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MEASUREMENT

Measurement - it is a process of comparing one quantity with a certain standard. In measurement, we give two things: 1. number 2. unit of measurement

A. SHORT HISTORY:
In early times, the bases of measurement are the human body and objects such as seeds, sticks, shells and stones. Among the body parts are the following ancient measures: a. Cubit – the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger. b. Span - the distance from the tip of the little finger to the tip of the thumb of an outstretched arm. c. Palm – the distance between the base of the four fingers and the wrist. d. Digit – the thickness or width of the middle finger e. Inch – the thickness or width of the thumb f. Foot – the distance from the heel to the tip of the big toe. g. Fathom – is the length of the two arms stretched horizontally. h. Pace – the distance from the heel of a person’s foot to the heel o his other foot while walking. i. Yard – the distance from the tip of the nose to the end of the thumb with the outstretched hand of England’s King Henry I.

B. THE FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES:
The original fundamental quantities: 1. Length – is the measure of the distance from one point to another. The SI unit of length is meter (m). 2. Mass – is the measure of the quantity of a body. The SI unit of mass is gram (g) or Kilogram (Kg). 3. Time – is the measurement of duration or the interval between two events or phenomena. The SI unit of time is second (s). The following are the new and additional fundamental quantities: 4. Temperature – is the measure of the average kinetic energy per molecule of a substance. The units used are °C, °F, and °K. 5. Luminous Intensity – is the measure of radiant intensity in a given direction. It pertains to the brightness of light. Its unit is in candela (cd). 6. Electric Current – is the measure of the flow of electrical charges. The unit of electric current is Ampere (A). 7. Amount of Substance – is the amount of substance which includes the number o entities in a system. It is defined by mole (mol). It is defined in the Avogadro’s number whose value is 6.02 x 1023 molecule/mol Units taken from fundamental quantities can be: 1. Fundamental or Base Units – units taken from the fundamental quantities It can be: a. Conceptual Unit - units based on natural phenomena or things b. Standard Unit - units based on some physical quantities and then derived other units from it. 2. Derived Units – units obtained by mathematical operations using the fundamental units. Ex. area, volume, density, speed, etc.

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650. D.133 This is known as the Cesium Clock. MKS ( meter – kilogram – second) system for bigger measure b).C.000 of the earth's quadrant 1 = 1. S.192. British or English System or FPS (Foot – Pound – Second) – unit of measures for the three fundamental quantities. Measurement of mass: Standard Unit: Gram (g) or Kilogram (kg) 1 kilogram = 1000 cm3 of water at maximum density.000. Measurement of time: Standard Unit: second (s) 1 second = earth's motion (rotation = 1 day. revolution = 1 year) 1 solarday 86400 = 9. 2. Measurement of distances or lengths: Standard Unit: Meter (m) : 1 meter = 10. It can be: a).631. SYSTEMS OF UNITS: 2 Systems of Units: 1.I Units (Le Systeme Internazionale d’Unites) which adopted the metric system of measurement and based on the decimal system.73 wavelengths of orange-red light of krypton 86 = length of Platinum-Iridium bar Derived units: area and volume 2. Gaussian or cgs system (centimeter – gram – second) for smaller measure 2 . 4 °C = platinum iridium cylinder with a volume of 1L or 1000 cm3 3.720 vibrations of Cs .763. BASIS OF THE FUNDAMENTAL UNITS: 1.

convert the following units to its indicated new metric unit.000.000 10 -6 n 1/1. d 1/10 10 -1 c 1/100 10 -2 m 1/1000 10 -3 µ 1/1.25 kg 5) 430 mg → g 430 mg x 1000mg = 0.609 km 1 km = 0. Watt (W).000.000.000. 245 mm → dm 4.000 1021 E 1.000.000.000 1015 T 1.000.000.000 10 -9 p 1/1. 340 cm → dm 3.130 km 1000m 3) 135 m → dam 1dam 135 m x = 13.000 10 -15 a 1/1.000 10 -12 f 1/1. Gram (g).000. Second (s).000.000.000.000. 120 mm → cm 2.000.000.000.000. 120 km 10.28 feet (ft) 1 foot (ft) = 0.000.2 lbs 1 ounce (oz) = 28. 345 m 8.000.000 10 -18 z 1/1.430 g 6) 34 hL → daL 34 hL x 10daL = 340 daL 1hL 1g 2) 130 m → km 1km 130 m x = 0.000.000.000.000 1012 G 1.000.000.000.000 106 k 1.000.000.000. 1997 hm 7. etc. USE OF PREFIXES: Prefix Yotta Zetta Exa Peta Tera Giga Mega Kilo Hecto Deka Standard Unit deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto zepto yocto Symbol Equivalent Scientific Notation Y 1.000.000.000.000.000. 1 mile (mi) = 5280 ft or 1.000 109 M 1. 1) 12.54 cm 1m = 3.8 m → cm 12.8 m x 100cm = 1280 cm 1m 4) 3250 g → kg 1kg 3250 g x 1000 g = 3.000.000. Conversion of Metric Units: From the conversion equivalents at the table. English to Metric Conversion: Common English and Metric Conversion factors for length and masses: LENGTH 1 inch (in) = 2.000.000.000.000.000 1024 Z 1.000.000. 102 dm → m 5.000.000.000.3048 m or 12 in. 682 m 9. 5672 dm → dm → hm → dam →m → Mm F. Newton (N).000.000.000. 41 km → dm 6.62137 mi Examples: 3 MASS 1 kg = 2.000.000.D.000.000.5 dam 10 m Exercises: 1.000.000 103 h 100 102 da or D 10 101 Meter (m).000 10 -21 y 1/1. Volt (V).6 g 1 ton = 2000 lb 1 lb = 16 0z .000 1018 P 1.000.000.000.35 g 1 pound (lb) = 453.000 10 -24 E.000.

28 ft 6. 2. Square – a plane figure with 2 pairs of parallel sides and four equal sides and four right angles s s b.35 g x 1000 g = 1oz 101.2lbs 2.25 ton → kg 1km x = 3. 3564 oz → kg 3564 oz x 1kg 28. 12350 ft → km 12350 ft x 2045. 1000m 2. a 1 A = ab 2 A = s x s or s2 where: A = area s = sides where: A = area l = length w = width where: a = altitude or height b = base A = area b The length of the hypotenuse can be obtained by using the Pythagorean Theorem: c 2 = a 2 + b2 or c = a 2 + b 2 d. 3.28 ft x = 4920 ft 1km 1m 4.5 km → ft 1.707 m 1mi 5.it is expressed in square units: FORMULA: a. 0. 57689 ft 4. 0. 4 .25 mi x x 3. Rectangle = a plane figure with sides meeting at right angle with opposite sides of equal lengths. 2. 658 lbs 10. 1. 1. Circle = a closed plane figure formed by a curved plane every point of which is of equal distant from one and the same point inside the figure.2lbs G.86 mi 3.25 mi.45 km 2. → m 1m 5280 ft 3. w Triangle = a three sided figure with three vertices. 145 oz 8.75 mi 5. A = lw l c.545 kg 2. Derived Units (Area and Volume): AREA: the size of a plane surface .1.25 ton x 2000lb 1kg x = 1ton 2. 3456 m → mi →m → km →m → mi 6.455 kg Exercises: 1. 568 g → lbs → kg →g → kg → oz 1m 3.5 km x 1000m 3.28 ft = 5231.765 km. 120 lbs → kg 120 lbs x 1kg = 54.075 ton 9. 430 kg 7.039 kg 3.

209 m 4.25 dm on each side? 2.A=πr d d=2r r= Sample Problems: 2 where: r = radius d = diameter c = center A = area or d 2 1 d 2 1.25 m) = 0. A in sq. Find the area of a square tile whose sides measure 14. the magnitude of its longest side. Determine the area of a floor if it measures 120. A triangular lot measures 12 m on one side and 15 m on the other. cm.5 m → 50 cm w = 250 mm → 0. m A = lw = (0.25 cm 2 2. the size of the lot b. hypotenuse c = b2 + b2 = (15m) 2 +(12m) 2 = 90 m 2 = 19. In sq. Area b. cm A = lw = (50 cm)(25 cm) = 1250 cm 2 3. Find the size of a rectangular surface whose length measures 5 dm and 250 mm wide? What is its area in sq. m b. Given: Solution: s = 14. hypotenuse Solution: a.5 cm) 2 Asked: A = 210. Find the area covered by the base of a cylinder if its diameter is 12 dm? Given: d = 12 dm Asked: A Solution: A =π r2 = π(6dm) 2 = 113.125 m 2 b.5 cm each.5 cm A=s2 = (14. A in sq. In sq. Given: b = 15 m h = 12 m Asked: a. cm Solution: a. Area bh A= 2 (12m)(15m) = 2 b.097 dm2 Exercises: 1. Find : a. m and in sq.25 m → 25 cm Asked: a.5 m)(0.? Given: l = 5 dm → 0. Find the area of lot which is 15 m long and 13 m wide? 5 .

Sphere . How many tiles are needed to cover a rectangular floor measuring 4 dm by 2 m.3.it is expressed in cubic units.25 cm? 5. where: l = length w = width V = lwh h = height or h thickness V = volume l w b. A study table has a triangular frame on its sides. FORMULA: a. Cube – a solid having six equal sides. If its base is 0. What is the largest area of a circle that can be cut from a square sheet whose sides measures 15 cm each? What is the total area of the remaining sheet? VOLUME: the total amount of space that the object is occupying. where: π = pi r = radius 6 . What is the area of a circular plate whose diameter is 86. What is the area of the lot? 4. d h V = π r2 h where: V = volume π = pi r = radius h = height d = diameter d.5 m and a height of 40 cm. A lot measures 12 m by length and 10 m wide. What is its area in cm2 and the length of its longest side? 6. 15.00? 7. where: s = sides V = volume s V = s x s x s or s3 s s c. . if the tiles to be used is measuring 20 cm on its sides? How much will its owner spend if a tile cost Php.closed curved figure with all ends are equidistant from its center. Cylinder – a closed plane figure with 2 parallel sides and circular ends. Rectangular Solids – a regular three dimensional figure having six rectangular faces meeting each other at right angle.

5 m. = 1800 cm 3 Solution: A = lwh = (8 cm)(5 cm)(1. What is the space occupied by this tank? Given: Solution: 7 . A wood measures 10 cm by 10 cm on its sides. cm = 1157. = 1800 cm 3 V= sxsxh = (10 cm) (10 cm) (18 cm) = 1800 cu. Given: l = 8 cm w = 5 cm h = 1.V= 4 π r3 3 or d = diameter V = 0. A canister measures 10 cm in diameter. If it is 18 cm tall. A spherical tank has a diameter of 1.5236 d3 A = 4 π r2 d Sample Problems: 1.625 cm 3 4.5 cm Asked: V 2.625 cu. If it is 25 cm tall. 5 cm wide and 1. A cubical box used for keeping jewelries measures 10. what is its volume? Given: d = 10 cm h = 25 cm r = 5 cm Asked: V Solution: V = πr 2 h = π(5cm) 2 ( 25cm) = 1963.5 cm) = 60 cm 3 3. cm.5 cm on its sides. Determine its volume? Given: s = 10.5 cm thick.495 cm 3 5. cm = 1963.5 cm Asked: V Solution: V=s3 = (10. find the total space occupied by it? Given: s = 10 cm h = 18 cm Asked: V Solution: V = S2h or = (10 cm) 2 (18 cm) = 1800 cu. cm.495 cu.5 cm) 3 = 1157. Find the volume of match box if its length is 8 cm.

A pile of bricks measures 100 dm by length. the total mass of the water on it c. e.767 m 3 or V = 4 3 πr 3 4 3 = π(0. 8 m wide and 2.767 cu.767 m 3 Exercises: 1.5 m Asked: a. Given: l = 15 m w=8m h = 2. VH2O b. how much will he spend if water is sold at Php.333 h c.5 m) 3 = 1. Cost = VPOOL x Price = 300 m 3 x Php 12. If it is 9000 mm long. What would be its volume? 4.25 m.75m) 3 [ ] = 1.5 m) 8 d. How many bricks are there if a brick measures 20 cm by length. What is its volume? 3. the total volume of water on it b. m = 1. A swimming pool measures 15 m long.727 h e. A gasoline tank has a surface area of 12. 20 dm wide and 200 cm tall? 2. Cost Solution: Vpool = lwh = (15 m)(8 m)(2. d.5236 d 3 = 0.00/ m3. m. TFILL = VH 2 O rateofpump 300000 L = 150 L / min = 1363.5 m deep. the time to empty the pool if its released pipe delivers water at 220 L/ min. 200 cm wide and 1500 mm by height. TEMPTY = VH 2 O rateofpump 300000 L = 220 L / min b. A cubical gasoline tank measures 3. what is its volume? 5.d = 1.767 cu. the amount of time needed to fill it with water if a pump delivers water at 150 L/min.75 m. TEMPTY e. If its height is 0. MN2O = VH2O · 1Kg 1L 1Kg = 300000 L · 1L = 300000 Kg c. If its owner utilizes water from water concessionaire to fill the tank. 10 cm by width and 50 mm by height. 12. Determine: a. What is the volume of a container van with a length of 20 m. m = 1.636 min or 22.5664 sq.5236 (1. What is the volume of a ball with a diameter of 30 cm? 6. MASS – VOLUME RELATIONSHIP (based on the density of Water) Volume of solids 1 cubic meter 1 cubic decimeter 1 cubic centimeter (ccm) Volume of liquids 1000 L 1L 1 mL Mass Equivalent 1 metric ton (mton) = 1000 kg 1 kg 1g Sample Problem: 1. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 2. MH2O = 2000 min or 33.5 dm on its sides.00 / m 3 . TFILL d.5 m Asked: V V = 0.

the time to fill it if a faucet delivers water at 15 L / min. the total mass of water it contains c.5 Kg + 45 Kg 80 Kg / person 517.5 L · 1L = 472.5 L VH 20 rateofsiphon 472.525 cu.= 300 cu.525 m 3 x x 0.5 Kg c. Find: a. ΣMASS d.7 m h = 0.6 m) = 0. If it is 90 % filled with water. Find: a.6 m Asked: a.5 min c. TEMPTY e. m VH2O = VAQUARIUM x 1000 L x 90% 1m 3 1000 L = 0.5 m. VH2O = Vpool · 1000 L m3 = Php 3600. What is the total volume of water that the tank holds? b. A caisson was lowered into a river. the number of persons needed to lift it if each person can support a load of 80 kg each and the aquarium alone weighs 45 kg. 7 dm wide and 0.25 m)(0. A submarine has 10 spherical tanks as its ballast. How long does it takes to fill and release the water if each of its pump sucks and releases water at 18 L / sec. # of Persons needed Solution: VAQUARIUM = lwh = (1. It is filled 9 .6 m tall.25 min e. An aquarium measures 125 cm long. Given: l = 125 cm → 1.5 Kg = 80 Kg / person = 7 persons Exercises: 1. TEMPTY = b. Each tank has a diameter of 1. d. m or 300 m 3 a.9 1m 3 = 472. VH2O b. # of Persons = ∑MASSTOBELIFTED Capacityofeachperson M H 2O + M AQUARIUM = = 80kg / person 472.25 m w = 7 dm → 0. TFILL = VH 2 O rateoffaucet 472. TFILL d.7 m)(0. It has a diameter of 15 m and a height of 12.5 L = 10 L / min = 47. 2. the total volume of water it contains b.00 1000 L m3 = 300000 L or 300 KL = 300 m 3 · 2. ΣMASS = VH2O · 1Kg 1L 1Kg = 472.5 L = 15L / min = 31. e. the time to empty the aquarium if the siphoning hose releases water at 10 L / min.525 m.

with water up to 90% of its height. Determine: a. c. 10 . the mass of the water inside the caisson. the amount of water inside the caisson. A graph enables us to see how variables and numbers are related and helps us to understand the facts better allowing us to make reliable conclusion. If there are 4 pumps pumping the water out of the caisson. GRAPHICAL ANALYSIS: The easiest way to understand and see the relationship between variables or quantities in an experiment or in a set of data is to make a pictorial representation of these which can be done through a graph. b. how long does it take for the pumps to remove the water if each pump can deliver water 100 L per minute.

Steps in making a graph: 1. Determine which of the given quantities are dependent variable and independent variable. Dependent variable is the variable whose value depends on the independent variable 11 .