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ITGM 241: Survey of Interactive Entertainment Exam I Study Guide Exam Structure 5 Essay Questions, 12 points each 10 Short

Answer Questions, 2 points each 5 True/False Questions, 2 points each 5 Multiple Choice Questions, 2 points each Course Introduction 1) Definition of interactivity (Chris Crawford) a) A cyclic process between two or more active agents in which each agent alternately listens, thinks, and speaks 2) Four modes of interactivity: a) Cognitive, Functional, Explicit, Beyond-the-Object

History of Computing 3) Charles Babbage, Difference Engine, Analytical Engine a) 1822 b) A mechanical calculator for calculating polynomial equations c) Punch cards 4) Alan Turing, “On Computable Numbers” and the Universal Turing Machine a) Part of the Turing Theory was that the tape that fed the device instructions
could include an number of tasks but also play chess etc

5) ENIAC a) 1944-46 b) First digital computer used during WWII c) Electronic numeral Integrator and Computer d) Could handle a variety of functions e) Wires and Plugboards 6) Johnny von Neumann, “The First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” and the von Neumann Architecture

now their own company. 7) UNIVAC a) 1951 b) UNIVersal Automatic Computer c) The first economically produced computer in the U. d) Designed by Eckert and Mauchly of the ENIAC project. Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation 8) PDP-1 a) 1961 b) Programmed Data Processor-1 c) Smaller than predecessors d) In research institutions began the hacker culture 9) IBM System/360 a) 1964 b) Gene Amdahl c) Commercially available mainframe for both commercial and scientific application 10) Apple II and TRS-80 a) 1977 b) Color graphics made it to the consumer level c) Began the modern personal computer d) Came with game paddles and one game History of Input/Output 11) “On Computable Numbers” and “The First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” and primary issue raised by these in terms of i/o .a) 1945 b) Birth of modern computing c) Neumann = US government researcher d) Consolidated ENIAC research and theorized storage e) Von Neumann Architecture is the idea of subdividing the processing unit of a computer including making a partition for storage of information and data.S.

a) “On Computable Numbers” introduced the idea that a computer could perform more advanced functions if given the proper commands. It is from this that we get the idea of the “program” 12) ENIAC and its i/o a) Ran on wires and plugboards 13) UNIVAC and magnetic tape storage a) Printer capable b) Able to run a variety of tasks c) Data was stored on magnetic tapes and was able to pass the information to the central mainframe d) 12000 digits per second 14) Printing teletypes a) Lowered latency problems with punchcard systems b) Output of typed characters appear on paper roll above keypad 15) Glass teletypes a) Removed paper record of input. “Augmenting Human Intellect” a) 1962 b) A research agenda about how to use computers to enhance the c) Inventor of the mouse d) How to use computers to increase the capabilities of an individual e) Bootstrapping 18) Englebart. NLS a) 1968 . Onve text scrolled off screen n orecord remained sped up response 16) Ivan Sutherland’s Sketchpad a) 1962 b) Precursor to CAD Applications c) First GUI 17) Douglas Englebart. b) “The First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC” was important because it began to discuss the idea of the storage of media and instruction sets.

mouse click and drag d) 72ppi became standard History of Programming and Software 20) Grace Hopper. A-0 and Math-Matic compilers a) Allowed for programming in the English language b) 1952 i) A-0 Compiler was for the UNIVAC c) 1957 i) Math-Matic was a programming language (1) First Commercial compiler (2) B-0 Compiler (3) Owned by Sperry-Rand 21) Kurtz and Kemeny.b) “oN-Line System” c) Text and line on the same screen d) Allowed sharing of documents 19) Xerox PARC Alto a) 1974 b) First computer with mouse input c) Shows the first ideas and implementations of a GUI i) Windows. UNIX a) 1969 b) Thompson and Ritchie c) Developed at AT&T Bell Labs d) First effort at multi-user multitasking operating system . desktop. BASIC a) 1962 b) Invented by Kurtz and Kemeny c) Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code d) Became a staple for early computers 22) Thompson and Ritchie.

Future Splash. Flash a) 1995-96 b) Jonathan Gay c) Smartsketch was a postscript based drawing tool d) Java-based player was too slow e) Plugin for playing animation f) Renamed smartsketch . Gosling. LINUX a) 1991 b) Linus Torvaid c) Open source version of UNIX and started the open source software movement 26) Joy et al. Naughton. Java a) 1991-1995 b) Joy. Frank c) Sun Microsystems d) Combined C and Mesa for a programming language e) Capable of working on multiple platforms f) Integrated into netscape 27) Gay et al. Sheradin.e) Programmers can add to the language 23) MS-DOS a) 1981 b) Microsoft c) Microsoft Disc Operating System d) First wide spread operating system e) Seattle computer developed purchased by Microsoft 24) Stroustrup. C++ a) 1985 b) Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup c) Faster than Simula d) First Object Oriented Programming Language 25) Torvald.

the memex 30) J. “As We May Think” a) Vannevar Bush b) “As We May Think” i) 1945 ii) Involved in development of Manhattan Project.0 which introduced scripting 28) Stallman. Licklider. Hydrogen Bomb Project iii) Desire for a sort of a collective memory.R.C.i) To Future Splash g) Microsoft and Disney embraced the plugin h) Only animation until 3. “Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network” a) 1962 b) Licklider at time was working with ARPAnet c) Theorized networking for participatory collaboration directed at university research centers 31) ARPAnet a) 1967-1988 b) Built mini computers with (IMP) interface message protocol c) For linking computers across country d) 1969 i) ARPAnet connected Engelbart’s SRI with UCLA’s Network Measurement Center . GNU Licensing a) 1983 b) OpenSource and Creative Commons c) Richard Stallman wrote licensing scheme for GNU General d) Public License which allows less restrictive software e) Birth of the Open Source Movement History of Computer Networking 29) Vannevar Bush.

HTML a) 1989 b) Tim Berners-Lee i) Conceptualized the world web in a 1989 white paper (thesis Paper) c) URL = Uniform Resource Locator i) Points to a document d) HTTP = Hypertext Transfer Protocol i) Faster transfer of files e) HTML = Hypertext Markup Language i) Scripting language for HTTP History of Interactive Art 35) John Cage.” “Real Time Systems.” “Software” a) Jack Burnham . IP Addresses e) Not made of tubes f) 1980 ARPA Supported Protocol 33) Ted Nelson. Hypertext and Hyperlink a) 1965 b) Able to link passages of text to other passages in the same document c) NLS Project similaritiexs 34) Tim Berners-Lee. Variations V a) 1965 b) Example of electronic theater c) Worked w/ Merce Cunningham Dance Company d) Sounds and light were triggered by receiver antennae and randomness 36) Burnham. URL.32) TCP/IP a) 1973-1974/83 b) Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol c) “Router” as gateway for communication d) Domain extension. “Systems Aesthetics. HTTP.

Text Rain a) 1999 b) People interact with falling text that they see on screen 40) Rozin. Telegarden a) 1995-2004 b) Used the internet to control a gardening robot that tended a garden 39) Utterback and Achituv.b) Systems Aesthetics 1968 c) Real time systems 1969 d) Software Exhibition 1970 e) Gave the idea that CG art provides more interactivity between artist and viewer 37) Toshio Iwai. Wooden Mirror a) 1999 b) Wooden blocks on servos to create a mirror as blocks were turned .as image media a) 1995 b) Trackball “draws” notes onto the screen 38) Goldberg and Santarromana. Piano.