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Agriculture in Pakistan- An Overview


(Rizwan Rafique)

Pakistan has a rich and vast natural resource base, covering various ecological and climatic zones; hence the country has great potential for producing all types of food commodities. Agriculture has an important direct and indirect role in generating economic growth. The importance of agriculture to the economy is seen in three ways:    It provides food to consumers and fibres for domestic industry It is a source of scarce foreign exchange earnings It provides a market for industrial goods.

The agriculture sector continues to be an essential component of Pakistan’s economy. It currently contributes 21 percent to GDP. Agriculture generates productive employment opportunities for 45 percent of the country’s labour force and 60 percent of the rural population depends upon this sector for its livelihood.  Growth rate in 2011-12. 3.1 percent  Livestock contributes 55.1 percent  Major and minor crops 41.9 percent Remaining share is of Forestry and Fisheries
(Econmic survey of Pakistan 2011-12)

  Four major crops (wheat, rice, cotton, and sugarcane) on average, contribute 29 percent to the value added in overall agriculture and 6.0 percent to GDP. The minor crops account for 10.1 percent of the value added in overall agriculture.

Major Crops:

Rizwan Rafique

4 7. productive and profitable sector of the economy.3 4.2 Minor Crops 0.0 4.4 -1. 3. Ensuring food security Generating overall economic growth & Rural Economy Reducing poverty Transforming towards industrialization Objectives Improve the quality of life of the people and to banish hunger and malnutrition from the country by making agriculture an efficient.(2011-12) Recent performance  Major crops accounted for 31.4 3.4 1.1 percent value addition in agriculture and exhibited a negative growth of 1.3 -0.1 -5.2 3.0 percent in 2011-12.7 percent growth of 2011. 2.9 7. Ministries performing tasks which were provincial subjects were devolved from the Federal level.5 1.     Role of Agriculture in Pakistan 1. cotton and sugarcane.0 2.1 percent share in the agriculture.4 percent last year. Agriculture growth percentages from 2005-2012 Year 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12(P) Rizwan Rafique rizwanrafiq155@gmail.1 1.0 4.9 Agriculture 6.6 2. The significant growth in major crops is contributed by rice.0 0.9 percent. The Fishery sector grew by 1.7 2.3 4. which has a 55. Accordingly.1 Major Crops -3. including the Ministry of Food and Agriculture.8 15.3 Livestock 15.8 2. The Livestock sector.3 percent in 2011-12 against 2.4 9.7 -6.2 -0. Minor crops contributed 10.0 -3.2 percent in 2011.8 percent as against last year’s growth of 1.0 percent this year as compared to negative growth of 0.9 1. 18th Amendment: In order to improve governance in the public sector the government took bold steps and brought in the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of 1973.1 -13. However.8 Forestry -1.2 -7.2 2. realizing the food security concerns across the country the government took timely steps to establish the Ministry of National Food Security and Research to tackle the Food Security issues.0 10.9 percent of agricultural value added and experienced a growth of 3. grew by 4.1 4.0 .8 4.7 -1.8 -2. Forestry sector posted a positive growth of 1. 4.3 1.0 Fishery 20.2 3.2 percent in fiscal year 2011-12 with negative growth of 0.

(Ministry of Finance) Rizwan Rafique rizwanrafiq155@gmail.5 million. In 1947 the population of Pakistan was 32. in 50 years it has increased fourfold. has increased only 2. o Of the total export earnings.Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (2011-12)P:Provisional Significance of the agricultural sector in the economy Agriculture is an important sector. the share of primary commodities and processed and semi processed products constituted almost 60 percent of the total exports.37 and 5. With a high population growth rate of percent there is a net addition of 3.4 million people each year. from over 50 percent in 1949-50 to about 21 percent in 2012. During this period the production of wheat. but the contribution of agro-based products has more or less sustained its position. 1970s and 1980s were 5. Total population of Pakistan is 180 million. respectively. o There have been some structural changes over time.9 fold. Agriculture is essential for sustainable improvements in internal and external balances. Agriculture still remains the major sector of the GDP composition. In foreign trade agriculture again dominates.07. cloth. 2. o The average annual growth rates in the agricultural sector during the 1960s. carpets and leather production.4 percent. A major part of the economy depends on farming through production. through exports of raw products such as rice and cotton and semi-processed and processed products such as cotton . Tremendous efforts have been carried out to narrow the gap between population growth and food production. providing food to the fast-growing population of the country. processing and distribution of major agricultural commodities. The contribution of the agricultural sector to the GDP has declined gradually since Pakistan came into existence. the major food crop.