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1. Physics in the realm of Science:

Science - is the systematize body of knowledge based on facts and principle gathered over a long

period of time to explain the world we live in. a. it is a body of knowledge: - it consists of many disciplines or fields but has different field of specialization or object of studies. b. Natural Science: - the gathering and organizing of facts to serve as a basis of discovering general truth in nature. - its object of study are the different things in nature. It is divided into 2 general branches: 1. Abstract Science (Pure Sciences) = use only the mind to arrive to the general truth (Philosophy and Mathematics) 2. Natural Science = the study of the different phenomena in nature. It can be: 1. Biological (Life) Science - deals about the different animate being in nature. Ex. Botany - study about the plants Zoology - study about the animals Anatomy - study about the different organ systems of the human body. Genetics the study about the different behavior and traits of the organisms Ecology the study about the relationship between the organisms and its environment Microbiology the study about the different microorganisms. 2. Physical (Pure) Science - deals with the inanimate things and the explanation of their occurrence in nature. Ex. Astronomy - study about the different heavenly bodies. Chemistry - study about the different materials in nature, its composition and the changes that it undergoes. Meteorology the study about weather and climate Physics the study about the interrelationship between matter and energy. 3. Earth Science focus in the study about the earth Geology the study about the history, structure and composition of the earth and the changes that it undergoes. Oceanography study about the ocean and its phenomena Geography the study about the location of places on earth Volcanology the study about the volcano and its phenomena Seismology the study about earthquakes and its phenomena 2. History of Physics: - The history of physics is as old as man since our interest in matter and energy starts when man live on earth. However, its systematized study and explanation dates back to the greeks. The following scientists contributed to the development of Physics: 1. Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.) - taught that all things are made up of four elements namely: earth, water, air and fire. 2. Democritus (460 -370 B.C.) and Epicurus (341 - 270 B.C.) - believed and taught that matter can be subdivided into "atoms" . They were the first to introduced the concept of "atom". 1

3. Galileo (1564 - 1642 A.D) - studied the behavior of falling bodies and formulated its laws. He investigated the pendulum and put it into use in clocks. 4. Johannes Kepler (1571 - 1642) - discovered that the planets have elliptical orbits and their motion could be written in mathematical formula that can be used to predict their movements. The same laws are used to calculate the flight paths of space vehicles. 5. Robert Boyle (1627 -1690) - formulated one of the laws of gases stating the relationship between pressure and volume at constant temperature. 6. Sir Isaac Newton (1642 - 1691) - formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation. He discovered the nature and composition of light - light is a particle. 7. Benjamin Franklin (1706 - 1790) and Michael Faraday (1791 -1867) - have pioneered in the study of electricity. Franklin study about lightning and invented the lightning rods. Faraday proved that magnets can be used to produce electricity, thus building the electric generator. 8. Count Rumford (1753 - 1814) and James P. Joule (1818 - 1889) - pioneered in the study of heat. 9. Thomas Young (1773 - 1829) and Augustine Fresnel (1788 - 1827) - advanced the study of light. Young demonstrated the interference of light, substantiating the wave theory of light. 10. James Maxwell (1831 - 1879) - works on electricity and magnetism (electromagnetism). He formulated the general equations on electromagnetic field and contributed to the development of the kinetic theory of gases. 11. W. Roentgen (1845 - 1923) and Henri Becquerel (1852 -1908) - Roentgen discovered X - rays in 1895. Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896. Thus, they contributed to the development of nuclear physics. 12. Albert Einstein (1879 -1955) and Max Planck (1858 - 1947) - Einstein formulated the theory of relativity and Planck formulated the quantum theory which is the basis of quantum mechanics. 3. Branches of Physics: Physics is divided into: a. Classical Physics - this refers to the traditional topics in Physics that were recognized and developed before the beginning of the 20th century. - these deal with matter and energy under normal condition. These are: 1. Mechanics - it deals with the study of forces, motion, forces affecting motion of bodies and the properties of matter. It includes: a. Statics - study of forces acting on bodies at rest caused by forces in equilibrium b. Kinematics - study of objects in motion without considering its cause. c. Dynamics - study of objects in motion and the forces that affect it. 2 Heat and Thermodynamics - the study of thermometry, the effects of heat on the different phases of matter, heat transfer and its conversion into work (Thermodynamics). It includes: a. Cryogenics - the study of cooling b. Magnetothermodynamics - the study on the effects of extremely low temperature on matter. 3. Waves and Sound (Acoustics) - concerned with vibrations and waves, their recording. transmission and perception as in music and speech. Acoustics - the study on the production and propagation of sound waves. Infrasonics study about sound waves below the audible range Ultrasonics the study about sound waves moving beyond the audible range

4. Electricity and Magnetism (Electromagnetism) - the study of electric and magnetic fields and their interactions, the motion of electric charges through conductors and in electric circuits. It includes: a. Electronics - the branch of Physics that deals on the emission, behavior and effects of electrons. b. Electromagnetism - the study of the properties of electric current and magnetism, and their relationship. b.1. Electrostatics - study on electric charges at rest b.2. Electrodynamics - study on electric charges in motion b.3. Magnetostatics - study of the magnetic poles at rest 5. Light and Optics - the study on the nature and behavior of light, its passage through different media and it behavior in such phenomena as in reflection, refraction, diffraction and polarization. It includes: a. Physical Optics - deals on the nature, properties and production of light. b. Physiological Optics - deals on the study of the effects of light on our vision c. Geometrical Optics - deals on the study of images produced in lenses and mirrors. b. Modern Physics - refers to concepts in physics that have surfaced since the beginning of the 20th century. - it is mostly concerned with the behavior of matter and energy under extreme conditions. 1. Atomic and Nuclear Physics - the study on the components, structure and behavior of atom and subatomic particles. 2. Quantum Physics - the study of the discrete nature of phenomena at the atomic and subatomic levels; its focus is on the indivisible units of energy called quanta as described by the Quantum theory. 3 . Relativistic Physics - the study of phenomena that take place in a frame of reference that is in motion with respect to an observer. 4. Solid State physics - the study of all the properties of solid materials, including electrical conduction in crystals of semiconductors and metals, superconductivity and photoconductivity 5. Condensed Matter Physics - .the study of the properties of condensed materials (solids, liquids and those intermediate between them, and dense gas) with the ultimate goal of developing new materials with better properties. 6. Plasma Physics - it deals with the study of the fourth state of matter. 7. Low Temperature Physics - the study of the production and maintenance of temperature down to almost absolute zero, and the various phenomena that occur only at such temperatures.

1. The Scientific Method - an orderly plan of procedure used in solving problems Steps in Scientific Method a. Identifying the problem - know what is the main problem b. Gathering data and informations - collect facts and data related to the problem. - It may come from direct observations or several investigations. c. Stating Hypotheses - make a wise guess or explanation or solution of the problem based on gathered data. d. Testing Hypothesis through Experimentation

Steps in Experimenting: 1. Problem - same as in the identified problem 2. Materials and Apparatuses - the tools needed to discover and know the answer of the problem. 3. Procedure - the outline of the steps to be followed in working out the problem 4. Observations - an accurate record of the happenings while following the procedure e. Analyze and Interprets data f. Making Conclusions or Generalizations - a probable answer to the problem is attained. It can be : Principle - an explanation that is based on natural events or experiments that is proven to be correct. Theory - an explanation based on some principle but has no experimental basis. Law - an explanation that has been proven to be correct in all aspect. g. Apply to similar situation 2. Steps in Problem - Solving: 1. Read carefully and understand the problem. 2. Make illustration or drawing to visualize the problem. 3. Write the given facts or data 4. Know what is being asked 5. Write an equation that relates the given data to the unknown 6. Solve and review your work 3. Importance of Physics: a. Improves our quality of life b. Provides the necessary comforts in our life c. Improves our way of doing things d. Enables us to predict and foretell future events e. Explains to us the different things and phenomena around us

Technology - the application of scientific knowledge to human needs. Among these are: Planetary Motion - used in predicting motion of different heavenly bodies, launching of rockets and satellites Thermodynamics - used in refrigeration, air conditioners, power plants and factories Aerodynamics - used in aircraft designs, trains and cars Hydrodynamics - used in hydrologic studies, water tanks and designs of water vehicles such as ships, hover ships and boats. Forces - used in daily construction problems and other related fields Electricity - used in production of electricity, study on the effects of electric charges and electric circuits. Electromagnetism - used in telephony, telegraphy, radio and television broadcasting, satellite communication, radar, sonar, wireless communication, speakers, radio et coetera. Atomic Structure - used in production of electronic parts and gadgets, computers, nuclear reactors and power plants. Sound - used in production of different musical instruments, electronic parts, musical system and other acoustic products. Radioactivity - used in nuclear transportation, radioisotopes in agriculture and medicine, carbon dating, fission and fusion of atoms. Light and Optics - used in making eye glasses, cameras, microscopes, telescopes, room lighting. Laser, maser and other optical related fields.

1. Exponents: - a number or symbol written above and to the right of a certain number or symbol called base. It indicates the number of times in which the base is used as a factor.

base

4exponent

base

b exponent

Rules: 1. When multiplying two powers with the same base, add their exponents.

Ex.

am an = a m+n

(2m)(4m4) = (24)(m +4) = 8 m 6 2. To get the power of a power, multiply the exponents. Ex. (am) n = a mn (6m) 4 = (61 m) 4 = (614 m4) = 64 m12 = 1296 m12 3. When dividing two powers of the same base, subtract the exponents.

am = a m n n Ex. a 30 x 3 30 x 3 = 3x3 2 = 3x = 2 2 10 x 10 x

4. To find the power of a fraction, simplify the fraction and raise the numerator and denominator to the specified power.

Ex. a b

10m 2 2m

m

am bm

2 2

10 2 1 = 2 m

= ( 5) m1

2

( )

= 25m 2

a = 1 that a

is a1 x a -1 = a 1 + -1 = a0

6. Reciprocal quantities are expressed in the same way but with negative exponent.

1 1 = = a n n a a

n

such that:

1 1 1 = a 1 ; 2 = a 2 ; 3 = a 3 a a a

2. Radicals/Roots:

- a fractional exponent signifies a root of the quantity. - The square root of "a" usually written a , is that quantity which multiplied by itself once is equal to "a" : a a = a Using exponent, we would write the square root of "a" as a = a , because a x a = a. In general, the nth root of any quantity is indicated by the exponent

1 n

Rules: 1.

m

ab = m a m b

2.

a = b

m m

a b

1 n

3. m a n = ( a n ) n = a m

Exercises: 1. a2 a3 2. (a2b5c 3) (a3bc) 3. (6x4)(-2x3) 4. (-4y)(-3y2) 5. (4a4)2 6. a3/2 a1/2 a 3a 2 7. 5 a 8. a a

11.

a 4b 3 a 6b 32 a 12. 3a 2 6m 5 13. 6m 5

x3 y 4 z x2 y2 z

14. 15.

17. 7b 2c 2 18. ( a b )

2 1 4 4

a3 2 bc

b3 a2

3

9. (a )

3a 19. 2a 2 2 b

b2 a2

2

1

10. a4(ab)-2

20.

(a

3 2

a4 b8

3. Exponential/ Scientific Notation: - short way of writing very large and small numbers using powers of ten notation.

- usually it requires three significant digits. Examples: Wave frequency = 540,000,000,000,000 Hertz = 5.40 x 1014 Hz Molecules per mole = 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 = 6.02 x 1023 Speed of light = 300,000,000 m/s = 3.00 x 108 m/s Mass of Earth = 6,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 Kg = 6.00 x 1024 Kg Mass of electron = 0.000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,911 Kg = 9.11 x 10-31 Kg

In general expression: M X 10 n

where: M = number n = exponent

Steps in determining the exponential/scientific notation: 1. Move the decimal point to the right or to the left of its present position (either assumed or

expressed) so that the decimal point will just be immediately after the very first non-zero digit. 2. The number of places the decimal point has been moved from its position represent the integer. The integer is positive if the decimal point is moved to the left of its original position (assumed or expressed) and negative if it is moved to the right. Exercises: Convert into decimal notation: 1. 3.4 x 106 6 Covert into Scientific notation: 1. 654,000,000,000

-add or subtract the value of M (number) and keep the same n (exponent of 10) if they have the same exponent. If unlike exponent, make it the same before adding or subtracting. Examples: 5 x 106 + 3 x 106 = 8 x 106 2.3 x 10 -5 - 1.6 x 10 -5 = 0.7 x 10 -5 or 7 x 10 -6 3 x 106 + 4 x 105 = 3 x 106 + 0.4 x 106 = 3.4 x 106 7.5 x 10-8 + 2.5 x 10-9 = 7.5 x 10-8 + 0.25 x 10-8 = 7.75 x 10-8 2. Multiplication & Division: - Follow the rules of exponents in simplifying. - Multiply and divide the value of M (numbers) - Change the product/quotient into scientific notation and simplify. Examples: (2 x 103) (3 x 106) = 6 x 109 ( 5 x 10-6) (2 x 10-2) = 10 x 10-8 or 1.0 x 10-7 10 x104 = 5 x10 = 50 2 x102 15 x10 4 = 3 x 108 2 5 x10 24 x108 = 4 x 10-11 3 6 x10 Exercises: 1. 7 x 10-2 + 2 x 10-3 2. 4 x 10-5 + 5 x 10-3 3. 7 x 104 - 2 x 105 4. 4.76 x 10-3 - 4.31 x 10-3 5. 2 x 101 + 2 x 10-1 7. 6.

5000 0.0005

5,000 x18,000 9,000,000 0.002 x 0.000,000,005 8. 0.000,004 400 x 0.00006 9. (0.2 x 20000)

10.

30 x80,000,000 0.000005

4. Significant Figures: - Those digit in a number that are known with certainty and the first digit that is uncertain.

- The numbers of significant digit in our measurement is the number of digits about which we have some degree of certainty and the measure of the degree of reliability of our measurement. Rules for obtaining the number of significant figures: 7

1. All nonzero digits are significant. Ex. 3.46544 - has 6 significant digits 2. All zeros between nonzero digits are significant. Ex. 603 - has 3 significant digits 12,005 - has 5 significant digit 3.0003 - has 5 significant digits 3. Zeros to the right of a nonzero digit but to the left of an understood decimal point are not significant unless specifically indicated by a bar (-). Ex. 200 - has 1 significant digit 190,000 - has 2 significant digits 190,000 - has 5 significant digits 4. Zeros to the right of a nonzero digit but to the left of an expressed decimal point are significant. Ex. 2000. - has 4 significant digits 5. All zeros to the right of a decimal point but to the left of a nonzero digit are not significant. Ex. 0.000647 - has 3 significant digit 0.00325 - has 3 significant digit 0.2 - has 1 significant digit 6. All zeros to the right of a decimal point and following a nonzero digit are significant. Ex. 0.0820 - has 3 significant digits 20.000 - has 5 significant digits 0. 7080 - has 4 significant digits Exercise: 1. 0.0002 2. 20,000,000 3. 0.000300 4. 5,000 5. 3.45621 6. 23.089 7. 5.34002 8. 200 9. 305,000,000 10. 405,003

Addition and Subtraction: - To determine the correct number of significant figure in these operations, the result is precise only to the least precise measurement. Examples: 7.28 + 10.3 = 17.58 = 17.6 16.256 + 8.26 + 20.862 = 45.378 = 45.38 Multiplication and Division: - To determine the correct number of significant figures in the product or quotient, look for the factor with the least number of significant digits. Examples: (3.12) (5.1) = 15.912 = 16

40.516 36.1

675.25 25.23

Exercises: 1. 1775.4 - 36.7 2. 345.67 + 45.76 - 213.8 3. 23.567 - 12.24 + 88.1 4. 257.34 - 134.1 + 44 5. 12.34 + 34.56 + 56.7

8. 20.56 x 21.497

1.45 x30.5 15.25 2.250(1775.4 36.7) 10. 1.45(30.5)

5. Formula Transformation: - is the arrangement of the symbols in a given formula in order to change the subject of the formula. Formula - is a set of algebraic symbols representing a mathematical fact, rule or principle. Example; A = LW where: A = area L = length W = width - The symbol on the left side (A) of the equality sign is the unknown quantity (subject of the formula) and the symbols on the right side are the known quantities. Examples: 1. A = lw solve for w: A = lw divide both sides by l, thus:

w= A l

2. A = at + v determine a A = at + v subtract v or transpose v to the left side -v = -v A - v = at divide both sides by t, thus:

a= A v t

3. =

=

4 bc 2 = b b

4. v = r 2 h solve for r

v= 1 2 r h cross multiply or multiply both sides by 3, we have 2

1 2

3v = r 2 multiply the power by its root on both sides, thus: h 3v r= h

Exercises: 1. A = p + prt 2. S =

n (a + 1) 2 1 2

solve for p solve for n, a or l solve for b or h solve for l or w solve for t

3. A = bh 4. P = 2l + 2w 5. S =

at 2 2

6.

W1 L = 2 W2 L1

rl a r 1

1 1

7. S =

1

8. f = d + D

THE RIGHT TRIANGLE: a. THE PYTHAGOREAN THEOREM: This theory was proposed by Pythagoras, a Greek mathematician. It states: The square of the longest side of a triangle is equal to the sum of the square of the two legs. In formula: c2 = a2 + b2 Using this formula, we can determine the value of the other legs of a right triangle provided that two sides are known.

10

a= c 2 b2

c=

a2 + b2 3.52 + 82

12.25 + 64 76.25

= = =

= = =

(18cm )2 (12cm )2

324cm 2 144cm 2

180cm 2

= 13.42 cm.

The trigonometric functions that will be used in resolving vector problems and other related fields are the fundamental functions of sine, cosine and tangent. The definition of these functions is given as ratios of the sides of a right triangle as shown in the figure below. B a C

c A

b ABC is a right triangle. Angles A and B are acute angles and C is the right angle (90). The sum of the interior angles of the triangle is equal to 180. Thus, angles A and B has a sum equal to angle C. The altitude, base and hypotenuse are represented by letters a, b and c respectively. Trigonometrically, the three fundamental functions are defined as: Sine (sin) = is the ratio between the opposite side of the acute angles and the hypotenuse. Thus; Sin A =

oppositesideof A a = hypotenuse c

Sin B =

oppositesideof B b = hypotenuse c

Cosine (cos) = is the ratio between the adjacent side and the hypotenuse. Thus: Cos A =

adjacentsideof A b = hypotenuse c

Cos B =

adjacentsideof B a = hypotenuse c

11

Tangent (tan) = the ration between the opposite side and the adjacent side. Thus: Tan A =

oppositesideof A a = adjacentside b

Tan B =

oppositesideof B b = adjacentside a

Example: Find the value of the missing angle(s) and side(s): 1. Given: B

C

B = 40

A = 180 130 A = 50

A + B + C = 180

CosB = c= a c a CosB 8 0.7660

c=

c= a2 + b2

c = 82 + 6.7132 c = 64 + 45.064369

12

c = 109.064369 c = 10.443 2. Given B 18 cm vmcm cm C 12 cm cm Solve for: A& B 1. 2. a Solution: 1. Solving for A:

CosA = b c 12cm 18cm

CosA = 0.667

A = Cos 1 0.667

CosA =

A = 48.164

B: 2. Solving for

TanB = b a

41.164 + B + 90 = 180

B = 180 138.164 B = 41.836

B = 180 48.164 + 90

TanA = a b

a = c 2 b2

a=

(18cm) 2 (12cm)2

a = 324cm 2 144cm 2

a = 180cm 2

a = 180cm 2

a = 13.404 cm Exercises: 13

30 m

15 m 350

8m

150 cm

55.50

14

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