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Teachers Mannual

AUTOMATION IN WATER RESOURCES


AND HYDROPOWER PLANTS

For Degree Level Courses

For Department of Technical Education Govt. of Uttarakhand

ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY CENTRE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE

July 2008

PREFACE
Lecture notes for the proposed Engineering Degree Level Course entitled Automation in Water Resources and Hydropower Plants for Electronics and Electricals Engg is in accordance with the approved syllabus. The course is a fundamental course dealing with environment, environmental processes and management. International and National Environmental Policies and Regulations have been highlighted. As the course is multi disciplinary sustained effort is necessary to keep the course contents updated.

(ARUN KUMAR) HEAD, AHEC, IIT, ROORKEE

APPENDIX 4 FOR ENGINEERING DEGREE LEVEL ELECTIVE COURSE For Electronics, Electrical Engineering 1. 2.* 3.* 4.* Course Title: Automation in Water Resources and Hydropower Plant Contact Hours: L: T: P: Practical: MTE ETE

Examination Duration (Hrs.): Theory: Relative Weightage : CWS PRE Credit: Pre-requisite: NIL Details of Course: 6.* PRS

5.* 7. 8. Sl. No. 1.

Semester: Autumn Spring Both

2.

3. 4.

5.

Particulars INTRODUCTION: Sources and forms of energy, types of power plants, elements of hydropower scheme, hydropower development in India, Hydro Powerhouse structures-substructure and superstructure Layout and dimensions, Hydropower plants classification: Surface and underground power stations, Low, medium and high head plants-layout and components, microhydel units, Different curves: Load curves, load duration curve, Connected load, maximum load, peak load, base load and peak load power plants, load factor, plant capacity factor, plant use factor, demand factor, diversity factor. CIVIL STRUCTURES: (Limited only to the introduction of each term), civil engineering works: dams, earth fill, water conduits, spillways, and other open channels, surge tanks, general construction, hydraulic structure for power plants: Control of water delivery to turbines, control gates, Pumped storage installations. Penstocks; discharge tubes for hydraulic turbines, head losses, energy losses and efficiency. Water resources HYDRAULIC TURBINES: Turbines for electric power generation, basics of Pelton wheel impulse units, Francis mixed flow, Propeller, Kaplan and Cross flow, power and efficiency; high, medium and low head applications, Control of frequency and power loading, turbine instrumentation: speed calculation, Valve actuation, auto-start-up, thermal stress control, condition monitoring and power distribution instrumentation.

Contact Hours 5

* These are to be decided by the respective University/Board

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6.

8.

MONITORING regulation and monitoring: Hydroelectric power generation, automatic regulation and monitoring of voltage and frequency, modelling & Simulation: Computerized modeling & simulation of Electric Machines, data acquisition and logging. PROTECTION: Principles of power system protection: system Vs apparatus protection, analog Vs digital protection, protection system components: potential and current sensors, relays, fuses, circuit breakers, Computerized status monitoring, zone protection, back up schemes, protective relays: Type and classification of relays, different types of relays: differential and percentage differential relay, impedance, admittance, reactance relays, distance protection concept, Carrier and pilot wire systems, Significance of computerized protection systems. power circuit breakers: Arc characteristics, arc interruption, arc gaps, types of circuit breakers: air, oil, vacuum, SF6, automatic circuit re-closers, Apparatus protection: generator, transformer, transmission lines protection systems.

Suggested Readings: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Deshpande, Elements of Electrical Power, Station Designs Pitman & Sons. Elgerd., Electrical Energy System Theory McGraw Hill Ram Badri, D.N. Vishwakarma: Power System Protection and Switchgears, TMH Rao Sunil, S., Switch Gear and Protection Stevenson Elements of Power System Analysis McGraw Hill Varshney R.S. Hydro Power Structures, Nem Chand & Bros. Willenbrock and Thomas, Planning, Engineering and Construction of Electrical Power Generating Facilities, John Wiley and Sons.

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CONTENTS
TITLE Preface Course Syllabus Content CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Sources and Forms of Energy 1.2 Types of Power Plants 1.3 Elements of Hydropower Schemes 1.4 Hydropower House Structure 1.5 Hydropower Plant Classification 1.6 Different Curves 1.7 Peak Load Power Plant 1.8 Different Plant Characteristic Factors CIVIL STRUCTURES 2.1 Introduction to Civil Engineering Works 2.2 General Construction 2.3 Hydraulic Structure for Power Plants 2.4 Control of Water Delivery to Turbines 2.5 Control Gates 2.6 Pumped Storage Installations 2.7 Penstocks 2.8 Discharge Tubes for the Hydraulic Turbines 2.9 Head Loss 2.10 Energy Loss 2.11 Efficiency WATER RESOURCES 3.1 National Water Resources 3.2 Attention to Uttarakhand HYDRAULIC TURBINES 4.1 Turbines for Electric Power Generation 4.2 Pelton Wheel Impulse Unit 4.3 Powers and Efficiency 4.4 High Medium and Low Head Applications INSTRUMENTATION & OPERATION 5.1 Control of Frequency and Power Loading 5.2 Turbine Instrumentation MONITORING & REGULATION 6.1 Automation Regulation & Monitoring of Voltage and Frequency 6.2 Modeling and Simulation of Electrical Machines 6.3 Data Acquestion and Logging PAGE NO. i ii iii 1 1 3 4 12 13 18 24 24 27 27 35 36 36 36 37 37 39 40 40 40 41 41 42 43 43 44 50 52 54 54 55 58 58 58 59

CHAPTER-2

CHAPTER-3

CHAPTER-4

CHAPTER-5

CHAPTER-6

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TITLE CHAPTER-7 CONTROL ASPECTS 7.1 Cascaded Feedback System 7.2 Feed Forward Control System 7.3 Hydraulic Servomechanism PROTECTION 8.1 Principles of Power System Protection 8.2 Protection System Components 8.3 Apparatus Protection

PAGE NO. 60 60 60 61 62 62 62 64

CHAPTER-8

CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION

1.1

SOURCES AND FORMS OF ENERGY

Availability of efficient and reliable energy supply chain is of prime importance for the economic growth and development of a country. The main focus of the Indian governments energy policy is to provide access to reliable and affordable energy forms to all in a technically efficient, economically viable, and environmentally sustainable manner. It has plans to sustain a growth rate of 8% to 10% in order to fulfill these objectives. Even a casual look at our civilization shows the importance of control on the supply of the Energy. If supply of energy stops, most of our present day activities will come to a halt. In present scenario, per capita energy consumption, has become the measurement unit for the development of a country. Throughout the history of the human race, all major advances have been accompanied by the increase in energy consumption. 1.1 .1 Definition of the Energy Technically, Energy is the integral of the power over a given time interval. It must not be confused with the power (P), which is the energy rate i.e. dE P= ; where E is the energy and t is the time, where as the energy E, is given by the dt relation: E=

P.dt ;

But definition of the energy is not limited to this only; energy may be mechanical, thermal or chemical depending upon the way it is produced or utilized. Kinetic and potential energy are the two main types of the mechanical energy. Kinetic energy is the amount of the work a body can do due to its velocity, whereas potential energy is the amount of work that a body can do due to its position. Due to the equivalence of the heat and work, energy can also be interpreted in terms of the heat produced by a body. Fossil fuels can produce heat on burning, hence they contains the energy. Diesel and petrol can produce energy in an engine and that can be utilized to drive the vehicles, hence they also have energy. 1.1.2 Energy Types and Classifications There are two general types of energy: a) Transitional and b) Stored Energy Transitional energy is the energy in motion and in fact can move across the system boundaries. Stored energy, as the name implied, is energy forms remain stored such as chemical energy in a chemical cell or charge in capacitor etc.

There is no hard and fast rule for classification of the energy but different energy forms can be classified into six major groups: a) b) c) d) e) f) Mechanical energy Electrical energy Thermal energy Chemical energy Nuclear energy Electromagnetic energy

The transitional form of the mechanical energy is called work. In stored form energy mechanical energy may either be potential or kinetic. Raising the mass against the gravity give rise to potential energy while rotating flywheel stores the energy in the form of kinetic energy. Hydropower uses the potential or kinetic energy contained therein to provide usable form of the energy. The electrical energy is due to the flow or accumulation of the electrons in a suitable medium. Current or electron flow is the transitional form the electrical energy where as energy in electrostatic or electromagnetic field is the stored form of the energy. The thermal energy is the energy associated with atomic and molecular vibration. This can be sensed due to rise in temperature of the substance. All other forms of the energy can be converted to the thermal energy but reverse process is limited as per the second law of the thermodynamics. Chemical energy is the stored form of the energy and energy is either released during exothermic reactions or absorbed in endothermic reaction. Combustion of fossil fuels is exothermic reaction and produces heat energy. Nuclear energy is another form of stored energy, which is released in radioactive decay, fission and fusion. Electromagnetic radiation is the pure form of the energy, in which mass is not associated. These exist in the form of transitional energy traveling at the speed of light. Gamma rays, X-rays, microwave, thermal radiation etc are the form of electromagnetic energy. 1.1.3 Energy Sources and Reserves

In our industrial world, only those energy sources are considered which can be used to convert their energy into the forms most suitable and favorite to human race. Chemical energy of the fossil fuel has limited direct use but when converted to electricity, has numerous uses. Therefore, there are only two forms of the energy, which are most widely accepted worldwide. These are mentioned below: A. Electrical energy: This is the fastest, most clean, transportable and convertible form of energy. All other sources of energy are first converted to electrical energy and transported over the existing medium to the load centers. B. Mechanical energy: Conversion of one source of energy directly into requisite mechanical form of energy is also popular. All automobile systems such as buses, trucks, trains, ship, planes, etc uses different type of oils as source of energy and wellestablished thermodynamic principles are used to take advantage of their chemical and thermal energy. In such a way fuel is directly converted into the useful mechanical work.

Energy sources readily available for direct use or for the use in convertible form are: a) Electromagnetic radiation energy from the earths sun or direct solar energy, b) Gravitational force of the moon producing tides in the sea. c) A geothermal source of energy, in which thermal energy is trapped beneath and within the solid crust of the earth and appears as steam, hot water spring, geyser or volcanic eruption. d) Energy in the form of fossil fuel, biomass, atomic energy. In all these a reaction occurs with the atomic level and energy is released Hydroelectric power plants and several other non-conventional sources of energy fall in the category of Renewable sources of energy, which are non-depletable source.

1.2

TYPES OF POWER PLANTS

Power plants are meant for generation of electricity from the use of different kind of inputs. At the center of nearly all power stations, is a generator, a rotating machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy by creating relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source harnessed to turn the generator varies widely. It depends chiefly on what fuels are easily available and the types of technology that the power company has access to. Based on the type of the inputs power plants can be categorized as given below: a) Conventional steam-electric or Thermal power plants (coal and lignite): Major part of the electricity is generated with the use of coal or lignite based power plants. A thermal power Plant comprises all of the equipment and systems required to produce electricity by using a steam generating boiler fired with fossil fuels like coal or lignite to drive an electrical generator. Such power stations are most usually constructed on a very large scale and designed for continuous operation. Coal and lignite are exhaustible sources of thermal energy and environment is affected adversely when these are burned in the plant.

b) Conventional steam-electric plants (other fuels): Underground natural gas is another fuel utilized in abundance to run the thermal power plant. c) Combined cycle and gas turbine plants d) Conventional hydroelectric plants e) Pumped-storage hydroelectric plants f) Nuclear power plants g) Waste-to-energy plants: Different industrial wastes, sugarcane waste called bagasse and waste steam etc are successful fuel for thermal power plant. h) Diesel and gas-engine power plants i) Biomass power plants j) Wind energy plants k) Geothermal power plants l) Solar power plants m) Other plants: Different non conventional plants are also under development. Tidal plants, Magnetohydrodynamic plants, hydrogen based plants etc. 1.3 ELEMENTS OF HYDROPOWER SCHEMES

Water on the earth goes through a constant cycle, being evaporated from the oceans, raining on the earth and runs back to the oceans in the form of rivers. Hydroelectric power plants extract the energy of this down side flow of the rivers, due to gravitational force and this drives the turbines and generates the mechanical power, which is than converted to electric power with the use of alternator. Main elements of the hydropower plant are given below: a) Reservoir: The main and basic purpose of the reservoir is to store the water during rainy season or when water in the river is in abundance, and supply the same when water is scare. b) Dam: Dam is the constructed structure, which has main function to raise the height of water level behind it and increases the capacity of the reservoir. Dam also give the desired head to the power plant. c) Trash rack: the trash rack stops Entry of the debris to the channel to the turbine. During winters snow may also create the same problem, therefore electric heating is also provided at the trash rack. d) Fore bay: The fore bay is the temporary water storage at one end of the power channel. Its basic purpose is to regulate the water flow and to avoid the turbulence of the water flow before entering into the penstock. e) Surge Tank: There is sudden increase of the pressure in the penstock due to reduced water supply. This may happen when load is suddenly reduced on the generator and governor closes the gates of the water supply. This sudden rise in pressure in the penstock is called water hammer. To reduce the risk of water hammer surge tank is introduced in the system and installed near the penstock.

f) Penstock: Water carrying pipe from surge tank to turbine blades is Penstock. It tolerates the loads on both full load and no load conditions. It is apparently like a pipe but made to bear heavy pressure conditions.

Penstocks are made of steel, reinforced concrete and polymers. If distance from the fore bay tank to the turbine is less, separate penstocks are used for each turbine. Penstocks are installed in such a way that sufficient water depth always remain at the entrance of the penstock at the fore bay or surge tank so that air should not enter into the penstock and reduce the efficiency of the turbine. g) Spillway: Spill way is nothing but the pass that allows extra water at the dam site, to go into the river. This is a safety taken to cope with the flood like situations. When power plant is not in use all the water goes to the river through spillway. h) Power House: It is a building that supports the hydraulic and electric equipments. Turbine is normally fitted at the under structure of the powerhouse and alternator at the super structure. In side the power house all electric controls and various displays are fitted. A power house consists of two main parts, a substructure to support the hydraulic and electric equipment and superstructure to house and protect this equip/rent. The elevation of the turbine wiih respect to the tailwater level is determined by the necessity of avoiding cavitations.The

superstructure of most power houses is a building bousing all operating equipments. The generating units and exciters are the main. i) Prime Movers: Prime movers are the major mechanical equipment that converts the kinetic energy of the water into mechanical energy. The term prime mover is an English translation of the Latin Primum Mobile. It is used nowadays to describe the main power source which supports a number of subsidiary functions, commonly in industrial applications. In the context of Hydropower, prime movers refers to the water turbines, which drive the generator or alternator to produce electricity. j) Draft Tube: The draft tube is an essential part of the turbine, particularly Reaction turbine. The piping system for a reaction-type hydraulic turbine that allows the turbine to be set safely above tail water and yet utilize the full head of the site from head race to tail race. It supplements the action of the runner by utilizing most of the remaining kinetic energy of the water at the tail race of the turbine.

Elevation of a draft tube k) Hydropower Development in India: The role of waterpower in the nation building needs no explanation. The power developed by the water source in the world is more than 19% and plays an important role in the development of t h e world. The level of development of a country is estimated by the amount of per capita energy consumption for their livelihood. The ocean of the world holds 317 million cubic miles of water, which contains 97% of the total water that exists on the earth. The salty water of the oceans gets evaporated by sunrays and precipitates on the surface of the earth either in the form of rain or in snow. The total water at any given instant in the hydrological cycle is only 0.005% of the entire water storage on the earth.

Power development in India commenced at the end of 19th century with the Commissioning of first unit of 130 k W generators at Sidrapong in Darjeeling during 1897, followed by first steam driven power plant rated 1000 kW two years later at Calcutta in 1899 by CESC. In the pre- independence era, the power supply was mainly in the hands of Private Sector that too restricted to the urban areas. After independence, the Government of India felt the need for broadening electricity supply industry with a view to rationalize its growth all over the country. With the formation of State Electricity Boards in the various parts of the country in the early 50s, a significant step was taken in bringing out systematic growth of power supply industry allover the country. A number of multipurpose hydro projects and installation of thermal and nuclear stations were taken up and power generation activity started increasing significantly. The Central participation in power generation Programme started with the creation of two generating corporations viz. National Thermal Power Corporation and National Hydro Power Corporation during the year 1975, which gave a fillip to the growth of power sector in the country. Hydropower is a commercial source of energy, which supplied 715,000 MWe, electricity in the world in 2006. WWF estimates that the global "economically feasible" large hydropower capacity is around 2,270 GW, of which only around 740 GW are being utilized. With 115 GW of installed capacity, China is the world's largest producer of hydroelectricity, with the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Russia rounding out the top five. Brazil produces over 80 percent of its electricity from hydroelectric dams.It has been estimated that India stands seventh in utilizing water power electricity. Although the hydro potentials of the developing countries is far greater than that of the developed countries, resource constraints have inhibited the growth of the capital intensive hydro-projects. Status of the different hydro-electricity producing countries Country People's Republic of China Canada Brazil USA Russia Norway India Japan Sweden France Annual Hydroelectric Energy Production(TWh) 416.7 350.3 349.9 291.2 157.1 119.8 112.4 95.0 61.8 61.5 Installed Capacity (GW) 128.57 88.974 69.080 79.511 45.000 27.528 33.600 27.229 25.335 Load Factor 0.37 0.59 0.56 0.42 0.42 0.49 0.43 0.37 0.25

Severe power shortage is one of the greatest obstacles to Indias development. Over 40 percent of the countrys people -- most living in the rural areas -- do not have access to electricity and one-third of Indian businesses cite expensive and unreliable power as one of their main business constraints. Indias energy shortfall of 10 percent (rising to 13.5 percent at peak demand) also works to keep the poor entrenched in poverty. Power shortages and disruptions 7

prevent farmers from improving their agricultural incomes, deprive children of opportunities to study, and adversely affect the health of families in Indias tropical climate. Poor electricity supply thus stifles economic growth by increasing the costs of doing business in India, reducing productivity, and hampering the development of industry and commerce, which are the major creators of employment in the country. To boost economic growth and human development, one of the Government of Indias top priorities is to provide all its citizens with reliable access to electricity by 2012. To ensure that the uncovered 40 percent of Indian homes get electricity by 2012, and to serve rising demand from those already being served by the power grid, the government estimates that the country will need to install an additional 100,000 MegaWatts (MW) of generating capacity by 2012, expanding grid-based generation to about 225,000 MW. Given that India added about 23,000 MW during the last Five Year Plan of 2002-2007, this will be quite a quantum jump. The Government of India has decided to acquire an increasing portion of this additional power from the countrys vast untapped hydropower resources, only 23 percent of which has been harnessed so far. Indias energy portfolio today depends heavily on coal-based thermal energy, with hydropower accounting for only 26 percent of total power generation. The Government of India has set the target for Indias optimum power system mix at 40 percent from hydropower and 60 percent from other sources. When developed in accordance with good environmental and social practices, hydropower plants have the advantage of producing power that is both renewable and clean, as they emit less greenhouse gases than traditional fossil fuel plants and do not emit polluting suspended particulate matter (from the high ash-content of indigenous coal). Hydropower plants can also start up and shut down quickly and economically, giving the network operator the vital flexibility to respond to wide fluctuations in demand across seasons and at different times of the day. This flexibility is particularly important in a highly populated country like India where household electricity demand is a significant portion of total demand and this demand in concentrated in a short period of time (usually in the evening). As an illustration, if the approximately 150 million households in India were to turn on two 100 watt light bulbs at 7 pm, the power system would experience an instantaneous surge in demand of about 30,000 MW! Today, this peak demand is often met by households turning on small gasoline and diesel generation units, which, in addition to being polluting, are a serious health hazard in congested areas. And, with rising wealth, households are switching on a lot more than two light bulbs. Although hydropower plants are subject to daily and seasonal variations in water flows (which affects the production of electricity at that point in time), they are not subject to the fluctuations in fuel costs that trouble thermal power plants. While hydropower plants have large up-front capital costs, they also have long and productive lives, which significantly help reduce costs over time. For example, the Bhakra Nangal plant, now more than 40 years old, has operating costs of only Rs 0.10 or US$ 0.002 per unit. Hydropower plants are thus generally cheaper in the long run than natural gas-based plants, which are constantly at risk from fuel price increases in the global market. While India plans to develop mainly run-of-the-river projects, multipurpose hydropower plants with water storage facilities can help manage critical water resources in an integrated manner by serving as flood controllers as well as sources of irrigation and much-needed drinking water. The Tehri Dam in Uttarakhand, for instance, which was commissioned in 2006, today caters to one-third of the drinking water needs of Delhi, Indias capital.

Besides which, Indias hydro-resources are largely available in some of the leastdeveloped parts of the country and hydropower plants, if designed appropriately offer significant potential for regional development and poverty alleviation. Hydropower projects that forge equitable systems of benefit-sharing and implement targeted local area development can help local communities improve the quality of their lives quite significantly. While hydropower plays an important role in the energy and development strategies of India, such natural resource projects are inherently challenging. Environmental and social impacts are inevitable but they can be mitigated. Hydropower development in India has seen significant strides in understanding and addressing these impacts and the lessons learned from past engagements are now being incorporated in project selection and design. These lessons, coupled with suggestions from civil society, have resulted in changes to the laws and regulations that govern hydropower development today. As a result, there have been improvements on the ground, including greater public consultation with people affected by such projects; better monitoring of the environmental and social aspects of projects; and improvements in resettlement policy and practice. The Government has also ensured that the methodology used by Central power agencies to select sites has improved, as has the capacity of various hydropower developing agencies to deal with complexities in project identification, engineering and design. Table below shows the untapped potential all over the India. States with substantial undeveloped Hydro potential

Total Installed Electricity Generation Capacity, based on different kind of fuels:

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Source: CEA

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1.4

HYDROPOWER HOUSE STRUCTURE

Powerhouse structure is based on the location of the plant. As per the requirement powerhouse may be of two types: i ii Surface type Underground type

In case of Surface powerhouses, super structure is supported on the foundations made under the ground. The surface power house has been broadly divided into three subdivisions which is separated from the intake as mentioned below: (a) Substructure; (b) Intermediate structure; (c) Superstructure Substructure: The substructure of a power-house is defined as that part which extends from the top of the draft tube to the soil or rock. Its purpose is to house the passage for the water coming out of the turbine. In case of reaction turbines, the hydraulic function of the sub structure is to provide a diverging passage (known as draft tube) where the velocity of the exit water is gradually reduced in order to reduce the loss in pushing out the water. In case of impulse turbine, such a draft tube is not required and only an exit gallery would serve the purpose. The structural function of substructure is dual. The first function is to safely carry the superimposed loads of machines and other structures over the cavities. The second function is to act as transition foundation member which distributes heavy machine loads on the soil such that the obtainable ground pressure are within safe limits. Intermediate structure: The intermediate structure of a power house may be defined as that part of the power house which extends from the top of the draft tube-to top of the generator foundation. This structure contains two important elements of the powerhouse; one is the scroll case, which feeds water to the turbine. The generator foundation rests on the scroll-case, which is embedded in the concrete. The other galleries, adits and chambers also rest on the same foundation. Scroll or spiral case is a part of the turbine and it distributes water coming from penstock uniformly and smoothly through guide vanes to the turbine. The scroll case is required only in case of reaction turbine. In case of impulse turbine the place of scroll case is taken by the manifold supplying water to the jets. The structural function of the concrete around scroll case would depend upon the type of scroll case used. If the scroll .case is made of steel and strong enough to withstand internal loads including the water hammer effects, the surrounding concrete acts more or less as a space fill and a medium to distribute the generator loads to the substructure. If it is a concrete scroll case then this concrete should be strong enough to withstand the internal hydro-static and water hammer head as well as the external superimposed loads on account of the machine etc. Many times, the steel scroll case is used as water linear and in this case the surrounding concrete must be strong enough to withstand the internal hydraulic pressures in addition to the superimposed loads. The structural function of the generator foundation is to support the generator. Arrangements may be made either to transmit the load directly to the substructure through steel barrel or through a column beam or slab arrangement. Superstructure: The part of the power house above the generate r floor right up to the roof is known as superstructure. This part provides walls and roofs to power station and also provides an overhead travelling crane for handling heavy machine parts.

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The arrangement inside the powerhouse 1.5 HYDROPOWER PLANT CLASSIFICATION

Hydro power plants can be classified in number of ways. Some ways of the classification are as follows: a) On the basis of Load Characteristics a-1) Isolated Plants a-2) Interconnected Plants: An electric power house is connected with grid, where other plants are also connected. Individual plant can cater for the peak load or run for base load. b) On the basis of Capacity of the Plant: Low, medium or High capacity plants are classified as per a rule made by the statute or by the convention. c) On the basis of Hydraulic Characteristics: This way of classification is also important to characterize the source of water to the powerhouse. These plants may be Run of the river plants; in which case water is used as available in the stream, Storage plants; in which water is stored during high flows and used in lean period; Tidal plants are another type of plants in which rise of water due to tide is used to run the prime mover. 1.5.1 Surface and Underground Power Stations

Surface power plants may be indoor, outdoors or semi outdoor type. In case of indoor type generators are kept in side the hall and cranes are fitted there only, while incase of outdoors type generators are kept in their cubicles. The conventional hydro-electric power stations are usually located over ground at the foot of a dam or a hill slope on the banks of a river. The first underground power station Nerayaz was built in 1897 in Switzerland. The high capacity underground power plants were built only after Second World War. The idea of locating power-house underground was suggested not only by the intention of protecting them against air raids but by technical and economical considerations were mainly considered. After second world war, the immunity against air attacks was unquestionably regarded as an important advantage' of underground power station. A large 13

number of underground power stations have been installed in U.K., U.S.A., USSR., Canada, Japan after second world war and recently in India also. In all, there are about 300 such stations in service with a total installed capacity of 31 million KW upto the end of 1963. The considerations supporting the construction of underground power stations are stated below: (1) Non-availability of a suitable site for a conventional surface station and good slope for penstock. (2) Danger of falling rocks and snow avalanches particularly in narrow valleys. (3) Availability of underground sound rock and avoidance of a long pressure tunnel and facility for a convenient tailrace outlet. (4) Possibility of elimination of surge tank required for surface station due to long pressure tunnel. (5) The rugged topographical features and the difficulties in finding a suitable short and steep slope for pipe lines make it more economical to install the water conduit, the machine, transformer hall and tailrace system underground. (6) Foundation costs for overground power house become excessive in case of poor quality surface layers. The construction of draft tube, spiral case and separating floors in loose weathered rock is again more expensive than the excavation of corresponding parts underground. The costs of underground machine hall are lower than those of the superstructure of a surface powerhouse of similar dimensions. Advantages and Disadvantages of underground Powerhouse: Advantages. (1) Under suitable geological conditions, the underground conduit may prove the shortest and sometimes even straight. The power conduit may be much shorter than the length of power canal used for underground powerhouse as the power canal usually built to follow the contours of the terrain. By locating the-power house underground, the number of restrictions as safe topographical and geological conditions along the penstock and sufficient space at the foot of the hill for constructing the powerhouse are-completely eliminated. (2) The construction of underground conduit instead of penstock results in considerable saving in steel as the internal pre sure is carried partly by the rock if it is of good quality. -In sound high quality rock, the penstock is replaced by an inclined or vertical pressure shaft excavated in rock and provided with steel lining of greatly reduced thickness in comparison with exposed penstock. The purpose of lining in such cases is protection against the seepage losses. 3) The reduced length of the pressure conduit reduces the: pressures developed due to water hammer. Therefore, smaller surge tank is also sufficient. (4) For the economical arrangement, the ratio of the pressure-conduit to the tailrace tunnel is alto significant. The overall cost of the system is lower if the tailrace tunnel length is relatively large. (5) The construction work at underground power station can-continue uninterrupted even under severest, winter conditions. The overall construction cost and period of construction is reduced due- to continuity of work. (6) Much care is devoted today in many countries to preserve-landscape features such as picturesque rock walls, canyons, valleys and river banks in their original beauty against spoiling by exposed* penstocks, canals, basins and machine halls. There is less danger of disturbance to amenities with an underground powerhouse and pipelines. The other advantages gained by constructing underground powerhouse are listed below. The six advantages mentioned above reduce the constructional difficulties and overall cost of the plant and preserve the original beauty of landscape. The overall cost is further reduced by the: modern techniques in tunnel work and better excavation process. (7) The shorter power conduit of underground powerhouse reduces the bead Josses.

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(8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13)

The regular maintenance and repair costs are lower for -underground stations as the maintenance required for rock tunnels is less. The power plant is free from land slides, avalanches, heavy snow and rainfall. The useful life of the structures excavated in rock is considerably longer than that of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. It is possible to improve the governing of the turbines with the construction of underground powerhouse. The construction period is reduced mainly due to the possibility of full-scale construction work in winter. Underground power station is bombproof and maybe preferred for military reasons-. They are perfectly protected against air raids. The military considerations became more predominant with the increased shadow of the war and the building of under ground power stations underwent a rapid evolution after Second World War.

Disadvantages (1) The overall construction cost of the underground power house is more compared with the over ground power house due to various reasons : (a) The excavation of the caverns required for housing the turbine generator units and auxiliary equipments (machine hall of Koyna project is 800' x 120' x 60' in dimensions) is very expensive, (b) The costs of access tunnels are considerable. (c) The separate gallery excavated for the inlet valves adds to the extra cost. (d) The construction of air ducts and bus galleries also adds in total construction costs. (e) Special ventilation and air-conditioning equipment required for underground adds in the construction costs. (f) In some cases, the tailrace tunnel of an underground power house requires a more elaborate solution than a tailrace tunnel designed for the surface arrangement. Extending the tailrace tunnel would lose the advantage gained by reducing the pressure conduit. (g) The first cost is also increased by locating the transformer and high-voltage switchgear underground. The above-mentioned constructions increase the capital cost of the plant. (2) The operational cost of the power plant increases due to following reasons:

(a) The lighting cost (b) The running cost of air-conditioned plant, (c) The removal of water seeping may be more costly than for the surface arrangement. Adequate lighting, proper ventilation, maintenance of uniform climatic conditions within the power houses, provision of the necessary safety equipments against the flooding, maintenance of proper acoustical conditions, augmenting the feeling of safety by providing: a sufficient number of well placed exits and finally artistic shaping and outfitting of machine ball increases the overall cost of the underground power house compared with ground surface power house. The choice of the site for the power house either over ground or underground requires a considerable economical analysis according to the available topography and no thumb rule can be applied for its selection.

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Underground power plant structure

1.5.2

Low, Medium and High Head Plants

Water head h or H, usually in meters or foot, indicates the height of the water column or the net head of water available to run the turbine. During the conveyance of the water from the high head to the blades of the turbine, some head is lost against the friction etc and balance is converted into mechanical energy as per the well known relation of energy, mass head and gravity. (E= m g h). Heads are described in number of ways, such as: Gross head: Difference in elevation of head water level and tail water level, Net Head: The head available for doing work on the turbine ie difference between total head at the inlet and outlet of the turbine. Total head: The sum of total velocity head, pressure head and potential head, Rated head: The head at which he turbine produces the rated output at the rated speed and full gate opening. On the basis of Head, power plants may be classified as I) Low head plants upto 30 m. ii) Medium head plants 30 to 300 m. and High head plants are greater than 300m.

Gross Head

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1.5.3

Microhydel Schemes

The all India installed capacity of electric power generating stations under utilities was 107,533.7 MW as on 31.1.2003 of which contributions of hydro, thermal, nuclear and wind sectors were 26,660.23, 76,525.11, 2720 and 1628.36 MW, respectively (MOP, 2003a). Though the total hydropotential in the country is estimated at 150,000MW, only about 17.8% of it has been exploited so far which contributes about 24.8% to the total power generating installed capacity (MOP, 2003b). About 5.48% of total hydropower generating capacity is contributed by 453 small hydropower (SHP) projects installed in the country as on 31.12.2002. These projects contribute 1463 MW to the total installed electricity generating capacity of the country (MNES, 2003). In India, SHP projects have been classified as: (i) micro-hydro (up to 100 kW), (ii) (ii) mini hydro (101 kW to 1 MW) and (iii) (iii) small hydro (1-25 MW) This classification is by the Central Electricity Authority. (However, the term 'SHP' is used to describe all hydro projects up to 25 MW capacities. The Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) has created data base for 4215 SHP potential sites in 29 States and Union Territories with an aggregate capacity of 10,279 MW out of a total estimated potential of 15,000 MW (MNES, 2003). A substantial fraction of SHP capacity installed in India is contributed by micro-hydropower (MHP) projects.) The history of SHP development in the country is more than 120 years old. In the initial phase of hydropower development, most of the projects were only in SHP category. The first SHP project of 130kW capacity was set up in the country at Sidrapong near Darjeeling in the state of West Bengal. The earliest two MHP projects implemented in the country were of 40 kW capacity and 50 kW capacity respectively at Chamba in 1902, Nainital and Mussoorie and at Jubbal in 1911. In the absence of high voltage transmission lines, these and other SHP projects were set up primarily to meet electricity demand of nearby towns for lighting in decentralized manner. With the development of high voltage transmission lines the focus in hydropower development shifted from small hydro to large hydro projects with the objective of feeding electricity into the extensive transmission and distribution (T&D) networks. Interest in SHP projects also diminished with large-scale use of diesel generating (DG) sets for decentralized power generation. However, in the absence of other alternatives of power supply, installation of SHP projects on isolated basis continued on hilly streams in the Himalayan region of the country . The major boost to the growth of SHP projects in the country was received after 1989 when the activities relating to formulation of policies and development of SHP projects up to 3 MW capacity were placed by the Government of India under the administrative control of the then Department of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (DNES). MNES is now responsible for promoting development of entire SHP sector for projects up to 25 MW capacity. MNES is providing fiscal and financial incentives to encourage implementation of SHP projects by the private developers and state governments. These include financial support for under- taking surveys and investigations and also for preparation of Detailed Project Reports (DPRs) for the identified sites. While capital subsidy is being given to the government funded projects, interest subsidy is being offered to private developers. The growth of SHP development in the country is on increase but still lot of potential is untapped. In the year 1999 SHP projects of about 1000 MW aggregate capacity installed in earlier years were included in the physical achievements of the MNES due to transfer of SHP projects in the capacity range of 3-25 MW to the MNES. Therefore, the cumulative capacity of SHP projects in the year 2000 stood at 1341 MW. This aspect has not been incorporated in the growth curve shown in Fig. 1.

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There are about 80,000 un-electrified villages in the country and nearly 18,000 of these villages are not likely to be electrified through extension of the conventional grid in near future as most of these villages are located in remote, forest, hilly, desert, islands and tribal regions of the country (MNES, 2003). All these villages are proposed to be electrified by 2007 by harnessing locally available renewable energy sources through technologies such as solar photovoltaic systems (SPV), SHP projects and biomass gasifier based power generating systems under a programme started by the MNES in 2001-02. Eleven decentralized SHP projects have been sponsored by the MNES for electrification of 80 remote villages in the states of Uttaranchal and Arunachal Pradesh under the above-mentioned programme. Twenty-four more projects are under consideration for electrification of remote villages in these states. Most of these SHP projects are up to 100 kW capacity and, therefore, fall in the category of MHP projects as per the classification of CEA. In the past there were several technical and managerial issues related to remote MHP projects operating in decentralized mode. For example projects could not supply reliable power mainly due to problem of maintaining stable generator frequency whenever there was variation in electricity demand from the system (Paish, 2002). In addition there were problems of operation and maintenance of MHP projects at remote locations. With technological development in the area of control systems making automated operation of small power projects possible and also with appropriate systems for evacuation/utilization of power from the project sites, MHP projects have become more reliable (MNES, 2003). However, financial viability of decentralized MHP projects located in remote areas with limited electric load (mainly for lighting application and that too for limited number of hours) is yet to be established. The problem of scattered location of villages and houses in the states where these projects are being implemented increases cost of T&D and thereby further adversely affecting financial viability of the projects. In this paper, a modest attempt has been 1.6 DIFFERENT CURVES

Design of a particular scheme requires lot of study of the present and future load, availability of resources and critical values of the river system in case of Hydro plants. Evaluation of the performance of the power scheme is a continuous process. All these parameters are represented with the use of different curves. Main curves are mentioned below: 1.6.1 Load Curves

The load required by the consumer does not remain constant with respect to time (hour, day or month) and it fluctuates according to his requirements. The problem of variable load is vital one because each kilowatt-hour energy is to be put on the transmission line at as low as production cost as possible. The cost of generation and transmission is not only dependent on the improved operating conditions, such as turbine and generators operating at their best efficiency or uniform rate of driving the boilers, but depends upon the first cost of equipment which can be reduced by using simplified control and eliminating the various auxiliaries and regulating devices. The general arrangement of the electrical power generation, transmission and distribution system is shown in Figure. First the energy is sent to the substations, which are located at the ends of the primary distribution system. The energy from the substation is carried through the feeders to the distribution transformers as shown in the figure. Each transformer is connected to the systems of one or more customers by short distance low voltage lines. Each customer has a connected load which is the sum of all the loads of equipments located in the customer's house. The connected load of transformer '1' is the sum of the connected loads of customers a, b and c. The design of transformers, feeders, and substation is fully dependent on the connected loads to the customers.

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The general arrangement of the electrical power generation, transmission and distribution system

A consumer of electric power will use the power as and when required. always be changing with time and will not be constant.

The load will

"A curve showing the load demand (variations) of consumer with respect to time is known as load curve". If the time is in hours then the load curve is known as daily load curve. If the time is in days, the load curve is known as monthly load curve and if the time is in months, the load curve is known as yearly or annual load curve. The load curve shows how the load varies with respect to time. This type of load curve is useful in predicting the annual requirements.

Load Curve The load curve shown above is a typical variation of the load for 24 hours for a particular consumer or group of consumers. It is mathematical treatment to show that total energy consumed by them is the area under the curve or
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E=

KW .dt
0

Where E: Energy consumed, KW: Consumption pattern over the period 19

And dt : Time fraction

Load duration curves of two different consumers In the above figure different consumers are using load in different manner. In case of customer B, the peak load is far greater than the first therefore the generating capacity of the plant required to supply the load of B is greater than the capacity required to supply the load of A. The plant designed for customer B is not only bigger in size but it also runs under load (part load) conditions for majority of the period. Therefore the cost of energy supplied to B may be greater than the cost of energy supplied to customer A although the total energy consumed by both customers is same. Most of the complexities of present day modern power plant operation arise from the inherent variability of the load demanded by the consumers according to the requirements with respect to time. For economical and better operation of the power plant, constant magnitude load is always desirable as it allows the plant to work at highest efficiency and require simplified control and regulating devices. The different types of customers (industrial commercial domestic) are supplied from generating plant. The load curve of each customer is different from the other as per the activities of the customer. Few load curves of different consumers are shown below.

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Load curves of different type of consumers (a) The load curve shown in above Figure (a) is a typical of; residential community rather than just one residence. During the early morning hours, the energy is required for night lights, refrigerators, water heaters, oil burners, and like. After the breakfast (ie 9 A.M.) the demand decreases somewhat and fairly remains constant till about 4 P.M. required to run vacuum cleaners, radios, television sets and water heaters. The cooking appliances then cause slight rise in demand at 4 P.M. After 4 P.M. the early sun-set winter brings the lights into action and total load rapidly approach its peak about 5 P.M. during the month of December. As per the curve highest demand occurs at around 8:00 pm and then it drops. Similarly other curves can also be explained. 1.6.2 Load Duration Curve It depicts the existence of a particular load in time. It is nothing but the arrangement of load curve in load descending manner against the time period. As shown in the diagram if we cut the daily load curve into many vertical strips and then arrange them in descending order, load duration curve is formed. The graphical method for constructing load duration curve from the load curve is described as shown in Figure

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For plotting the load duration curve, makes the abscissa at any load ordinate equal to the length of the abscissa intercepted by that load ordinate on the load curve. Thus the intercept is one point at the maximum demand (KWmax) and it is plotted at zero, at load KW1, the

Load curve Load duration curve Plotting the load duration curve from the load curve Intercept is a1 hours and is plotted at a1 hours on the load duration curve. At load kW2, the intercepts are (bi+b2) hours and are plotted accordingly as shown in figure. At minimum load Kwmin, the intercept covers the entire period of 24 hours and plotted accordingly. Any point of load duration curve is a measure of the number of hours in a given period during which the given load has prevailed. Load duration curve offers the advantage of summarizing loads for a day, week, month or year. This is advantageous for power plant design as in one simple curve, a whole year can be summarized showing peak demand, the variations in demand down to minimum, the length of the time they existed and total energy involved. The base load power is also determined by the load duration curve of the system. For a typical power system, the rule of thumb is that the base load power is usually 35-40% of the maximum load during the year.

Another type of curve showing load consumption and supplied load as percentage of total generation capacity of the plant

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1.6.3

Connected, Maximum, Peak and Base load

The connected load is the sum of ratings in kW of the equipments installed in the consumer's premises. The connected loads in the premises of a consumer are shown in Figure below: Load in a consumer's premises will be calculated as:

The total connected load in the consumer's premises =60+500+60+60+100+500+100+60=1440 watts. Maximum Load: This is the maximum load, which a consumer uses at any time. It is always lest than connected load or equal to connected load. When all the equipments fitted in the consumer's house run to their fullest extent simultaneously then the maximum demand becomes equal to connected load. Generally maximum demand is always less than connected load as all the equipments never run simultaneously and never run at full load. Say ironing is done in daytime but the bulbs are off and radio and fan arc running, then the simultaneous-maximum demand =60+500+60=620 watts Say the heater is used in evening time during winter and all' bulbs are on as well as the radio is running, then the maximum demand =500+60+60+100+100 + 60=880 watts. The maximum demand of a consumer depends upon the time of day as well as his habits. (1) Demand Factor. It is defined as the ratio of maximum demand to connected load. For the above-mentioned example, the demand factors for daytime and evening time are given by Demand Factor (Fd) = 620/ 1440 = 0.43 (day time) = 780/ 1440 = 0.54(evening time) The maximum value of the demand factor is unity. Peak Load: It is the maximum load consumed in a stated period of time. Base Load: It is a steady load, which is assumed to be available all the time on the power station.

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1.7

PEAK LOAD POWER PLANT

As per the Classification of power plant, a base load power plant (or base load power station) is one that provides a steady flow of power regardless of total power demand by the grid. These plants run at all times through the year except in the case of repairs or scheduled maintenance. On the other hand Peak Load plants are those, which are run only to cater the peak loads. Peak Load power plants, also known as peaker plants, are power plants that generally run only when there is a high demand, known as peak demand, for electricity. Although gas turbine plants dominate the Peak Load plant category, other plants may provide power on a peaking basis. Some hydroelectric plants are also operated this way. Storage technologies like pumped storage Hydro plants can be used to provide peak load power. Photovoltaic arrays deliver most of their energy during peak load hours, so sometimes they are also included in the peaker class of power plants. Such plants should be fast operative and Hydro power plants also fall under this category. 1.8 DIFFERENT PLANT CHARACTERISTIC FACTORS

Characteristics of the power plant and load are very important to understand the performance of the plant. There are many factors, which require attention. Main are as given below: 1.8.1 Load Factor

The ratio of the average load supplied during a designated period to the peak load occurring in that period, in kilowatts. Simply, the load factor is the actual amount of kilowatthours delivered on a system in a designated period of time as opposed to the total possible kilowatt-hours that could be delivered on a system in a designated period of time. Utilities are generally interested in increasing load factors on their systems. A high load factor indicates high usage of the systems equipment and is a measure of efficiency. High load factor customers are normally very desirable from a utilitys point of view. Using a year as the designated period, the load factor is calculated by dividing the kilowatt-hours delivered during the year by the peak load for the year times the total number or hours during the year. Increasing the load factor will diminish the average unit cost (demand and energy) of the kWh. Depending on the situation, improving the load factor could mean substantial savings. The load factor corresponds to the ratio between your actual energy consumption (kWh) and the maximum power recorded (demand) for that period of time. Load Factor =

Load Factors for different type of loads is given below: Type of Load Residential load Commercial Load Load Factor 10 to 15% 25 to 30%

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Industrial Load Public utility load (eg street lights) 1.8.2 Plant Capacity Factor

30 to 80% depending upon the nature of industry 25%

The capacity factor of a power plant is the ratio of the actual output of a power plant over a period of time and its output if it had operated a full capacity of that time period. This is calculated by totaling the energy the plant produced and dividing it by the energy it would have produced at full capacity. Electrical energy is usually measured in watt-hours, Kilowatt-hours or megawatt-hours in the electrical industry. Kilowatts or megawatts alone are not units of energy. They are units of power. Energy is power multiplied by time. Capacity factors vary greatly depending on the type of fuel that is used and the design of the plant. The capacity factor should not be confused with the availability factor. A base load power plant with a capacity of 1,000 MW might produce 648,000 megawatthours in a 30-day month. The number of megawatt-hours that would have been produced had the plant been operating at full capacity can be determined by multiplying the plant's maximum capacity by the number of hours in the time period. 1,000 MW X 30 days X 24 hours/day is 720,000 megawatt-hours. The capacity factor is determined by dividing the actual output with the maximum possible output. In this case, the capacity factor is 0.9 (90%). 1.8.3 Plant Use Factor

It is the modification of plant capacity factor, in which the actual numbers of hours that the plant was in operation are considered. Therefore annual Plant Use Factor = =Annual kWh Produced / Plant capacity (kW)x Actual hours of plant Operation As the Plant use factor approaches unity, it indicates that additional capacity of the plant is needed. Plants are always designed to meet the greater demand than the existing demand, so that future increase in load may be met. Higher value of the Plant use factor indicates that plant is working most efficiently. 1.8.4 Demand Factor It is defined as the ratio of maximum demand to connected load 1.8.5 Diversity Factor:

Diversity factor is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivisions of a system, or part of a system, to the maximum demand of the whole system, or part of the system, under consideration. Diversity factor is usually more than one. For example, these terms, when used in an electrical design, should be applied as follows: The sum of the connected loads supplied by a feeder-circuit can be multiplied by the demand factor to determine the load used to size the components of the system. The sum of the

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maximum demand loads for two or more feeders is divided by the diversity factor for the feeders to derive the maximum demand load. Given: Consider four individual feeder-circuits with connected loads of 250 kVA, 200 kVA, 150 kVA and 400 kVA and demand factors of 90%, 80%, 75% and 85% respectively. Use a diversity factor of 1.5. Solution: Calculating demand for feeder-circuits 250 kVA x 90% = 225 kVA 200 kVA x 80% = 160 kVA 150 kVA x 75% = 112.5 kVA 400 kVA x 85% = 340 kVA Total 837.5 kVA The sum of the individual demands is equal to 837.5 kVA If the main feeder-circuit were sized at unity diversity: kVA = 837.5 kVA 1.00 = 837.5 kVA The main feeder-circuit would have to be supplied by an 850 kVA transformer. However, using the diversity factor of 1.5, the kVA = 837.5 kVA 1.5 = 558 kVA for the main feeder. For diversity factor of 1.5, a 600 kVA transformer could be used. Note that a 600 kVA transformer can be used instead ofan 850 kVA when applying the 1.5 diversity factor.

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CHAPTER-2 CIVIL STRUCTURES


2.1 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION TO CIVIL ENGINEERING WORKS Dams

Dams or water Reservoirs are required with hydro power plants because the natural stream of water if used for hydro-electric project, may be unable to satisfy the demands of its consumers during extremely low flows. The quantity of water flow is extremely large during flood period whereas the quantity of water flow is very little during dry-period of the year as mentioned earlier. Therefore, there is necessity to store the water during high flow of the river and supply the same to the power plant during low flow period. A storage used to retain such excess water from periods of high flow and supplies the retained water during low flow is commonly known as reservoir or Dam. The storage of water during high flow period (flood) may also reduce flood damage to the area below the reservoir in addition to conserving water for later use. The main function of the reservoir is to store and supply the water according to demand by regulating the quantity of water supplied. Once the dam site is selected, the other important problem is to find out the most economical cost to provide the necessary storage volume. The increases in dam height produces increase in head and mean output. This gain in mean output requires an economic analysis because gain in output must counterbalance the increase in cost due to increased height. If the head of the power-plant is solely created by the dam then it may permit the increase in height to increase the installed capacity. However, when fairly high natural head is available, it docs not usually pay to increase it beyond the point necessary to provide adequate storage. The economic analysis of storage possibilities is not rigid and, therefore, the designer must take his own analysis of storage cost balancing, the cost of each increase in dam height against the advantage gained from extra firm outputs. The cost of dam (cost of storage) roughly varies H x where H as the height of dam and x lies between 2 and 3 depending upon the shape of the site and type of construction. The Dam is the most important and expensive structure in hydro-electric power plant. The dam can be constructed in several different forms and with different materials. The most suitable type for a particular site will depend on a large number of factors as topographical, geological, availability of materials, labor cost and many others. Whatever the type adopted, it must be permanently stable, watertight, low in maintenance costs, simple in. construction and economic for its purpose. Pioneering efforts of several engineers in many countries mostly in U.S.A., Italy, France, Portugal, Japan, Sweden and Switzerland are responsible -for the recent advancements in the design of dams during the last few decades. Modern dams like arch, dome and hollow dams are more safe, aesthetic in design and also economical. Larger numbers of dams for higher capacity and for greater heights are being built for optimum utilization of water resources in several countries. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, as seen in the names of many old cities. Most of the first Dams were built in Mesopotamia up to

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7,000 years ago. These were used to control the water level, for Mesopotamia's weather affected the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and could be quite unpredictable. The earliest recorded dam is believed to have been on the Sadd Al-Kafara at Wadi Al-Garawi, which is located about 25 kilometers south of Cairo, and built around 2600 B.C. It was destroyed by heavy rain shortly afterwards.[4] The oldest surviving and standing dam in the world is believed to be the Grand Anicut, also known as the Kallanai, an ancient dam built on the Kaveri River in the state of Tamil Nadu located in southern India. It was built by the Chola king Karikalan, and dates back to the 2nd century AD. Du Jiang Yan in China is the oldest surviving irrigation system included a dam that direct waterflow. It was finished in 251 B.C.. The Kallanai is a massive dam of unhewn stone, over 300 meters long, 4.5 meters high and 20 meters (60 feet) wide, across the main stream of the Cauvery. The purpose of the dam was to divert the waters of the Cauvery across the fertile Delta region for irrigation via canals. The dam is still in excellent repair, and served as a model for later engineers. Types of Dams: Dams can be formed by human agency, natural causes, or by the intervention of wildlife such as beavers. Man-made dams are typically classified according to their size (height), intended purpose or structure. By size International standards define large dams as higher than 15 meters and major dams as over 150 meters in height. By purpose Intended purposes include providing water for irrigation or town or city water supply, improving navigation, creating a reservoir of water to supply industrial uses, generating hydroelectric power, creating recreation areas or habitat for fish and wildlife, flood control and containing effluent from industrial sites such as mines or factories. Few dams serve all of these purposes but some multi-purpose dams serve more than one. A saddle dam is an auxiliary dam constructed to confine the reservoir created by a primary dam either to permit a higher water elevation and storage or to limit the extent of a reservoir for increased efficiency. An auxiliary dam is constructed in a low spot or saddle through which the reservoir would otherwise escape. On occasion, a reservoir is contained by a similar structure called a dike to prevent inundation of nearby land. Dikes are commonly used for reclamation of arable land from a shallow lake. This is similar to a levee, which is a wall or embankment built along a river or stream to protect adjacent land from flooding. An overflow dam is designed to be over topped. A weir is a type of small overflow dam that can be used for flow measurement. A check dam is a small dam designed to reduce flow velocity and control soil erosion. Conversely, a wing dam is a structure that only partly restricts a waterway, creating a faster channel that resists the accumulation of sediment.

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A dry dam is a dam designed to control flooding. It normally holds back no water and allows the channel to flow freely, except during periods of intense flow that would otherwise cause flooding downstream. A diversionary dam is a structure designed to divert all or a portion of the flow of a river from its natural course. By structure Based on structure and material used, dams are classified as timber dams, embankment dams or masonry dams, with several subtypes. Masonry dams Arch dams In the arch dam, stability is obtained by a combination of arch and gravity action. If the upstream face is vertical the entire weight of the dam must be carried to the foundation by gravity, while the distribution of the normal hydrostatic pressure between vertical cantilever and arch action will depend upon the stiffness of the dam in a vertical and horizontal direction. When the upstream face is sloped the distribution is more complicated. The normal component of the weight of the arch ring may be taken by the arch action, while the normal hydrostatic pressure will be distributed as described above. For this type of dam, firm reliable supports at the abutments (either buttress or canyon side wall) are more important. The most desirable place for an arch dam is a narrow canyon with steep side walls composed of sound rock. The safety of an arch dam is dependent on the strength of the side wall abutments, hence not only should the arch be well seated on the side walls but also the character of the rock should be carefully inspected. Two types of single-arch dams are in use, namely the constant-angle and the constantradius dam. The constant-radius type employs the same face radius at all elevations of the dam, which means that as the channel grows narrower towards the bottom of the dam the central angle subtended by the face of the dam becomes smaller. Jones Falls Dam, in Canada, is a constant radius dam. In a constant-angle dam, also known as a variable radius dam, this subtended angle is kept a constant and the variation in distance between the abutments at various levels are taken care of by varying the radii. Constant-radius dams are much less common than constant-angle dams. Parker Dam is a constant-angle arch dam. This method of construction minimizes the amount of concrete necessary for construction but transmits large loads to the foundation and abutments. The appearance is similar to a singlearch dam but with a distinct vertical curvature to it as well lending it the vague appearance of a concave lens as viewed from downstream. The multiple-arch dam consists of a number of single-arch dams with concrete buttresses as the supporting abutments. The multiple-arch dam does not require as many buttresses as the hollow gravity type, but requires good rock foundation because the buttress loads are heavy. Gravity dams In a gravity dam, stability is secured by making it of such a size and shape that it will resist overturning, sliding and crushing at the toe. The dam will not overturn provided that the moment around the turning point, caused by the water pressure is smaller than the moment caused by the weight of the dam. This is the case if the resultant force of water pressure and weight falls within the base of the dam. However, in order to prevent tensile stress at the

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upstream face and excessive compressive stress at the downstream face, the dam cross section is usually designed so that the resultant falls within the middle at all elevations of the cross section (the core). For this type of dam, impervious foundations with high bearing strength are essential. When situated on a suitable site, a gravity dam inspires more confidence in the layman than any other type; it has mass that lends an atmosphere of permanence, stability, and safety. When built on a carefully studied foundation with stresses calculated from completely evaluated loads, the gravity dam probably represents the best developed example of the art of dam building. This is significant because the fear of flood is a strong motivator in many regions, and has resulted in gravity dams being built in some instances where an arch dam would have been more economical. Gravity dams are classified as "solid" or "hollow." The solid form is the more widely used of the two, though the hollow dam is frequently more economical to construct. Gravity dams can also be classified as "overflow" (spillway) and "non-overflow." Embankment dams Embankment dams are made from compacted earth, and have two main types, rock-fill and earth-fill dams. Embankment dams rely on their weight to hold back the force of water, like the gravity dams made from concrete. Rock-fill dams Rock-fill dams are embankments of compacted free-draining granular earth with an impervious zone. The earth utilized often contains a large percentage of large particles hence the term rock-fill. The impervious zone may be on the upstream face and made of masonry, concrete, plastic membrane, steel sheet piles, timber or other material. The impervious zone may also be within the embankment in which case it is referred to as a core. In the instances where clay is utilized as the impervious material the dam is referred to as a composite dam. To prevent internal erosion of clay into the rock fill due to seepage forces, the core is separated using a filter. Filters are specifically graded soil designed to prevent the migration of fine grain soil particles. When suitable material is at hand, transportation is minimized leading to cost savings during construction. Rock-fill dams are resistant to damage from earthquakes. However, inadequate quality control during construction can lead to poor compaction and sand in the embankment which can lead to liquefaction of the rock-fill during an earthquake. Liquefaction potential can be reduced by keeping susceptible material from being saturated, and by providing adequate compaction during construction. Earth-fill dams Earth-fill dams, also called earthen, rolled-earth or simply earth dams, are constructed as a simple embankment of well compacted earth. A homogeneous rolled-earth dam is entirely constructed of one type of material but may contain a drain layer to collect seep water. A zonedearth dam has distinct parts or zones of dissimilar material, typically a locally plentiful shell with a watertight clay core. Modern zoned-earth embankments employ filter and drain zones to collect and remove seep water and preserve the integrity of the downstream shell zone. An outdated method of zoned earth dam construction utilized a hydraulic fill to produce a watertight core. Rolled-earth dams may also employ a watertight facing or core in the manner of a rock-fill dam. An interesting type of temporary earth dam occasionally used in high latitudes is the frozen-core dam, in which a coolant is circulated through pipes inside the dam to maintain a watertight region of permafrost within it.

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Because earthen dams can be constructed from materials found on-site or nearby, they can be very cost-effective in regions where the cost of producing or bringing in concrete would be prohibitive. Asphalt-Concrete Core A third type of embankment dam is built with asphalt concrete core. The majority of such dams are built with rock and/or gravel as the main fill material. Almost 100 dams of this design have now been built world-wide since the first such dam was completed in 1962. All asphaltconcrete core dams built so far have an excellent performance record. The type of asphalt used is a viscoelastic-plastic material that can adjust to the movements and deformations imposed on the embankment as a whole, and to settlements in the foundation. The flexible properties of the asphalt make such dams especially suited in earthquake regions. Cofferdams A cofferdam is a (usually temporary) barrier constructed to exclude water from an area that is normally submerged. Made commonly of wood, concrete or steel sheet piling, cofferdams are used to allow construction on the foundation of permanent dams, bridges, and similar structures. When the project is completed, the cofferdam may be demolished or removed. See also causeway and retaining wall. Common uses for cofferdams include construction and repair of off shore oil platforms. In such cases the cofferdam is fabricated from sheet steel and welded into place under water. Air is pumped into the space, displacing the water allowing a dry work environment below the surface. Upon completion the cofferdam is usually deconstructed unless the area requires continuous maintenance. Timber dams Timber dams were widely used in the early part of the industrial revolution and in frontier areas due to ease and speed of construction. Rarely built in modern times by humans due to relatively short lifespan and limited height to which they can be built, timber dams must be kept constantly wet in order to maintain their water retention properties and limit deterioration by rot, similar to a barrel. The locations where timber dams are most economical to build are those where timber is plentiful, cement is costly or difficult to transport, and either a low head diversion dam is required or longevity is not an issue. Timber dams were once numerous, especially in the North American west, but most have failed, been hidden under earth embankments or been replaced with entirely new structures. Two common variations of timber dams were the crib and the plank. Timber crib dams were erected of heavy timbers or dressed logs in the manner of a log house and the interior filled with earth or rubble. The heavy crib structure supported the dam's face and the weight of the water. Timber plank dams were more elegant structures that employed a variety of construction methods utilizing heavy timbers to support a water retaining arrangement of planks. Very few timber dams are still in use. Timber, in the form of sticks, branches and withes, is the basic material used by beavers, often with the addition of mud or stones. Steel dams A steel dam is a type of dam briefly experimented with in around the turn of the 19th-20th century which uses steel plating (at an angle) and load bearing beams as the structure. Intended as

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permanent structures, steel dams were an (arguably failed) experiment to determine if a construction technique could be devised that was cheaper than masonry, concrete or earthworks, but sturdier than timber crib dams. 2.1.2 Earth Fill This type of structure is already covered in above article on dams 2.1.3 Water Conduit

It is a channel, tunnel or pipe to carry the water from dam to the turbine. There are many ways to carry the water and the most suitable methos is adopted for this purpose. 2.1.4 Spillways

Some provision must be made in the design of dam to permit the discharge of water downstream during the flood period. A provision made is known as "spillway". A spillway is a section of a dam designed to pass water from the upstream side of a dam to the downstream side. Many spillways have floodgates designed to control the flow through the spillway. The spillway must have the capacity to discharge major flood without damage to the dam and other appurtenant structures, and at the same time it must maintain some predetermined maximum level of water in the dam. The different types of spillways used with different types of dams with their specific advantages are discussed below: The types of spillways which are commonly used with different dams are divided into the following types: (1) Overflow spillways. (2) Chute spillways. (3) Side channel spillways. (4) Shaft spillways, (5) Siphon spillways. 1. Overflow Spillway A section of dam designed to permit water to pass over its crest during flood period is known as overflow spillway. The overflow spillway is widely used on gravity, arch and buttress dams. This type of spillway is simple in design, low in its cost and suitable for concrete dams. 2. Chute Spillways The term chute spillway refers to an overflow spillway isolated from the dam. Its crest is normal to its center line and it has a discharge channel to the river downstream in an excavated trench. The excavated trench is usually paved with concrete of 25 cm to 40 cm thick. Such type of spillway is relatively light and is well adopted to earth or rockfill dams where the topographic conditions Compel to place the spillway on the dam. The chute spillway is generally located where the contours of earth and rock are suitable for economical construction. The chute spillway is generally constructed around the end of any type of dam if the topographic conditions permit. Such location is more suitable for earth or rockfill dams to prevent the possible damage to the embankment. The spillway is usually widest at the crest and then narrows and then widened near the end to reduce the discharge velocity of water entering a stilling basin.

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The flood intensity per meter length of spillway is u: ually kept to about 125 to 130 m3/sec. The Obra and Ramganga darus in India are provided with side chute spillways. 3. Side channel spillways The side channel spillway is generally used for the sites where the sides are steep and rise to a considerable height above the dam. Narrow valleys with high side banks may afford favourable conditions for large diameter tunnel spillways. The side tunnel spillways designed for 50 m/sec velocity of water requires nearly 12 ms of underground excavation per cu. m of flood. The advantage is usually taken of diversion tunnel to serve later on as spillway for economy purposes. This type of spillway is always adopted for earth and rockfill dams because overflow type is not allowed for the safety of dam. 4. Shaft Spillways A shaft spillway is preferred where there is inadequate space for other types of spillways. It is always undesirable to carry spillways over or through an earth dam or rockfill dam. If the topography prevents the use of a chute or side channel spillway, a shaft spillway through the foundation is the only solution. In a shaft spillway, the water drops through the vertical shaft and passes through a horizontal conduct possing through the dam at the bottom, which conveys the water to the downward side of the dam. An undesirable feature of shaft spillway is the hazard of clogging with debris, pieces of the trees and ice-floes, which are transported in the reservoir during flood period. Investigations and experience with existing shaft spillway showed that ice, debris and even big trees with roots passed through the shaft spillways without difficulties because the energy of flow is large enough to break up-these materials and carry them through the spillway. 5. Siphon Spillways A siphon spillway is a device for obtaining discharge with small variations in head water level through opening near the top of the dam. The siphon spillway is a better selection when the space is limited and discharge capacity is less. It occupies very less space compared with free spillway which would be needed to discharge the same flow under the same rise of reservoir level. Therefore, it is convenient for a dam whose available crest length is not enough for free overflow spillway. The siphon spillway is more suitable than any other type for limiting the rise of water level in canal forebay where a rapid relief is necessary if heavy surges are to be avoided on sudden load rejection. Similar advantages can be obtained with the use of automatic sluice gates but the siphon is more reliable and cheap as it has no mechanical parts. A provision must be made to prevent the flow of ice and debris with water which may clog the siphon. Generally trashrack is provided at the entrance of the spillway to prevent the flow of debris and ice. There is every danger of siphon becoming inoperative in cold climates on account of freezing. Some provision (heating) must be made to prevent the closing of siphon. Siphon spillways with a capacity of 600 m3/sec are successfully designed. The siphon spillways are only suitable for gravity dams and they are never preferred for earth or rockfill dams.

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2.1.5

Open Channels

A water-channel is required to carry the water to the power house where additional head is developed over and above that created by the dam. The water-channel may consist of canal, a closed conduit or a combination of these two.The conduit system carrying the water from the reservoir to the power house is generally divided into two parts, namely "high-line" or nonpressure conduit (open channel, closed pipe or tunnel) and the "penstock". Canal and closed conduits are used as non-pressure tunnels and made of concrete. Canals are generally used where the quantity of water carried is large because pipe would be too large and too costly. Sometimes, the topography of the river banks compels to use the closed conduit instead of open channels. Tunnels: Many times it is cheaper to convey water by tunnel through a hill to the powerhouse than by canal or flume around the bid. Tunnels are generally of horseshoe section to take the advantage of arch action. A concrete or steel linear is necessary to present the collapse if the tunnel material is weak. The tunnels carried through the rock are not lined but smoothed to improve the hydraulic characteristics. The tunnels may flow full or partly. The steel lining is always necessary for the full running tunnels as they act as pies-sure conduit. The tunnels running partly full need not be lined as they act as open channel. 2.1.6 Surge Tanks

Surge tanks are tanks connected to the water conductor system. It serves the purpose of reducing water hammering in pipes, which can cause damage to pipes. The sudden surges of water in penstock is taken by the surge tank, and when the water requirements increase, it supplies the collected water thereby regulating water flow and pressure inside the penstock. Surge tank is an open tank which is often used with the pressure conduit of considerable length. The main purpose of providing surge tank is to reduce the distance between the free water surface and turbine thereby reducing the water-hammer effect on penstock and also protect upstream tunnel from high pressure uses. It also serves as a supply-tank to the turbine when the water in the pipe is accelerating during increased load conditions and as a storage tank when the water is decelerating during reduced load conditions. A simple surge tank is a veitical standpipe connected to the penstock as shown in Fig. If the overflow in the surge tank is allowed, the pressure rise can be practically eliminated but overflow surge tank is seldom satisfactory and usually not economical. Surge tanks are built high enough so that the water cannot overflow even with a full load change on the turbine. Location of the surge tank: A surge tank should be located as near to the power house as is feasible to reduce the length of the penstock thereby reducing water hammer effect. The ideal place for the surge tank is at the turbine inlet, but it is seldom possible in case of medium or high head plants because it will have to be made very high. It is generally located at the junction of tunnel and penstock in order to reduce its height. Increase in the length of penstock will increase the intensity of water hammer while shortening will reduce its intensity. The location of the surge tank away from the powerhouse should be fixed on the basis of analysis done for the cost of tank against the cost of strengthening the pressure pipeline for the water hammer and requirements of speed regulation.

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Surge Tank Water Hammer: When the gates supplying the water to the turbines are suddenly closed owing to the action of governor, when the load on the generator is suddenly reduced, there is sudden rise in pressure in the upstream of the pipe supplying the water to the turbine. This sudden change of pressure and its fluctuations in the pipeline during reduction of load on turbine is known as "Water Hammer". The turbine gate suddenly opens because turbine needs more water due to increased demand on generator and, therefore, during increased load conditions, water has to rush through the pipe (known as penstock) and there is tendency to cause a vacuum in the pipe supplying the water. The pipe supplying the water must withstand the high pressures caused by sudden closing of turbine gate (known as positive water hammer) and there should not be any vacuum in the pipe line when the gate opens suddenly. The water hammer is defined as (he change in pressure lapidly above or below normal pressure caused by sudden changes in the fate of water flow through the pipe according to the demand .of the prime mover. The water hammer occurs at all points in the penstock between the fore bay or surge tank and the turbines because of sudden changes in the demand for water during load fluctuations. 2.2 GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

Hydropower project work involves construction of various complex structures in a well co-ordinated manner. For the construction requirements of various sizes of hydropower projects, it is necessary to have the right technology to achieve timely completion & overall best quality. Instead of using steam to drive generator turbines, a hydro plant uses the force of falling or flowing water. There are two types of hydroelectric power plants: A high-head plant takes advantage of the force of falling water. Large-scale facilities. Dams are built along major rivers to create reservoirs; the utility controls the flow of water through the dam in response to the demand for electricity. A run of the river plant, relies on the flow of the river to spin the turbines. These plants produce a much smaller amount of electricity. The benefits of hydropower are many: no hazardous emissions or solid waste, no fuel costs and it's entirely sustainable. Hydro plants are reliable, low maintenance and provide flood control.

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Drawbacks to hydro power Environmental groups have pointed out the drawbacks to hydroelectric power, especially from large-scale dams and reservoirs. The most dramatic is the impact on wildlife - the reservoirs can alter water temperature and prevent the migration of fish. While "run of the river" hydro plants have a much smaller environmental impact, their use is constrained by the lack of control. The electricity produced at these plants cannot be increased or decreased according to demand, and the flow of the river is dependent on the area's precipitation. 2.3 HYDRAULIC STRUCTURE FOR POWER PLANTS

Except Turbines Hydraulic structure for hydropower plants includes mainly the following: Gates and valves Intake structure Penstock and pressure shaft Surge tanks Relief valves Governors Flow measuring equipments 2.4 CONTROL OF WATER DELIVERY TO TURBINES

Water delivery to turbine is controlled at the dam site using gates and valves and for the governing purpose automatic system is applied at the penstock and fore bay site. Purpose of the control of water delivery at the dam site is occasional phenomenon and required for repair and maintenance, while at the governor level it is continuous activity to regulate the frequency according to the delivery of variable loads to the consumers. 2.5 CONTROL GATES Control gates are electromechanical structure and basically are of two types: a) Hydraulic Gates: In case of gates these are so fabricated and installed that when the gate is open gate structure is removed completely from the water. Such gates may be vertical lift type or hinged type. Vertical lift gates are further classified as: slide gate, wheel or roller mounted gates, High-pressure gates Hinged gates are basically of four types namely: Radial gates, Drum gates, Fish belly gate, Flap gate One more category called circular type gates is also used in configurations like rolling gates, Ring gates, and cylindrical gates b) Hydraulic Valves: These are available in following configurations: Ensign valve, the needle valve, the tube valve, Hollow jet valve, Butterfly valve, The stream lined cylindrical valve.

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2.6

PUMPED STORAGE INSTALLATIONS

Pumped storage hydroplant is a method of storing and producing electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations during low demand period. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine, generating electricity. Reversible turbine/generator assemblies act as pump and turbine. Some facilities use abandoned mines as the lower reservoir, but many use the height difference between two natural bodies of water or artificial reservoirs. Pure pumped-storage plants just shift the water between reservoirs, but combined pump-storage plants also generate their own electricity like conventional hydroelectric plants through natural stream-flow. Plants that do not use pumped-storage are referred to as conventional hydroelectric plants; conventional hydroelectric plants that have significant storage capacity may be able to play a similar role in the electrical grid as pumped storage, by deferring output until needed. Taking into account evaporation losses from the exposed water surface and conversion losses, approximately 70% to 85% of the electrical energy used to pump the water into the elevated reservoir can be regained. The technique is currently the most cost-effective means of storing large amounts of electrical energy on an operating basis, but capital costs and the presence of appropriate geography are critical decision factors. This system may be economical because it flattens out load variations on the power grid, permitting thermal power stations such as coal-fired plants and nuclear power plants that provide base-load electricity to continue operating at peak efficiency (Base load power plants), while reducing the need for "peaking" power plants that use costly fuels. Capital costs for purpose-built hydrostorage are high, however. Along with energy management, pumped storage systems help control electrical network frequency and provide reserve generation. Thermal plants are much less able to respond to sudden changes in electrical demand, potentially causing frequency and voltage instability. Pumped storage plants, like other hydroelectric plants, can respond to load changes within seconds. In India there are various pumped storage power plants in existence few are:

Bhira(Maharashtra) pump storage unit 150 MW Kadamparai, Near Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu,(4x100)MW Nagarjuna Sagar PH, Andhra Pradesh, 810 MW (1 x 110 MW + 7 x 100 MW) Purulia Pumped Storage Project, Ayodhya Hills, Purulia, West Bengal, 900 MW (Under construction) Srisailam Left Bank PH, Andhra Pradesh, 900 MW (6 x 150 MW) Tehri dam, Uttranchal, 1000 MW (under construction) PENSTOCKS

2.7

The term penstock is generally used to a relatively short length of pipe connecting the prime mover with the main water-way. In hydro power plants water is brought from the dam / reservoir to the fore bay site through power channel and fore bay to the power plant, which is usually at lower altitutude, water is brought through Penstock. Penstock is responsible not only to carry water to the turbine

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but to maintain the head availble at the forebay. The design of penstock requires special consideration as it has to work under high pressures developed under part load conditions. The economical shortest route is always desired in the location of a penstock as in the case of canal. It is further desirable to have the penstock always slopping towards the powerhouse but its grade may be varied as desired to fit the topography. On the other hand, the most economical location for the penstock is the flat grade for the greatest part of its length provided its position is below the hydraulic gradient. The intake of the penstock at the dam or forebay must be at a level low enough to provide an adequate water seal under all conditions. Low water seal will form whirlpools and carry air into the penstock, and to the prime movers, tending to reduce the power output. Arrangements are made to cut off the supply of water at the inlet of the penstock under emergency conditions. Under the emergency conditions, when the inlet gates are closed and the water in the penstock is drawn through the wheels and the penstocks are subjected to subatmospheric pressures, some serious failures of penstock have been reported due to this reason alone. Therefore, it is desirable that close conduit system without surge tank be provided with a passage, which admits air into the penstock and relieves it from the sub-atmospheric pressure. Care should be taken to see that the water in the air-vent pipe does not become frozen during operation, thus preventing the air entry. Materials for Penstock.: Steel pipes even upto 7 meters in diameter are commonly used as penstocks. Larger size penstocks-are usually built by welding or riveting the steel plate. Welded pipes are much smoother than riveted pipes and are superior in strength also. The open metal pipes are subjected to chemical corrosion when exposed to atmosphere. Therefore, it is always necessary to protect the outer surface of the pipe from corrosion by some form of painting. Corrosion of metal pipes may be reduced by protective coating of paint, galvanizing or bituminous compound linings. The life of steel pipe above ground can be prolonged indefinitely by frequent painting as no paint gives permanent protection to the steel. The use of reinforced concrete pipe in hydro-electric work is limited for the power plant upto 30 meter head as its strength is limited. The advantages of reinforced concrete pipe are long life and freedom from maintenance. The average life of concrete pipe is nearly 30 to 50 years. The concrete pipes are undesirable in cold countries as alternate freezing and melting deteriorate the pipes-earlier. In cold climates, an ice sheet generally forms on the inside surface of the pen*tock. The formed ice-sheet affects the hydraulic properties of the pipe and during a thaw, enough ice may break and enter the turbine to plug the gates. The water hammer intensity may be considerably greater than that computed for normal operation in such cases. Therefore, it is always necessary to protect the pipes from freezing in cold climate countries. Burying the pipe can eliminate the freezing troubles or covering them with insulation. There is no freezing danger if the pipes are buried one meter below the earth surface. Buried Versus Exposed Penstocks: The advantages of exposed penstocks are listed below: (1) (2) (3) It provides more space for construction. It is less expensive to install. Exposed penstocks are more accessible for inspections maintenance and repairs. This is the favourable feature of exposed penstock.

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(4)

The corrosion of buried penstocks is more rapid, therefore, the life of buried pipe is less than exposed one. The frequent inspection and painting are not possible in case of buried pipe.

The following conditions favour the underground penstocks. (1) (2) (3) (4) Penstock running on steep hillside on earth foundation! make supporting and anchoring very difficult and expensive. Such anchorirg and supporting are not necessary if the pipe is buried. On steep hillside, there is frequent danger of landslide, snow slide and falling rock which may injure the exposed pipe. That can be completely eliminated if the pipe is buried. There is every danger of freezing the exposed pipe in cold climates particularly when the pipe is long and velocity is low. In such cases to bury the pipe is economical than to provide the protection against freezing. When the pipe passes through earth cut, it is often less expensive to bury it with excavated earth than to provide cradle and sills.

Economical Diameter of the Penstock: There is a particular size of the penstock diameter, which is most economical under varied flow rates. The elements of the cost that vary with the diameter consist of the cost of power lost due to frictional and hydraulic head loss. There are many variables, which are to be taken into account. These are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Variation of flow through penstock on daily basis Load factor on yearly basis Number of penstocks in use Construction material Tolerable amount of power loss in the friction Cost of penstock Cost of supporting structure Maximum permissible velocity through penstock Diameter and thickness of the penstock

There are many empirical formulae developed on the basis of the experience, few are given below to find the most economical diameter of the penstock pipe: G.S Sarkarias formula: D= 0.62 x ( P0.43 / H0.65 ) m D: Diameter in metre P: Rated horse power of the turbine H: Rated head of the turbine in metre Or D= 3.55 [ Q2 / (2gH)] Q: Discharge in cumec 2.8 DISCHARGE TUBES FOR THE HYDRAULIC TURBINES

Discharge from the turbine goes back to the down stream of the river or used for running other smaller plants in ladder type hilly systems. Therefore it is very important to design discharge tube in such a manner so that head loss must be minimum and out water should have the least energy in that. For this setting of turbine is important, which meant location of the turbine between head and tail race should be to allow minimum energy to release. Figure below shows the design of draft tube used for the purpose.

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2.9

HEAD LOSS

Head is the term used to indicate the energy contained by the water before striking the turbine blades. It is measured from the turbine to the water level at the fore bay tank. Head loss is due to the various reasons such as friction in penstock, turbulence of the water, leakage, silt accumulation etc. 2.10 ENERGY LOSS

It is the amount of the potential energy available with the water at the fore bay tank before entering the penstock minus the energy transferred to the turbines. 2.11 EFFICIENCY

Efficiency is the usually associated with the turbine alone or jointly with the generator. Overall efficiency of the system is the ratio of the energy available at the water level at the reservoir and the corresponding energy (mechanical or Electrical ) available at turbine or generator ends. 40

CHAPTER-3 WATER RESOURCES


3.1 NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES

India is endowed with a rich and vast diversity of natural resources, water being one of them. Its development and management plays a vital role in agriculture production. Integrated water management is vital for poverty reduction, environmental sustenance and sustainable economic development. National Water Policy (2002) envisages that the water resources of the country should be developed and managed in an integrated manner. Basin wise availability of water: Cubic Km/Year Name of the River Basin Indus (up to Border) a) Ganga b) Brahmaputra ,Barak & Others Godavari Krishna Cauvery Pennar East Flowing Rivers Between Mahanadi & Pennar East Flowing Rivers Between Pennar and Kanyakumari Mahanadi Brahmani & Baitarni Subernarekha Sabarmati Mahi West Flowing Rivers of Kutch, Sabarmati including Luni Narmada Tapi West Flowing Rivers from Tapi to Tadri West Flowing Rivers from Tadri to Kanyakumari Area of Inland drainage in Rajasthan desert Minor River Basins Draining into Bangladesh & Burma

Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Total

Average annual availability 73.31 525.02 585.60 110.54 78.12 21.36 6.32 22.52 16.46 66.88 28.48 12.37 3.81 11.02 15.10 45.64 14.88 87.41 113.53 NEG. 31.00 1869.35

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India has a vast potential for hydro-power generation, particularly in the northern and north-eastern region. As per an estimate of Central Electricity Authority, the potential in the country is assessed as 84,000 MW at 60 per cent load factor, which is equivalent to about 450 billion units of annual energy generation. The basin wise distribution is as given below: Sl. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Basin Potential at 60 per cent load factor (MW) Indus Basin 20,000 Brahmaputra Basin 35,000 Ganga Basin 11,000 Central India Basin 3,000 West Flowing River System 6,000 East Flowing River System 9,000 Total 84,000

At the time of independence, out of total installed capacity of 1362 MW, hydro-power generation capacity stood at 508 MW. The capacity has since been raised to about 13,000 MW. In addition 6,000 MW is available from projects under construction. A potential of about 3,000 MW is contemplated from projects already cleared. The total potential harnessed/under harnessing would thus be about 22,000 MW, which is nearly one-fourth of the estimated potential. 3.2 ATTENTION TO UTTRAKHAND

Uttrakhand is a rich state as far as river system is concerned. Rivers like Ganga, Yamuna, Kosi and Sharda emanate from the Himalayas in Uttarakhand. These rivers are snow fed hence these rivers maintain a minimum level of water throughout the year. Beside these rivers many other rivers, rivulets are also available in the Uttrakhand. Because of this natural gift Uttrakhand is also called Urja Pradesh. Many big and small power plants exist here or being planned.

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CHAPTER-4 HYDRAULIC TURBINES

4.1

TURBINES FOR ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION A water turbine is a rotary engine that takes energy from moving water.

Water turbines were developed in the nineteenth century and were widely used for industrial power prior to electrical grids. Now they are mostly used for electric power generation. They harness a clean and renewable energy source. Water wheels have been used for thousands of years for industrial power. Their main shortcoming is size, which limits the flow rate and head that can be harnessed. The migration from water wheels to modern turbines took about one hundred years. Development occurred during the Industrial revolution, in England using scientific principles and methods. They also made extensive use of new materials and manufacturing methods developed at the time. The word turbine was coined by the French engineer Claude Bourdin in the early 19th century and is derived from the Latin word for "whirling" or a "vortex". The main difference between early water turbines and water wheels is a swirl component of the water which passes energy to a spinning rotor. This additional component of motion allowed the turbine to be smaller than a water wheel of the same power. They could process more water by spinning faster and could harness much greater heads. (Later, impulse turbines were developed which didn't use swirl). All common water machines until the late 19th century (including water wheels) were reaction machines; water pressure head acted on the machine and produced work. A reaction turbine needs to fully contain the water during energy transfer. In 1866, California millwright Samuel Knight invented a machine that worked off a completely different concept inspired by the high pressure jet systems used in hydraulic mining in the gold fields, Knight developed a bucketed wheel which captured the energy of a free jet, which had converted a high head (hundreds of vertical feet in a pipe or penstock) of water to kinetic energy. This is called an impulse or tangential turbine. The water's velocity, roughly twice the velocity of the bucket periphery, does a u-turn in the bucket and drops out of the runner at low velocity. In 1879, Lester Pelton, experimenting with a Knight Wheel, developed a double bucket design, which exhausted the water to the side, eliminating some energy loss of the Knight wheel which exhausted some water back against the center of the wheel. In about 1895, William Doble improved on Pelton's half-cylindrical bucket form with an elliptical bucket that included a cut in it to allow the jet a cleaner bucket entry. This is the modern form of the Pelton turbine which today achieves up to 92% efficiency. Pelton had been quite an effective promoter of his design and although Doble took over the Pelton company he did not change the name to Doble because it had brand name recognition. Flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. Since the runner is spinning, the force acts through a distance (force acting through a

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distance is the definition of work). In this way, energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine. Water turbines are divided into two groups; a) Impulse Turbine b) Reaction Turbine c) Turgo and Crossflow turbines were modified versions of impulse designs. 4.2 PELTON WHEEL IMPULSE UNIT

Impulse turbines change the velocity of a water jet. The jet impinges on the turbine's curved blades which change the direction of the flow. The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work) and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. Prior to hitting the turbine blades, the water's pressure (potential energy) is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. No pressure change occurs at the turbine blades, and the turbine doesn't require a housing for operation. The precise shape of water turbine blades is a function of the supply pressure of water, and the type of impeller selected. Newtons Second Law describes the transfer of energy for impulse turbines.

This was discovered by Pelton in 1880. This is a special type of axial flow impulse turbine generally mounted on horizontal shaft. A number of buckets are mounted round the periphery of the wheel as shown in figure. The water is directed towards the wheel through a nozzle or nozzles. The flow of water through the nozzle is generally controlled by special regulating system. The water jet after impinging on the buckets is deflected through an angle 160 and flows axially in both directions thus avoiding the axial thrust on the wheel. The hydraulic efficiency of Pelton wheel lies between 85 to 95%. Now a days, Pelton wheels are used for very high heads upto 2000 metersIn most of the Pelton wheel plants, single jet with horizontal shaft is used. The number of the jets adopted depends upon the specific speed required. Impulse turbines are most often used in very high head applications.

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Figure of single jet Pelton Turbine Any impulse turbine achieves its maximum efficiency when the velocity of the bucket at the center line of the jet is slightly under half the jet velocity. Hence, for maximum speed of rotation, the mean diameter of the runner should be as small as possible. There is a limit to the size of the jet which can be applied to any impulse turbine runner without seriously reducing the efficiency. In early twenties, a normal ratio of D/ d was about 10 : 1.Where D is the diameter of water wheel and d is the same for shaft. Now a days this ratio is improved to 4.5/1

Double jet Impulse Turbine 4.2.1 Reaction turbines Reaction turbines are acted on by water, which changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. They must be encased to contain the water pressure (or suction), or they must be fully submerged in the water flow. Newton's third law describes the transfer of energy for reaction turbines. Most water turbines in use are reaction turbines. They are used in low and medium head applications. In case of reaction turbine, the water pressure combined with the velocity works on the runner. The power in this turbine is developed from the combined action of pressure and velocity of water that completely fills the runner and water passage.

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The casing of the impulse turbine operates at atmospheric pressure whereas the casing of the reaction turbine operates under high pressure. The pressure sets on the rotor and vacuum underneath it. This is why the casing of reaction turbine is made completely leak proof. The reaction turbines are further divided into two general types as: a) Francis and b) Propeller Type. The propeller turbines are further subdivided into fixed blade propeller type and the adjustable blade type or Kaplan Turbine. 4.2.2 Francis Turbine

In Francis turbine, the water enters into a casing with a relatively low velocity, passes through guide vanes located around the circumference and flows through the runner and finally discharges into a draft tube sealed below the tail water level. The water passage from the headrace to tailrace is completely filled with water, which acts upon the whole circumference of the runner. A large part of the power is obtained from the difference in pressure acting on the front and back of the runner buckets, and only a part of total power is derived from the dynamic action of the water.

Open flume with vertical setting of Francis Turbine

Vertical setting of Francis turbine with steel penstock and scroll.

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4.2.3

Propeller Turbine

In its construction a hub is fitted with blades around its periphery and separately casted and bolted nose at the one of its axial end. Such machine was developed for the need of high specific speed at low head. The propeller turbine, which can be used in most of the Axial Flow turbine configurations, is suitable for use on low to medium head sites (1.5 - 15m). Unfortunately, this simple fixed runner blade, fixed guide vane turbine is only of limited use, as its efficiency falls off sharply from its nominal operating conditions. However, most of the disadvantages of the simple propeller turbine can be overcome by the use of adjustable blades. When on site variation in flow is considerable, it may be economical to install two different sizes of propeller turbines. This allows for a low cost installation to best utilise the flows by operating the turbines in conjunction with each other. Since Propeller turbines have non-adjustable propeller vanes. They are used in where the range of head is not large. Commercial products exist for producing several hundred watts from only a few feet of head. Larger propeller turbines produce more than 100 MW. Propeller Turbine. The propeller runner may be considered as a development of a Francis type in which the number of blades are greatly reduced and the lower band is omitted. It is axial flow turbine having a small number of blades from three to six, as shown in Figure. The propeller turbine may be fixed blade type or moveable blades type known as Kaplan Turbine. The fixed blade propeller type turbine has high efficiency (88%) at full load but its efficiency rapidly drops with decrease in load. The efficiency of the unit is hardly 50% at 40% of the full load at part load operation. The use of propeller Figure Propeller Turbine turbine is limited to the installations, where the units run at full load conditions at all time. The use of propeller turbine is further limited to low head installations of 5 to 10 meters.

4.2.4

Kaplan Turbine

The Kaplan turbine is a propeller type turbine having a moveable blade instead of fixed one to improve the performance of propeller turbine at part load conditions.. Dr. Vitkor Kaplan introduced this turbine in the year1913. This turbine has attained great popularity and great progress has been made in recent years in the design and construction of this turbine. The kaplan's blades are adjustable for pitch and will handle a great variation of flow very efficiently. They are 90% or better in efficiency and are used in place of the old (but great) Francis types in a good many of installations. The guide vanes could also be turned and were automatically adjusted to any angle suitable to that of the blades by a combiner, so the turbine was efficient at different workloads. The Kaplan is of the propeller type, similar to an airplane propeller The rotor of the Kaplan turbine is shown in Figure and the blades can be rotated to the most efficient angle by a hydraulic servomotor. A cam on the governor is used to change the blade angle with the gate position so that high efficiency is always obtained at almost any percentage of full load.

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These turbines are constructed to run at speeds varying from 60 to 220 r p m. and to work under varying head from 2 to 60 metre. These are particularly suitable for variable heads and for variable flows and where the ample quantity of water is available. The specific speed of Kaplan lies in the range of 400 to 1500 so that the speed of the rotor is much higher than that of Francis Turbine for the same output and head or Kaplan turbine having the same size as Francis develops more power under the same head and flow quantity. The velocity of water flowing through Kaplan turbine is high as the flow is large and therefore, the cavitation is more serious problem in Kaplan than Francis Turbine. The propeller type turbines have an outstanding advantage of higher speed which results in lower cost of runner, generator and smaller power house substructure and superstructure. The Kaplan turbine is an inward flow reaction turbine, which means that the working fluid changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up its energy. The design combines radial and axial features. The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially, through the wicket gate, and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin. The kaplan turbine is a great development of early 20th century. They are very expensive and are used principally in large installations. A circular stay collar absorbed the compressive forces acting on the flume casing. All low-head, high discharge propeller turbines had to be given amply dimensioned draft tubes since the efficiency of the turbine depended on a strong pressure. 48

If the height of the draft tube was too great, the water pressure around the runner became so low that cavitations posed a serious problem, and it was necessary to mount the runner below tailrace level Large Kaplan turbines are individually designed for each site to operate at the highest possible efficiency, typically over 90%. They are very expensive to design, manufacture and install, but operate for decades. 4.2.5 Cross flow Turbine

The cross flow turbines are impulse turbines and are developed and used in this century. In the cross flow the water, in the form of a sheet, is directed into the blades tangentially at about mid way on one side. The flow of water "crosses" through the empty center of the turbine and exits just below the center on the opposite side. Thus the water strikes blades on both sides of the runner. It is claimed that the entry side contributes about 75% of the power extracted from the sheet of water and that the exit side contributes the remainder. The cross flow is an impulse turbine and requires a high head to be really efficient but it will "work" on heads as low as 3'. It can be fabricated in home shops and many have been built . These transverse flow or Ossberger or cross flow turbine can be used with low heads. However these are usually only employed for low ratings upto about 1,000 HP. They are suitable for heads of 1.5 m upwards. These simple and reliable turbines can be installed and put into operation by personnel with only little experience. They require a minimum of maintenance and are therefore particularly suitable for small plants as well as power stations in remote areas which are inaccessible during pome months of the year. Low head plants based on small civil engineering structures and using simple machinery fit in well with the "mini" hydro concept.

The turbine consists of a cylindrical water wheel or runner with a horizontal shaft, composed of numerous blades (up to 37), arranged radially and tangentially. The blades' edges are sharpened reduce resistance to the flow of water. A blade is made in a part-circular crosssection (pipe cut over its whole length). The ends of the blades are welded to disks to form a cage like a hamster cage; instead of the bars, the turbine has trough-shaped steel blades. The water flows first from the outside of the turbine to its inside. The regulating unit, shaped like a vane or tongue, varies the cross-section of the flow. The water jet is directed towards the cylindrical runner by a fixed nozzle. The water enters the runner at an angle of about 45 degrees, transmitting some of the water's kinetic energy to the active cylindrical blades.

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Cross flow turbine schematic The regulating device controls the flow based on the power needed, and the available water. The ratio is that (0100%) of the water is admitted to 0-100%30/4 blades. Water admission is to the two nozzles is throttled by two shaped guide vanes. These divide and direct the flow so that the water enters the runner smoothly for any width of opening. The guide vanes should seal to the edges of the turbine casing so that when the water is low, they can shut off the water supply. The guide vanes therefore act as the valves between the penstock and turbine. Both guide vanes can be set by control levers, to which an automatic or manual control may be connected. The turbine geometry (nozzle-runner-shaft) assures that the water jet is effective. The water acts on the runner twice, but most of the power is transferred on the first pass, when the water enters the runner. Only of the power is transferred to the runner when the water is leaving the turbine. The peak efficiency of a crossflow turbine is somewhat less than a Kaplan, Francis or Pelton turbine. However, the crossflow turbine has a flat efficiency curve under varying load. With a split runner and turbine chamber, the turbine maintains its efficiency while the flow and load vary from 1/6 to the maximum. Since it has a low price, and good regulation, crossflow turbines are mostly used in mini and micro hydropower units less than two thousand kW and with heads less than 200 m. 4.3 POWERS AND EFFICIENCY The horse power developed by the Turbine is given by the formula:

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75 Where P: Power in HP : Unit weight of the water (normally 1000 kg/m3 Q: Water discharge in m3 /s H: Effective head in meter : Efficiency ( It is equal to 90% in present day scenerio) Therefore above expression reduces to: P= 12 Q H

P=

QH

Example: Calculate the power output when water flows to the turbines at 32 m/s and the overall efficiency of the plant is 65%. (Water density = 1000 kg/m3)

In this example, the Potential Energy of the water is converted to Kinetic Energy to drive the turbine. Therefore: (Mass = Density x Volume) The mass of water flowing per second = 32 x 1000 kg Potential Energy of water = mgh = 32 x 1000 x 9.81 x 150 J/s Power is the rate of transfer of energy, measured in Watts (or J/s ) Assuming 100% efficiency : P = 32 x 1000 x 9.81 x 150 J/s (W) .....= 47.09 x 10^6 W however, efficiency = 65%. Therefore: Power output = (65/100) x 47.09 x 10^6 = 30.6 x 10^6 watts = 30.6 MW
Mechanical efficiency is the effectiveness of a machine and is defined as:

Mechanical Efficiency = Work output / Work Input = Work output/ (Work output + Losses) To show the effectiveness of a machine one must compare its work input to its work output. Efficiency is often indicated by a percentage, the efficiency of an ideal machine is 100%. Due to the fact that energy cannot emerge from nothing and the Second law of thermodynamics which states that the quality of energy will always decrease (transforming from mechanical energy to thermal energy) the mechanical efficiency of any machine will always be less than 100%. Efficiency of the turbine depends basically upon the selection of the most appropriate turbine as per the head and availability of water. Such comparison is primarily made on the basis
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of the specific speed . This term is defined as the specific speed, usually represented by ns, also denominated absolute specific speed or specific angular speed, corresponds to the number of revolutions per minute a turbine similar to which you want to project would give (of equal form but reduced dimensions), which, installed in a jump of 1 m. height, would provide a power of 1 HP. Formula: or also in which: ns = specific speed in rpm. n = synchronism speed in rpm. P = turbine power in HP. H = jump height in m. If flow and head for a specific hydro site, and the rpm requirement of the generator, are known. Value of the specific speed is the main criteria for turbine selection. The specific speed is also the starting point for analytical design of a new turbine. Once the desired specific speed is known, basic dimensions of the turbine parts can be easily calculated. Initial turbine selection is usually based on the ratio of design variables known as the power specific speed. Turbine types can be classified by their specific speed, N, which always applies at the point of maximum efficiency. In case of impulse turbine low specific speed is not conducive to the efficiency, since the diameter of the wheel becomes very large and bearing friction, windage loss tend to become too large. Therefore Specific speed of the runner should be nearly 20 for highest efficiency. In the same way Reaction turbine also affected by the specific speeed. Basically the efficiency of a turbine is dependent upon the a) Type of turbine b) Size of turbine c) Head at the turbine d) Load on the turbine. Maximum efficiency for different turbines may be taken around the following values: Kaplan: 93% Francis:92% Pelton:91% Crossflow: 80% In practice, flow through the turbine is controlled either by a large valve or by wicket gates arranged around the outside of the turbine runner. Differential head and flow can be plotted for a number of different values of gate opening, producing a hill diagram used to show the efficiency of the turbine at varying conditions. The runaway speed of a water turbine is its speed at full flow, and no shaft load. The turbine will be designed to survive the mechanical forces of this speed. The manufacturer will supply the runaway speed rating
4.4 HIGH MEDIUM AND LOW HEAD APPLICATIONS

Turbine selection is based mostly on the available water head, and less so on the available flow rate. In general, impulse turbines are used for high head sites, and reaction turbines are used for low head sites. Kaplan turbines with adjustable blade pitch are well-adapted to wide ranges of flow or head conditions, since their peak efficiency can be achieved over a wide range of flow conditions.

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Small turbines (mostly under 10 MW) may have horizontal shafts, and even fairly large bulb-type turbines up to 100 MW or so may be horizontal. Very large Francis and Kaplan machines usually have vertical shafts because this makes best use of the available head, and makes installation of a generator more economical. Pelton wheels may be either vertical or horizontal shaft machines because the size of the machine is so much less than the available head. Some impulse turbines use multiple water jets per runner to increase specific speed and balance shaft thrust. Typical range of heads for different types of the turbines: Kaplan 2 < H < 40 (H = head in m) Francis 10 < H < 350 Pelton 50 < H < 1300 Turgo 50 < H < 250

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CHAPTER-5 INSTRUMENTATION & OPERATION


5.1 CONTROL OF FREQUENCY AND POWER LOADING

In a power system speed of the turbine is fixed by the frequency of the supply and the number of poles in the generators. These are related to each other by the relation: N = 120 f / P, Where N: RPM of the machine F: Frequency of the output electric supply, P: Number of poles But how the frequency and speed of the turbine are related to the loading of the generator! It should be considered that whenever load increases or decreases it affects the magnetic lines of flux in side the generator. If load increases magnetic field inside the generator around the group of current carrying conductors also increases and opposes the rotation of the rotor and consequently that of the turbine runner. Under such condition Governor comes into the picture and opens the gates to allow the more water to impinge on the blades of the runner.Reverse happens when the load reduces. Therefore with the loading unloading of the generator it is the speed of the rotor and hence frequency, that are deviated from a certain value.Electricity is a unique commodity; production and consumption must be matched instantaneously and continuously. The electric power grid, on the other hand, has only the rotational kinetic energy of the connected synchronous generators to help balance production and consumption: enough energy storage to sustain the grid for cycles to seconds (depending on the amount of imbalance). Too much generation and the system frequency increases, too little and the system frequency decreases. It is not possible to maintain a perfect generation vs. load balance although active control systems attempt to do this by constantly adjusting the generators power input. Figure below shows how frequency deviates if generation is slow to respond (left) or if the automatic generation control is imprecise (right). Small mismatches between generation and load result in small frequency deviations. Small shifts in frequency do not degrade reliability or markets efficiency although large shifts can damage equipment, degrade load performance, and interfere with system protection schemes, which may ultimately lead to system collapse. Establishing acceptable frequency deviation operational limits is surprisingly difficult.

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Figure: Power system frequency deviates whenever generation fails to track load precisely. 5.2 TURBINE INSTRUMENTATION 5.2.1 Speed Calculation

As it was explained earlier that frequency is related with the speed of the rotor or the turbine, hence if frequency is known speed can be determined and vice versa frequency can be estimated if speed is known. Measurement of frequency is easy because it is an electrical quantity and can be measured at any location where the generated supply is available. But for the control purpose mechanical governors are still on work, these governors senses the speed and actuate the water inlet valve accordingly.

The function of the governor is to control the motion of piston in a control valve. The function of the control valve is to control the supply of high pressure oil to either direction of the servo-motor cylinder. The function of gear pump and air vessel is to supply the oil at high pressure without fluctuations to the control valve. The function of the dash pot is to prevent sudden opening-out or closing-in of fly balls and thus ads as a damping device. 55

The working of the system is explained as follows. Fig. shows the normal position of the Servo-motor mechanism when the Pelton wheel runs at designed speed and designed load. When the load on the turbine decreases, the speed of the turbine will start increasing and this also increases the speed of the governor which is directly connected to the turbine shaft. The balls of the governor fly outward due to increase in governor speed and centrifugal force lift the piston in the control valve upwards. This motion of piston in control valve allows the high pressure oil to flow to the left-side of the servo-motor piston as shown in next Fig. (a) and it pushes the piston towards the right and closes the nozzle partly which helps to restore the normal speed of the Pelton wheel.

Fig a

When the load on the turbine increases, the speed of the turbine will start decreasing and this also decreases the speed of the governor. The ball of the governor fly inward due to the decrease in governor speed and push the piston in the control valve downward. This motion of piston in the control valve allows the high pressure oil to flow to the right side of the servo-motor piston as shown in Fig. (b) and it pushes the piston towards the left and opens the nozzle partly which helps to restore the normal speed of the Pulton wheel. As the piston in servo-motor moves towards the left, the nozzle does the requsite job and restore the speed.

Fig. b

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5.2.2

Valve Actuation

Hydraulic valves in general regulate or control the flow in conduits, pipe lines and penstock. These are available in different configuration. Some are mentioned below: Insign Valve Needle valve Tube valve Hollow jet valve Plug valve and Butterfly valve All the valves are mechanical type and actuate with the mechanical livers connected to electromechanical or governing systems.
5.2.3 Auto Startup

System design is most fault prone at the time of startup and shut down. Occassional faults are occuring randomly on the system and auto governoning systems senses the fault and takes the most appropriate action but if fault is removed within a certain amount of time plant should start automatically. Previously used mechanical or electromechanical magnetic plungers are not capable of taking a rapid action to protect the plant from shutdown. But now same systems have become so efficient that their operative time have reduced to the seconds from the minutes.

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CHAPTER-6 MONITORING & REGULATION


6.1 AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY REGULATION & MONITORING OF VOLTAGE AND

Overall system of the hydro power plant is complicated in which turbine, generator, actuators, gates, valves are rotary or movable. Such rotary motion can create dynamic or thermal stresses in the corresponding members. Plants are made for continuous running hence monitoring of all the components of the plant is very important aspect. Different sensors are put at the appropriate places to monitor the conditions of the component. Manual monitoring is also a part of the system. Regular maintenance schedules are also followed to keep the parts in good health. Now a days sensors are connected to analog to digital converters and linked with the computers where all monitoring is continuously performed and appropriate instructions are released. In case of unstable condition alarm or annunciator is operated automatically. SCADA is also taking care of the large interconnected plants to proper monitor and control in most optimized way. Softwares available now provides vital information necessary to prevent catastrophic failure. Machinery Health softwares simplifies display of the information, and its use for maintenance. Data can be viewed live at the time of an event for valuable insight during critical transient operations such as turbine startup and shutdown when turbine problems are most likely to occur. The same information from turnarounds and unscheduled trips can be stored and retrieved later for detailed analysis. Voltage and frequency are also monitored using sampling technique and data is taken, converted to digital format and dispatched to control room. Where simultaneous analysis is performed for any possibility of fault occurance.
6.2 MODELING AND SIMULATION OF ELECTRICAL MACHINES

The numerical simulation of hydro machinery is often required for the study of the system under varied conditions. Even today models of the turbines are made to study the behavior the actual turbine. This is not just due to the fact that most part of the plant are combinations of magnetic components and circuitry, but also because of the need for designers to perform system level simulation. To take geometric complexity, non linearity, induced eddy currents, mechanical movement and electric circuits with general topologies into account, it is necessary to couple the finite element method (FEM) with electric circuit analysis. For accuracy and details, it is essential to retain the physical models in FEM domain without lumping the field effects into the circuit domain; for speed and generality, it is essential to retain the flexibility of circuit simulation Over the past several years, field and circuit coupling has been commonly used in conjunction with the time domain simulation A very constraining utilization reduces the life duration of electric machine. Simulation is a new way to define reliability criterions of these power machines. Most of internal fragility locations are winding insulations, ball bearings so that the system collector and brushes. Although nowadays, statistical determination methods of the reliability criterions are very costly. For this reason, a new method consisting of the development of thermal models for different surrounding temperatures is prepared. It will also take into account degradation laws of 58

constituting materials as functions of reached temperatures and life duration. This simulation will detail the initial validation of the thermal models for surrounding temperatures of 25 and 85 C.

6.3

DATA ACQUESTION AND LOGGING

Data acquestion and logging (DAS) is defined as a system used for data collection, processing, conversion, transmission and storage. The components of data acquisition systems include appropriate sensors that convert any measurement parameter to an electrical signal, which is acquired by data acquisition hardware. Acquired data is displayed, analyzed, and stored on a computer, either using vendor supplied software, or custom displays and control can be developed using various general purpose programming languages such as BASIC, C, Fortran, Java, Lisp, Pascal. Specialised programming languages used for data acquisition include, EPICS used to build large scale data acquisition systems, LabVIEW, which offers a graphical programming environment optimized for data acquisition and MATLAB provides a programming language but also built-in graphical tools and libraries for data acquisition and analysis. Signal conditioning may be necessary if the signal from the transducer is not suitable for the DAQ hardware to be used. The signal may be amplified or deamplified, or may require filtering, or a lock-in amplifier is included to perform demodulation. Various other examples of signal conditioning might be bridge completion, providing current or voltage excitation to the sensor, isolation, linearizaation, etc. Analog signals tolerate almost no cross talk and so are converted to digital data, before coming close to a PC or before traveling along long cables. For analog data to have a high signal to noise ratio, the signal needs to be very high. The same is true for DACs. Also digital data can be sent over glass fiber for high voltage isolation or by means of Manchester encoding or similar through RF-couplers, which prevent net hum. Transducers or the sensors are the beginning of data acquestion. Signal conditioning is done on the signals received from the transducers and all the signals from different transducers are multiplexed to send to the remotedly situated computer. Multiplexed data is than converted to digital format and stored in the computer memory. Many hardware and softwares are available in the market to collect the data from the sensors and to manulplate the data to ger the desired result.

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CHAPTER-7 CONTROL ASPECTS


7.1 CASCADED FEEDBACK SYSTEM

Feedback system senses the output and accordingly control the input so that output should remain at desired value. A variation in the output disturb the input and viceversa. Sometimes control system, against a sudden variation in the output, can not bring the output to the desired value by varying the input and system becomes instable. To cope with similar situations various methods are adopted in the control engineering so that output does not shoot up beyond the controllable limits. One technique is the cascaded feedback control system. The typical design procedure for cascaded feedback systems is to first design an inner feedback loop and then an outer loop. By default, when designing a multi-loop feedback system the coupling effects between loops are taken into account. However, when designing two feedback loops simultaneously it might be necessary to remove the effect of an outer loop when tuning an inner loop. Computer software like Simulink can perform this compensator Design Task. The process of designing two cascaded feedback loops so that the disturbance on the output component tracks reference signals with a maximum rise time of as low as 0.5 seconds. The cascaded feedback loop structure in this way increases the stability of the overall system.
7.2 FEED FORWARD CONTROL SYSTEM

This is a term describing a kind of control system which reacts to changes in its environment, usually to maintain some desired state of the system before the disturbance actually occurs. A system which exhibits feed-forward behavior responds to a measured disturbance in a pre-defined way , which is a contrast with a feedback system. Many prerequisites are needed to implement a feed-forward control scheme: the disturbance must be measurable, the effect of the disturbance to the output of the system must be known and the time it takes for the disturbance to affect the output must be longer than the time it takes the feed-forward controller to affect the output. If these conditions are met, feed-forward can be tuned to be extremely effective. Feed-forward control can respond more quickly to known and measurable kinds of disturbances, but cannot do much with novel disturbances. Feed-back control deals with any deviation from desired system behavior, but requires the system's measured variable (output) to react to the disturbance in order to notice the deviation. Feed-back control is exemplified by homeostatic regulation of heartbeat in response to physical exertion. Feed-forward control can be likened to learned responses to known cues. These systems could be in control theory, physiology or computing.

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7.3

HYDRAULIC SERVOMECHANISM

This mechanism is a feedback system control for the mechanical; movements of desired objects. In elctromechanical servo systems motor-Generator sets are used for this purpose, where as in hydraulic servo system a fluid filled in two cylinders is used to transmit the motion is used.

Fig. Hydraulic Servomechanism:

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CHAPTER-8 PROTECTION
8.1 PRINCIPLES OF POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION

Power system is composed of many components at the generation level as well as at load side:
At Generation side: Turbine Generator Governor Switchgear Transformers Mechanical hardware At Load side: Transmission and distribution lines Transformer Substation switchgear

Protection stands for the provisions made to maintain proper working of all these components without any disaster or failure of the system where as simultaneously maintaining the statuary requirements. Amlitude of voltage and value of frequency is decided by the statute of the respective government and tomaintain them is the responsibility of the utility. Protection may be in effect keeping either whole system in to the consideration or the protection of each apparatus in mind. Large plants require protection as a whole system and interrelated scheme for the protection of the each apparatus in the whole system is desirable, where as for small systems individual protection schemes are good enough.
8.2 PROTECTION SYSTEM COMPONENTS 8.2.1 High Potential & Current Sensor

Sensing of voltage and current beyond the limit is performed by the potential and current transformers. These are used to activate the relay and to send the signal to the data acquestion system.
8.2.2 Protective Relays

These are low power devices to actuate the circuit breaker with the small fault current. These relays have following properties: Selectivity Speed Sensitivity Reliability Simplicity 62

Economic Basically relay is electromagnetic component, in which fault current energises the electromegnet which actuates the plunger to make or break the electric current to circuit breaker. These are availble in following types: a) b) Electromagnetic Attraction Relays Induction Relays: These are available in different configurations I) Shaded pole type ii) Watthour meter structure iii)Induction cup structure
Power Circuit Breakers

8.2.3

These are actated by the relays and interrupt the main power lines. Main type of Circuit Breakers are given below: a) Oil Circuit Breakers: In such circuit breakers insulating oil is used as arc quenching medium. That oil prevents the arc expansion and distributes the heat to the environment immediately b) Air Blast Circuit Breaker: These breakers employ a high pressure air as arc quenching medium. Air blast cools the arc and sweeps away the arc. These are of three types I) Axial blast ii) Cross blast iii) Radial blast c) Sulphur Hexaflouride (SF6) Circuit Breakers: In such breakers SF6 gas is filled as arc quenching medium. This gas is electronegative by nature and has tendency to absorbe the free electrons. There by conducting electrons between the electrodes are absorbed by this gas. d) Vacuum Circuit Breakers: In such breakers vacuum of degree 10-5 to 10-7 Torr is maintained as arc quenching medium. Due to vacuum arc extinguished because of metallic vapour, electrons and ions quickly condense on the contacts.
8.2.4 Fuses

It is a short piece of metal inserted in the circuit, which melts when excessive current through it and thus breaks the circuit. Fuses (and other overcurrent devices) are an essential part of a power distribution system to prevent fire or damage. When too much current flows through a wire, it may overheat and be damaged, or even start a fire. Wiring regulations give the maximum rating of a fuse for protection of a particular circuit. Fuses are selected to allow passage of normal currents, but to quickly interrupt a short circuit or overload condition. The speed at which a fuse operates depends on how much current flows through it. Manufacturers of fuses plot a time-current characteristic curve, which shows the time required to melt the fuse and the time required to clear the circuit for any given level of overload current. Where several fuses are connected in series at the various levels of a power distribution system, it is very desirable to clear only the fuse (or other overcurrent devices) electrically closest to the fault. This process is called "coordination" and may require the time-current characteristics of two fuses to be plotted on a common current basis. Fuses are then selected so that the minor, branch, fuse clears its circuit well before the supplying, major, fuse starts to melt. In this way only the faulty circuits are interrupted and minimal disturbance occurs to other circuits fed by the supplying fuse.

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Type of Fuses:1. Low voltage Type

A) B) C)

Rewirable type fuses are those fuses which can be wired again and again. These are used for domestic purposes at low voltage and low currents High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) Fuses: Since breaking capacity of the rewirable fuses is uncertain, so HRC fuses are favoured because of their fixed current capacity. Glass elclosed fuses: These are also fixed current capacity fuses but are used only at low voltage and low current. Usually at the instruments, power supplies etc. 2.High voltage type

A. B.

Cartridge type: These are look wise as low voltage type but size and fusing element are mounted in such a manner that high voltage should not break the insulation. These are used upto 3.3 kV Liquid Type: These are special fuses filled with carbon tetrachloride and can be used upto 100A at voltage ratings upto 132 kV

A fuse also has a rated interrupting capacity, also called breaking capacity, which is the maximum current the fuse can safely interrupt. Generally this should be higher than the maximum prospective short circuit current. Miniature fuses may have an interrupting rating only 10 times their rated current. Large power fuses use fusible elements made of silver, copper or tin to provide stable and predictable performance. High voltage expulsion fuses surround the fusible link with gasevolving substances, such as boric acid. When the fuse blows, heat from the arc causes the boric acid to evolve large volumes of gases. The associated high pressure (often greater than 100 atmospheres) and cooling gases rapidly extinguish (quench) the resulting arc. The hot gases are then explosively expelled out of the end(s) of the fuse. Other special High Rupturing Capacity (HRC) fuses surround one or more parallel connected fusible links with an energy absorbing material, typically silicon dioxide sand. When the fusible link blows, the sand absorbs energy from the arc, rapidly quenching it, creating an artificial fulgurite in the process.
8.3 APPARATUS PROTECTION

Different schemes for the protection of the power system apparatus is shown:
8.3.1 Generator

a)

Stator fault: As shown in the figure a transverse percentage differential protection is employed in the parallel windings of the generator.

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Transverse percentage differential protection scheme for generator 8.3.2

Transformer ProtectionScheme: Percentage differential protection scheme for the earth fault protection of Wye- Delta transformer.

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