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This paper discuss how to calculate axial shortening of Column in tall structure.

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In tall structure, the importance of time dependent shortening of columns is very critical due to the cumulative nature of such shortening. The time dependent shortening of column is due to creep and shrinkage. Under similar stresses, creep and shrinkage of different columns are dependent upon percentage of reinforcement and volume-to-surface ratio of the member. Therefore when two adjacent columns connected by slab or beam undergo differential shortening, that shall result in transfer of the load to the column that shortens less. Hence, there is a need to calculate this differential shortening and make allowance for it while designing the structure.

**Calculation of axial shortening in column due to creep.
**

In early seventies, Structural Engineers were finding it difficult to apply the creep data obtained in laboratory, in calculation of axial shortening of column as the available creep data was based upon application of load in one increment. Hence, these data available on creep research were applicable to flexural member of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete. But in case of column of multistoried building, as the construction goes on, the columns also are incrementally loaded. This incremental loading over a long period of time makes a considerable difference in magnitude of creep. But the present era, faster rate of construction has automatically solved the problem of incremental loading and its effect on creep. The deformation arising in reinforced concrete section under sustained loads is expressed as Єct = ƒci (1+ Φt) / Ec - ∆ ƒt (1 + 0.8 Φt) / Ec Єct = Concrete strain at time‘t’ ƒci = Initial concrete stress. ∆ ƒt = Stress decrement in concrete at time‘t’.

it is clear that in order to evaluate the deformation in concrete column. and temperature effect in concrete structures. Ec = Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete. n= Es / Ec Es = Modulus of Elasticity of steel. The Φt from the above reference is expressed as Φt = 2. ρs = Area of steel/Gross area = As/Ag And ƒst = n ƒci[(1-0. the stress in concrete and the stress in steel at time‘t’ may be written as follows: (Samra 1995) ƒct = ƒci [(1.Φt = Creep coefficient at time‘t’.e.8 Φt) + ƒct (1+0. The best way to calculate the Φt is to adopt the methodology adopted in ACI 209R-92 (Reapproved 1997) i.ρs) + n(1+0.8 Φt) / ƒci] Where Єct = ƒst /Es From the above. Upon suitable modification of the above for axially loaded column.ρs) + n (1-0.35 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 . shrinkage.8 Φt) ρs] Where ƒct = Concrete stress at time ‘t’. it is required to calculate the creep coefficient (Φt) at time‘t’. Ec = Modulus of Elasticity of concrete. Prediction of creep. The above equation is a particular case of well-known age-adjusted effective modulus method (Bazant 1972) suitably modified for reinforced concrete section.2 Φt) ρs] / [(1.

For loading ages later than 7 days for moist cured concrete and later than 1-3 days for steam cured concrete K1 = (1.006h (for h ≥ 40) For lower than 40% ambient relative humidity. K3 = 2/3 (1+1. Coefficient (K3) 1.00364 (V/S) For t > one year K3 = 1. (V/S) volume to Surface Ratio (mm) 12.0.5 For t ≤ one year K3 = 1.0212(V/S)) The Coefficient K4 depends on the slump of fresh concrete. which is defined as the ratio of the cross-sectional area to the perimeter exposed to drying.11 1.5 and 95mm. K3 is given by . The coefficient K3 allows for member size in terms of the volume/surface ration.13 (tlo) – 0.3 1. V/S. The coefficient K2 depends upon the relative humidity h (percent) K2=1.27-0.5 19 25 31 37.25) (tlo) – 0.00264S Where S is the slump of fresh concrete in mm.17 1.095 for steam cured concrete.0 When V/S is between 37.13e – 0.00268(V/S) When V/S is greater than or equal to 95mm. values higher than 1 shall be used.04 1. Where tlo = Loading age in days.10 – 0.14 .118 for moist cured concrete. K4=0. K1 = 1.82+0.

Єsh = Unrestrained shrinkage strain.0024 Af /A The Coefficient K6 depends on the air content in the concrete ‘a’ (percent).09a ≥1. Єsh is expressed as follows Єsh = 780X10-6 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7. Since shrinkage can occur even in the absence of any external load. K6 = 0. The value of coefficient S1 for moist curing and for a different period of curing is given below: . accompanied by compressive stress in steel. requirements of equilibrium would dictate that total force induced in concrete is equal and opposite to the total force in steel.The Coefficient K5 depends upon the fine aggregate to total aggregate ratio. Calculation of axial deformation in column due to shrinkage. ƒs. ƒc = Єsh/[(1+ Φt)/Ec + Ac /As Es] Ac = Area of Concrete As = Area of steel. The shrinkage model is simple to use and is based on sound theoretical basis in which it is assumed that restraint of shrinkage concrete by reinforcement will induce tensile stresses in concrete. Af /A in percent. As per the ACI 209r-92. at any time equal to ƒs = ƒc Ac / As Where ƒs = Compressive stress in steel due to shrinkage. ƒc = Stress in concrete due to shrinkage.88+0. The factor ‘S1’ is dependent upon type of curing and the curing period. K5 = 0. Simple mathematical derivation yields that stress in steel. The Єsh (shrinkage strain) can be calculated based on methodology described in ACI 209R-92.46+0.

00 For V/S between 37.5 S3 = 1.17-0.25 1.35 1.23 – 0.1 1.006 V/S For V/S between 37. S2 = 1.00 – 0. For V/S < 37.2 1. The coefficient S3 is dependent upon size of the member in terms of the volume/surface ratio V/S.006 V/S For V/S greater than 95mm S3 = 1.5 19 25 31 37.5mm.5mm and 95mm And for time period greater than 1 year S3=1.5mm and 95mm and for time period less than 1 year .2 e-0.00473 (V/S) S3 1.75 For steam curing the value of S1=1 for curing period of 1 to 3 days.86 0.Period of moist curing (days) 1 3 7 14 28 90 Coefficient (S1) 1.17 1.0 0.08 1.40 – 0.93 0. The coefficient S2 is dependent upon humidity.30h (80 ≤ h ≤ 100) Where h = relative humidity percent.010h (40 ≤ h ≤ 80) S2 = 3. the value of S3 is as follows: V/S 12.

95 + 0.Numerical ExampleAssume an inside column 50 stories below the roof. The coefficient S7 depends upon air content (A) (Percent) in concrete.002 Af/A (where Af/A > 50) The cement content (kg/m3) in concrete. decides the coefficient S6. Floor to floor height is 3. Size of column = 750X1500mm. Percentage of reinforcement = 4% n = Es/Ec = 8 Es = 2 X 105Mpa The column is subjected to load of 16.014 Af/A (where Af/A ≤ 50) S5 = 0.08A .75 + 0.5% 3% 3% 3% .90+0.5Mtr. The coefficient S5 is dependent upon ratio of fine aggregate/total aggregate ratio by mass (percent). the amount of reinforcement and size of column changes as given below: Details of floors Ground floor to 5th floor 5th floor to 10th floor 10th floor to 15th floor 15th floor to 20th floor 20th floor to 25th floor Size 750X1500 650X1400 550X1300 450X1200 450X1100 Reinforcement 4% 3. S6 = 0. S5 = 0. Every fifth floor. S7 = 0.00061(σ) Where σ is cement content in Kg/m3.The coefficient S4 is dependent upon slump of fresh concrete.00264 S S = Slump of concrete in mm.89 + 0. 8000 Newton per floor. S4 = 0.30+0.

450X1000 450X900 450X800 450X700 450X600 3% 3% 3% 2.27-0.0024 (34) = 0.00264 (100) = 1.084 K5 = 0.118 = 0.88 + 0. Φt = 2.82+0.03 V/S = 750X1500/2(750+1500) = 250 K3 = 2/3 (1+1.91<1 .0212 (v/s)) =2/3 [1+1.006(40) = 1.27 – 0.0212 (250)] = 0.88 + 0.09a = 0. e) Fine contents 34% f) Air content 5% g) Cement content 356 Kg/m3 h) Age at loading 28 days.25(28)-0.46 + 0.e.5% 2% a) Planned construction two floors per week Solution Since planned construction is quite fast i.006(h) = 1.118 = 1.46 + 0. the effect of incremental loading can be neglected.82+0.67 K4 = 0.25 (tlo) -0.13e -0.843 K2 = 1.25th floor to 30th floor 30th floor to 35th floor 35th floor to 40th floor 40th floor to 45th floor 45th floor to 50th floor b) Concrete is moist cured c) Relative humidity 40% d) Slump of concrete 100mm.0024 Af/A = 0.09(5) = 0.9616 K6 = 0.35 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K1 = 1.00264(s) = 0.13e – 0. two floors per week.

89 + 0.75 + 0.425)8/2X105 + 1/0. ƒci = P/ (Ac+nAs) = P/(Ag+(n-1)As) = {50X168000}/1440000 = 5.2X1.03) (0. = 0.35(0.010h = 1.459 X 10-4 As = (4/100) X 750 X 1500= 45000mm2 ƒs = Steel ration with respect to gross section = 0.00264 (100) = 1.459X10-4}/ {(1+1.084) (0.154) (0. S3 = 1.425 Ultimate shrinkage Єsh Єsh = 780X10-6 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7.04 = 27.30 + 0.04(2X105) }]1/0.8333 N/mm2 ƒct = 5.04) +8 (1.27 X 10-4 mm Stress in steel due to shrinkage = [{2.8333 [(1-0.425} + {4.014(34) = 0.2 e-0. S1 = 1 (Assuming seven days curing) S2 = 1.967 S7.8333 (1+0.425)}] = 85.967) (0.008(5) = 0.5 high column .3678 S4 = 0.04) + 8 (1+0.425) 0.99) = 2.3678) (1. Deformation due to creep = 85. Total deformation for 3.2 e-0.04] = 4.95 + 0.425) 0.216/5.69 N/mm2 Strain due to shrinkage = 27.154 S5 = 0.69/2X105 = 1.8X1.8X1.00473 (250) = 0.216 N/mm2 ƒst = 8 X 5.4778/2X105 = 4.99 Єsh = 780 X 10-6(1) (1) (0.776 S6 = 0.67) (1.04.9616) (1) = 1.00473 (v/s) =1.8333 [{(1-0.8) 1.4778 Mpa.010(40) = 1.776) (0.K6 =1 Φt = 2.843) (1.40 – 0.0.40 – 0.00061(356) = 0.04]/ [(1-0.3845 X 10-4mm.

3845+4.979mm .27)10-4 X 3500 = 1.=(1.

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