils connection arrangement. II. METHOD OF ANALYSIS OF MMF SPACE HARMONICS To appreciate the intrinsic quality of a three phase winding the analysis of space harmonic content is very important. The phase mmf can be analysed starting from the input current and the actual distribution of the coil sides in the slots. If the geometrical space angle of the slot k is θk and it contains Nck conductors of phase A, w is

I. INTRODUCTION The lowest cost method of reducing the starting current for standard induction motors consists in applying the line voltage to only a part of the winding at first, and connecting the rest of the winding with a time delay. Usually the three phase winding of the motor is designed with two or more parallel circuits, either parallel paths or parallel conductors, for each phase. The voltage is applied initially only to one part of the winding, the entire winding being energized few seconds later as the motor started and attained the rated speed. The line current reduction is dependent on the design parameters of stator and rotor circuits, it means the resistances and leakage reactances, including the corrections due to the skin effect during starting. Usually the resulting impedance of the partial winding at standstill ranges from 125 to 175% of that when the whole winding is connected to the line. Thus, the motor can be designed such as the current drawn from the line is about 66% of the normal starting current and the starting torque is about 50% of the rated one. This is a major advantage of the method, and it offers the possibility of obtaining better starting performance in comparison with the known star-delta starting. Another important advantage of the part-winding starting is the fact that the motor is continuously energized during starting; there is no disconnection of the motor from the line between the two steps as it happens in the star-delta procedure. Additional advantage is that only two contactors are necessary However, as it is noted in the literature [1, 2], even if it is not deeply analysed, the part-winding starting is not

978-1-4244-5152-4/09/$26.00 ©2009 IEEE

. using the previous equations. always. III. In case of the most irregular windings it happens to have even so called “impure” waves.the total number of turns per phase or per parallel path. This is generally the case when the parallel paths are divided using the criteria of “alternate poles connection” [1. and of the inductance corresponding to a working field having p pole pairs Lp. The differential leakage coefficient is a function of the total inductance of the winding. Taking into account that generally the windings of the three phase machines are space delayed by 2π/3 the amplitude of the CW and CCW mmf waves are given by: (CW )ν = 2 2 2 2 C12 D12 ν + C 2ν . the CW upper harmonics are more dangerous than the CCW harmonics as the crawling point (proper synchronous speed) is situated in the range of the main space harmonic. when the winding structure under one pole is different from the winding structure under the adjacent pole. However. (CCW )ν = ν + D2ν 3 3 (2) where the coefficients C. the most important being the second and 4-th space harmonics.8. it can be pointed out. there is a valid possibility to use for starting q1=k+1 coils per pole per phase and the remaining q2=k coils for final connection.. even if the emf magnitudes in the two parallel paths do not differ excessively.5. t ) = ⎞ (CW ) ν (CCW ) ν 3wI 2 ⎛ ⎜ ∑ cos(ωt − νθ) + ∑ cos(ωt + νθ) ⎟ ⎟ π ⎜ ν ν = 2. This is the case. the existence of the even space harmonics. p. D. As it will be shown later. as it is known. 2] where all the “north” poles and all the “south” poles are connected together in the two different parallel paths. otherwise there will be inner circulating currents leading to additional Joule losses. it means that the first path connected to the line has bigger number of coils compared to the parallel path connected after the motor was started. This ensures balanced air-gap forces.. the even space harmonics of the two parallel paths of the winding are in opposition from the phase point of view [12]. However. including the fractional harmonics.43]. The number of conductors Nck is including the sign (±) depending on the current direction in the respective slot. These harmonics do exist. which means the same space harmonic could have simultaneously CW and CCW components.. As it was proved [12]. ν ⎠ ∑ Lν 2 L ⎛k ⎞ −1 = ν − 1 = ∑ ⎜ wν ⎟ Lp Lp ν≠p ⎝ ν ⎠ (6) (5) The amplitudes of the magnetic waves calculated by eq. As it is shown in the patent of Ghosh [7] for odd number of slot per pole per phase (q=2k+1.7 . and if the two layers winding are used. with some precautions. the method to cancel the second and fourth order mmf space harmonic in case of two equal parallel paths is to mix the coils under all the poles (north and south) in each parallel path.. ⎝ ν =1. for example. 4.. This fact proves that the criteria to design winding with parallel paths in order to use direct on line part-winding starting are different from the general criteria for dividing the phase current and for using use thinner round wire. k≠0). L.: τd = The resulting equation for the rotating mmf contains two infinite series of even and odd space harmonics. …): MMF (θ. RESULTS OF ANALYSIS In the following the analysis is based on so called nonequal parallel paths connection. the 3k+1 order being CW waves and the 3k+2 order being CCW waves (k=0. Starting from the Fourier analysis of the mmf developed in the air-gap by the separate parallel paths of the winding. c is the number of parallel paths. (2) are calibrated by the factors 2/3 in order to be comparable by the phase mmf winding factors. For these cases smaller coil pitches in comparison with the diametrical pitch lead to bigger even space harmonics [4. In the literature it is pointed out that it is always desirable to connect alternate magnetic poles in one half winding. ⎝ {K A } ⎠ ⎝ k ∈{K A } ⎠ ∑ N ck sin νθ k 1 k ∈{K A } ϕ ν A = arctg ν ∑ N ck cos νθ k k ∈{K A } 2 2 (1) The set of the armature’s slots containing conductors of phase A was noted by KA. It means the induced emf in all the parallel paths should be equal as both rms magnitude and phase. by the coefficient of differential leakage τd [10]. the general equations of the winding distribution are [11]: ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ 2 cwk w ν A = ⎜ N ck cos νθ k ⎟ +⎜ ∑ N ck sin νθ k ⎟ ⎜ k ∈∑ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ . the second (and generally the even) space harmonics of the air gap mmf can be kept For regular single or double layer windings and usual pitch reduction of the coils. impossible to be appreciated using the external line currents measurement. The method of analysis used in the paper allows for the calculation of the coefficient τd for any irregular winding arrangement and the calculated value is an important criterion of comparison. In the literature it is usual to characterise the upper harmonics. for odd and even harmonics are: C1ν = C 2ν D1ν 1⎡ 2π 2π ⎤ ) + k wCν cos(ϕνC − ) k wAν cos ϕνA + k wBν cos(ϕνB + 2⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (3) 1⎡ 2π 2π ⎤ ) + k wCν sin(ϕνC − ) = − ⎢k wAν sin ϕνA + k wBν sin(ϕνB + 2⎣ 3 3 ⎥ ⎦ 1⎡ 2π 2π ⎤ ) + k wCν cos(ϕνC + ) = ⎢k wAν cos ϕνA + k wBν cos(ϕνB − 2⎣ 3 3 ⎥ ⎦ 1⎡ 2π 2π ⎤ ) + k wCν sin(ϕνC + ) k wAν sin ϕνA + k wBν sin(ϕνB − 2⎢ 3 3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ (4) D2ν = − to the low values. 1. 2. that means they are cancelling each other in the full winding in the normal running condition. the general rules of designing the parallel paths should be observed. . the value of the differential leakage coefficient is given as auxiliary calculation curves [10. 12]. However. of some arrangements from the total of ten studied in the Courtin’s paper [4] and goes beyond the scope of the present paper. in the cited patent [7] the first rule is not strictly observed. kwν the ν-order phase winding factor and ϕνA the space angle of the ν-order space harmonic.

A usual case which will be analyzed in the following is that of 2p=4 poles. fundamental harmonic and the differential mmf curve). 1 (total mmf.21% more turns compared to the coils from concentric groups. 3. As it was mentioned.5. space angle (starting parallel path . 1. concentric coils. contains the two single 7-slots pitch coils series connected. All the 3k order space harmonics are cancelling together in the resulting wave so that is why these harmonics are missing from table 1. the two paths are not parallel connectable and. 2 it is presented the partial star of the slots corresponding to the phase A as fundamental field is concerned. The first connected to the line is the path A1-A2 and after starting the second parallel path A3-A4 is connected to the line voltage. 4-poles. in the full winding the single series connected coils representing the . strictly speaking. C are shown.1 Fig. For more clarity only one phase is fully represented in the drawing. 1) The space harmonic content of the rotating waves is given in Table 1 up to 17-th order space harmonics which is representing the first slot space harmonic (Z/p-1). the singular coils from the second parallel path have to be wound using 3. The air gap mmf vs. 36-slots. The consequence of using non- Fig. The single layer. 2-parallel paths 3-phase winding [7] In Fig.bottom) for 36 slots. concentric coils. Star of the slot (partially) for the phase A. equal parallel paths is that the ratio of the stator starting impedance to stator running impedance is in the presented case 1. 9-slots average pitch is presented in Fig.top and full winding . 3.1. as follows: I kw 1 = 1 + cos 20 o II o ≅ 0. Z=36 slots winding. In the starting winding mmf the second order space harmonic is to be observed whose amplitude is 16.9397 2 (7) It means that. single layer motor (Fig. in order to avoid circulating currents and additional Joule losses. probably with worse performances.9698 . which is to be connected in the final stage of the starting. This is why only the beginnings of the phases B. the same ratio being 2 in case of identical parallel path [12]. The full lines and dotted lines are used to show the phasors corresponding to the coils sides of parallel paths as in Fig. delayed by 6 and 12 slots. winding in Fig. 4-poles. 2.3 top). respectively. One can observe that there is a small but important difference between the fundamental winding factor of two parallel paths. k w 1 = cos 20 ≅ 0. what is important is the fact that the starting winding is almost similar to a winding having q=2 slots per pole per phase and the result is that the space harmonics content is lower compared to the procedure of identical parallel paths. Single-layer. In the full winding mmf the even space harmonics are missing and the differential mmf is quite small. 1. However. In Fig. the others two phases having exactly the same structure and connections between the coils. used for induction motors up to 100 kW. the air gap mmf analysis is presented for the starting path working separately and for the full winding as it is drawn in Fig. This observation is not mentioned in the cited paper [7] that means the winding arrangement without turns correction can be used. 1 and the attached numbers are referring to the slots in which the coil sides are incorporated. It means that the starting current should be actually a little bit bigger and the same is the starting torque. The mmf is scaled as for the phase fundamental winding factor. Fig. As it can be observed from Fig. The remaining parallel path.6% from the fundamental and its influence on the total differential mmf is important (Fig. the starting path A1-A2 contains two parallel paths because the two groups of two series connected concentric coils are parallel connected.

The increase of 3. It means that.0000 0. ν CW CCW CCW CW CCW CW (electric) 1 0.9397 0. the mmf is scaled as for the phase fundamental winding factor in order to allow a better comparison between the windings. In Fig. considering the two separate parallel paths.0000 0. The first connected will be the path A1-A2 having two groups connected in parallel.0000 0.0000 1 0. 6 the air gap mmf analysis is calculated and presented for the improved winding.0036 10 0. it is interesting to note the fourth order space harmonic having winding factor bigger than fundamental.0000 0.1736 0. d). the biggest being the second and fourth order.014 τd .0000 0.0348 0. 4 Harmonic Path A2-A4 Full winding Path A1-A2 order. winding in Fig.7660 0.5% from fundamental.0000 0.0104 0.0104 16 0. If the best starting parallel path winding is that without even space harmonics. 1 Harmonic Path A2-A4 Full winding Path A1-A2 order. 4-poles.0000 0.4924 0. The biggest odd space harmonic is the 5-th order.3420 0. 4 (total mmf – the stair curve. in order to avoid circulating currents and additional Joule losses. 2-parallel paths 3-phase winding – improved connections From Fig. Single layer.0963 0.9598) are only due to the correction of the number of turns in the single coils. The above mentioned notes lead to the possibility of improvement in the studied winding.9698/0.0000 0.0000 5 0.0684 0.0000 0.3214 0.0000 0.014 τd Fig.0000 0. representing 8.0000 0. 4 it is presented the improved winding in order to allow for part-winding starting. however this winding will never work alone. 5. the short pitch coils have to be wound using 6.last line connected coils are wound with 3.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0. it will only correct the space harmonic content in the full winding during running. as the ratio of 1/(cos20o)=1.9698 0.9596 0.3214 0.0068 4 0.6428 0.7660 0.7660 0. The starting parallel path A1-A2 contains even space harmonics.0000 11 0. ν CW CCW CCW CW CCW CW (electric) 1 0.1736 0.2134 0. Fig. full pitch winding.4132 0.0000 2 0. RESULTING WINDING FACTORS VS.0000 0.0000 0.0000 11 0. 4.4 In Fig.9698 0. 36-slots.06418.1170 0.6428 0.0000 0. The second parallel path A3-A4 has very high space harmonics.9397 0.0000 0.1736 0. it should contain both shorted pitch coils. fundamental harmonic – the sinusoid close to the stair curve and the differential mmf curve).2015 0.0000 0. for full winding the value of τd is exactly the same as for the regular q=3 windings.4132 0.9848 0.21% in the number of turns of the single coils is defined by the ratio of the fundamental winding factors of the two parallel paths (0. however it is bigger than the value (0.0000 0.9596 0. c) The leakage reactance coefficient (last line in table 1) has reasonable value for the starting winding.9397).0036 0.0000 1 0.0000 1 5 0. 1 and table 1 the following observations are valid: a). TABLE 1.0000 1 0.0384) corresponding to the regular q=2 winding [10].0000 0.9590 0.0000 0. Again.0000 0.1710 0.0000 1 0. SPACE ORDER ν AND LEAKAGE DIFFERENTIAL FACTOR τD FOR WINDING IN FIG.0000 0.0000 8 0.0000 0.1710 0.2015 0.2015 13 0.9848 0. these harmonics are cancelling in the full winding because the corresponding space harmonics in the second parallel path A3-A4 have opposite phase.3420 0. the starting path having this time kw1=cos20o=0. the two paths are not parallel connectable and. In this way the even space harmonics will be missing in the both parallel paths. In Fig. the two full pitch coils. The residual even space harmonics in the full winding and the smaller fundamental winding factor than its value for regular q=3 winding (0.0068 0. TABLE 2.1736 0. 4.4924 0.0000 0. the left side for the starting path working separately and the right side for the full winding as it is drawn in Fig.2015 7 0.0000 0.9590 0.0000 0.9397 0.0000 0.0000 0.1836 0.9397 0.1170 0.0000 0.7660 0.0000 14 0.0000 0.0000 0.2134 7 0.21% more turns compared to the first paths coils. Again. series connected.0000 0. Star of the slot (partially) for the phase A.0000 17 0.0000 0.9397 and the last one kw1=1 as a concentrated. b).0000 0. the full lines and dotted lines are used to show the phasors corresponding to the coils sides as in the Fig.1836 13 0.0000 1 0. concentric coils. each group having two series connected shorted pitch coils.0000 0. being included in the second parallel path.418 % more turns compared to the diametrical coils.0000 17 0. SPACE ORDER ν AND LEAKAGE DIFFERENTIAL FACTOR τD FOR WINDING IN FIG. RESULTING WINDING FACTORS VS.0000 0. 5 it is presented the partial star of the slots corresponding to the phase A of the improved winding.0000 0. One can observe that there is a difference between the fundamental winding factor of two parallel paths.2411 0.

0963. Florida. Pt. the concentrated coils parallel path has this coefficient 0. excepting the slot space harmonics (of the order Z/p±1). Vol.12481254 [5] K. b).C. The smaller fundamental winding factor of the full winding than its value for regular q=3 winding (0. p.772. US Patent 4. 14. a lower space harmonic content.1. A Reston Book. 1986 [2] E. However. for the full winding this coefficient is the same as for the regular q=3 winding. From the examples analyzed in the paper.192 Fig. However. Vol. In the full winding. a lower end winding length and an easier manufacturing as a result of the single layer structure implementation. The second parallel path has all the winding factors equal to 1 (concentrated. Prentice Hall. improved winding (Fig. Alger: “Performance calculation for part-winding starting of 3phase motors”.L. AIEE Trans. March 1999. 4-poles.417. III. 4 and Table 2. Ghosh: “Sectional motor starting winding circuit for three phase motors”. The air gap mmf vs. diametrical winding) but it does not affect the winding performance because it never works alone. The new winding developed for 4-poles. Malabar. 31-36 [6] S-K.0348 compared to 0. As it was presented.bottom) for 36 slots. they are cancelling in the phase mmf.418 % increase in the number of turns compared to the diametrical coils in order to have the same emf and to allow for parallel connection during running without circulating currents between the parallel paths. 1982 [3] P. NJ 07632. . has the advantages of preserving the fundamental winding factor. d). space angle (starting parallel path .0285).. AIEE Trans. all the space harmonics have the same winding factor equal to 0. The first connected path is that with bigger number of slots per pole per phase and only after the motor comes close to the rated speed the second parallel path is energized. No.842 [7] S-K. one can observe at least the following: a). February 1957. the starting winding contains as most annoying the 7-th order space harmonics which is rotating CW and represents 11. 75. REFERENCES [1] M. This type of winding can be also successfully generalized for any odd number of the slot per pole and phase windings. DEc.2015 as a consequence of the number of turns correction between the diametrical and shortened coils. Courtin: “Ten part-winding arrangements in sample 4-pole induction motor”. 36 slots three phase induction motor (q=3).E. The most dangerous space harmonics are the second and the 4-th space harmonics which compulsory appear when the winding structure under one pole has another configuration in comparison with the winding structure under the adjacent pole. CONCLUSIONS In the paper the direct on line starting of the squirrel cage induction motors using two non-identical parallel paths was analysed from the point of view of space harmonic content in the air gap mmf.. exactly like the one given in the Heller’s book [10]. e). 4) From Fig. Levi & M. having concentric coils. c) The leakage reactance coefficient (last line in table 1) has quite close value as the normal q=2 winding would have (0. p.6% from the fundamental. which ensures a smooth acceleration of the three phase induction motor during the starting process. on Energy Conversion. Rajaraman: “Theory and design of part winding starting”. 1955. The developed method for winding analysis and synthesis provides a basis for the design of a half winding with a low space harmonic amount. Englewood Clifs. p.J. it was concluded that the design of the three phase winding with parallel paths to be used for part-winding starting should have another criteria than the regular parallel path winding. 74.top and full winding . the difference is quite small and the full winding has behaviour very close to the regular winding. Pantzer: Electromechanical Power Conversion. The second space harmonic is CCW and has a brake influence on the rotor but the 4-th space harmonic is CW that means it could produce dips in the starting torque characteristic. Ghosh: “Drive arrangement with a three phase motor”. Robert E Krieger Publishing Co. El-Hawary: Principles of Electric Machines with Power Electronic Applications. US Patent 4. The shorted pitch coils in the starting parallel path should have 6. the winding even space harmonics reduction can be obtained by mixing the winding coils on the parallel paths so that each parallel path contains coils under all the poles. Part III. vol. The two parallel paths do not contain even space harmonics at all. 6. IEEE Trans..1535-1543 [4] J.9598) are only due to the correction of the number of turns in the shorted coils.IV. One of the parallel paths must work separately in the starting period and consequently special measures have to be considered for keeping the space harmonics within the prescribed limits.

323-325 [12] M. Hamata: Harmonic Field Effects in Induction Machines. Conf.c. Cistelecan.V.A. Brasov. P. Int. US Patent Application Publication 2007/0273236 [10] B. No. pp. Zagradisnik. Kitak: “FEM based design of an induction motor’s part winding to reduce the starting current”. Prague. 1977 [11] M. E. TP1: Induction/Linear mach. Heller. I. Romania. of the International Conference OPTIM’04.854 [9] U. Demeter: “A new approach of the three phase mono-axial unconventional windings for a. Ticar.334-339 [13] A. machines”. Stermecki. Kaumann: “Electric machine with part-winding circuit”.541.[8] K.4.1299-1302 . V.V. Proc. Washington USA May 1999. IEEE Trans. B. MAG-42. p. Cistelecan. April 2006. Seattle. May 2004. Sarbu. US Patent 5. Academia Publishing House. pp. M. Uuskoski: “Procedure for reducing the starting current of a squirrel cage motor and a squirrel cage motor unit designed for implementing the procedure”. IEEE-IEMDC. I. Cosan: “Optimisation of the induction motor line starting using partial winding parallel paths”. On Magnetics.

Ten Part-Winding Arrangements in Sample 4-Pole Induction Motor

Ten Part-Winding Arrangements in Sample 4-Pole Induction Motor

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