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1. Nature of Work: Work – when a force acts on matter and causes it to move at a certain distance.

Work = Force x displacement W = Fd + it is a scalar quantity Conditions for work to happen: 1. the force must be able to move the object 2. the force and the displacement must be of the same direction - work happens only and only if the displacement is in the same direction or parallel to the force. If they are of different direction, no work is done. Two factors affecting Work: 1. the displacement of the object Ex. Pushing a concrete wall or post 2. the component of the force in the direction of the displacement + if the force and the displacement are perpendicular to each other, the force has no component along the direction of the displacement, and the work is zero. Situations in which work is done: A, In pushing or pulling an object: F d W ork Fxd Work = F= xd F

+ In pushing or pulling an object at an angle:

Work = cos θ F d

+ The horizontal component of the force that acts at an angle is the one that performs work since it is parallel to the direction of the displacement of the object.

B. In raising an object: 1

1 Joule (J) = a work done by a force of 1 Newton (N) acting on an object and move it through a distance of 1 meter (m). James Prescott Joule. C.What work is done in pushing a crate 20 m horizontally when a force of 60 N is applied on a 2 . In climbing through a flight of stairs: The work done when we ascend the stairs is equal to our weight multiplied by the height through which we raise ourselves. If he performs it several times. Disregard friction. h W =mgh If the body is raised with no acceleration. 2 . then. + If the person carries some loads with him as he goes up the stair way. the upward force used in raising the body is equal to the weight (Fw).The work done in raising a body against the force of gravity is equal to the weight of the body multiplied by the height through which the body has been raised. What work is done by a man who pushes a box along the floor with a force of 30 N over a distance of 5 m. In FPS: W = F x d → ft∙ lb = lb x ft Sample Problems: 1. its total work is the number of times he performs the work. W = mgh + The displacement does not depend on the inclination of the stairs since we are taking a vertical displacement in the same direction as the force being exerted. the force he exerts is equal to the sum of his weight and the weight of the loads being carried. Units of Work: In MKS: W = F x d → Joules = Newton x meter or kg∙ m2/ s2 h + Work is expressed in Joule. after the English physicist. In cgs: W = F x d → Erg = dyne x centimeter 1 Joule = 1 x 10 7 ergs + 1 Erg = a work done by a force of 1 dyne acting on an object and move it through a distance of 1 centimeter.

5 kg package to a shelf 2 m high? 5. 3. How much work is done when a 25 kg crate is pushed horizontally to a distance of 2 m along a 3 . A boy lifts a 100 N rock to a distance of 1 m.rope which makes an angle of 30° with the ground. How much work is required to raise a load of 500 kg from the ground to the tenth floor of a building30 m above the ground? 6. What work does he do in Joules? In ergs? 4. How much work is done in lifting a 2.

the displacement of the object 2. find the total work done against gravity if the laborer carries only one sack at a time.the rate of doing work. with a measurement of Joules/sec (J/s). which is still in used at present time with the following 4 . the component of the force in the direction of the displacement 3. ft∙lb/s. A laborer who weighs 600 N is to carry 5 sacks of rice from the ground to the second floor of a storehouse. after the Scottish inventor James Watt.2.level floor. If the distance between floors is 3. 7. Work W Fd mgh cosϑFd → = = = = Fv or cos ϑ Fv since d/t = v time t t t t Power = Power depends on 3 factors: 1.5 m and the mass of each sack is 50 kg. the time required to finish the work + its unit is expressed in WATT (W). Other units are ergs/s . POWER: . The coefficient of friction is 0. + The old unit is Horsepower (Hp) .

A carabao pulled a 466 N load to a distance of 8. How much force was expended in pushing the table? ENERGY: 5 .100 ft∙lb/ min or 550 ft∙lb/sec Sample Problems: 1.equivalents: 1 horsepower = 746 Watts or 0. A force of 250 N was applied in pushing a table at an angle of 35°. What power was expended by the carabao in Watts and Horsepower. The table moved with a constant velocity of 1. determine the power developed in a). Horsepower 2.750 kW = 33. 3. A 60 kg man climbs flights of stairs to the fourth floor of a building in 40 sec. If the 4th floor is 14 m above the ground.0 m in 2 s at a constant speed. Watts b).5 m/s.

Petroleum Products b. Internal Energy Transformation – is the process in which energy is change from one form to another. shape. Hydroelectric 3.. Sources of Energy: Conventional Sources: 1. Coal c. Geothermal 4. Magnetic 8. Sound 6. Wind Energy 3. Mechanical 2. we have: GPE = mgh where: m = mass g = gravitational acceleration (9. Biomass Resources. Thus to obtain the gravitational potential energy. Potential Energy: (Stored. Tidal Energy This can be done through: a. Atomic / Nuclear 9. dendrothermal energy b. Fossil Fuels + This includes: a. waves generator b. such as: a. oil-yielding plants (biofuels) c. Hydroelectric 2.is the ability or capacity to do work. Atomic / Nuclear Non-conventional Sources: 1. Chemical 4. Geothermal 3. Biogas from animal manure and plant leaves Nonrenewable Sources: 1. Tides 3. Kinds of potential energy: a. Latent or Inactive) . Agricultural and forestry waste d. + Gravitational potential energy of a body is zero when it is at ground level. Heat 5. Gravitational Potential Energy – energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position or location relative to the ground or level surface.8 m/s2) 6 h = height . (Energy = Work) + It is expressed in Joule. + Energy and work are expressed in the same unit since work is also the amount of energy transferred. Tidal Energy Solar energy and biomass resources are considered as inexhaustible sources for as long as the sun continues to shine energy will be transformed continually and produces living things on this planet. Fossil Fuels 2. Electrical 3. Atomic / Nuclear Renewable Sources: 1. and condition or configuration.the energy possess by a body at rest or due to its position or location. Natural Gas (LPG) 2. Forms of Energy: 1. current c. Wind Energy 2. Solar Energy 4. Types of Energy: 1. Light (Radiant) 7.

bent bow. rock at the top of the hill. 7 . etc. An object traveling at a given speed has the same K. work is also done on the body but no increase in its potential energy.the energy possess by a body in motion. a net force F is needed.E.E = ½ mv2 m B Vf = V In moving the object of mass m to a distance d. 2. Thus work is done which is W = Fd. no matter in what direction it is moving. it does not depend on the direction of the velocity. Thus: 2 W = Fd = ma ( = 1 2 at ) 2 1 m(at ) 2 2 → but at is v Work = K. Elastic Potential Energy – is possessed by a body that is capable of returning to its original shape or form after undergoing distortion. dam. b. Kinetic Energy: . etc. the greater is the potential energy. rubber. water tank at the top of a building. + Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity and although it depends on the velocity. From the Second law of motion we know that F = ma and d from uniformly accelerated motion when vi = 0 is d = 1 3 at . Consider an object lying on a level horizontal surface. Work done results in the transfer to the body some other form of energy which is called energy of motion or kinetic energy. + The higher the body is. + Examples of this are winding watch. Vi = 0 acceleration = a m A smooth surface (no retarding force) d A B K.+ The gravitational potential energy of a body of mass (m) at a height (h) from the ground is equal to the work done in raising the body from the ground to that height. If the force is horizontally applied to the body. compressed air. being displaced or deformed. + Examples of this are: pile driver. spring.E = so: 1 mv 2 2 + The kinetic energy depends only on the mass and the speed of the object which is equal to one-half the mass multiplied by the square of the velocity.

the final kinetic energy of the block 3. Find: a.5 kg box in order to increase its velocity from 40 cm/s to 70 cm/s through a distance of 150 cm? Interchange of Kinetic and Potential Energy: (Law of conservation of Mechanical Energy) 8 .Sample Problems: 1. What force must be applied on a 0. the work done by the force b. A 10 kg block is at rest on a smooth horizontal surface. Find the kinetic energy of a 6000 kg truck which is moving at a speed of 36 km/h. 2. If it is acted upon by a constant horizontal force of 80 N for 4 sec.

E + P.Δ P.E.E. we get: (TOP) (BOTTOM) P.E = . = 0 + The total mechanical energy at the bottom to the total mechanical energy at the top.E = P. In any instance of its motion. = 0 Δ K. what is given up as kinetic energy is acquired as potential energy.E gained Sample Problems: 9 .E.E. K.E. + If we consider mechanical forms of energy only.E.E + ΔP. lost = K.E = ½ mv2 & P.V=0 P. + K.E mgh + 0 = 0 + ½ mv2 mgh = ½ mv2 + the kinetic energy at the bottom is totally given up.E.E = 0 K. = 0 Throughout the two-way motion of the stone its total mechanical energy is constant if we neglect the effect of air resistance. but it is acquired in the form of mechanical energy. the total mechanical energy is constant. we have: Δ K. Even at any intermediate position. + Δ other forms of Energy = 0 + Energy can be changed into different forms but the total energy of a system is constant. + Δ P.E.” ΔK. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY: It states: “ Energy can neither be created nor destroyed but can only be changed from one form to another.E + K.E = mgh & K. This means that the change in kinetic energy is equal to the change in potential energy or P.

1. find: a. at t = 0 c. A mass of 25 kg is dropped from a height of 15 m. Find: a. A 200 g bullet is fired with a velocity of 400 m/s. its kinetic energy b. 3. its kinetic energy and b. at t = 3 s b. the force needed to stopped it. What is the potential energy and the kinetic energy of the stone: a. If it is stopped in 100 m. 2. when the stone strikes the ground MACHINE: 10 . A stone whose mass is 5 kg is dropped from a point 120 m above the ground. at t = 1 s d. its velocity just as it reaches the ground.

it is accompanied by: 1. able knife. Examples: plank. A. 4. multiplies the applied force making our work easier 2. the larger is its mechanical advantage. A.8 18 N 2. Second-class lever – has R between E and F Ex. stair. 3 classes of levers: 1.any device that has one or two parts SIX TYPES OF SIMPLE MACHINES: 1. It is obtained by: 1. = dis tan ceeffortmoves dis tan cetheloadmoves = example: 3m =2 1. Inclined Plane – is a flat surface with one end higher than the other. pliers. nut cracker. winding roads. see-saw and pump handle 2. Pull of gravity. Purpose of machines: 1.- is any mechanical device that helps us do our work or make our work easier. + the longer it is in relation to its height. 3. Lever – any rigid body which is pivoted about a point called fulcrum. tongs. dividing the distance the effort moves by the distance the load moves M . + it is used to overcome a load which is greater than the effort used Examples: crow bar. changes the direction of a force 3. increases the speed with which the work is done Whenever we work or moved any other object .5m SIMPLE MACHINES: . exerted force = applied force or effort 2. = load (resis tan ce) effort ( appliedforce) = example: 30 N = 2. wheel barrow. a resistance (weight or load) = anything which opposes the applied force or that with which the force is trying to overcome. First-class lever – has the force (F) between the effort (E) and the resistance (R) Ex. etc. 2. Resistance can be in the form of: 1. claw hammer. ladder. as in lifting or pulling an object upward inertia (body at rest or in motion) Molecular attraction Friction How machines helps us: Mechanical Advantage = is the amount of help we get from a machine. etc. 2. baseball bat. + it is used in transporting heavy loads to a higher end. oar 11 . dividing the load by the effort needed to move it M .

human forearm 3. grinding. the greater is the mechanical advantage + it is used in cutting. the axle turns also Examples: door knob. M . Efficiency of Machines + Efficiency – the amount of work we get out of that machine is almost the same as the amount we put into it Efficiency = workgottenout workpuin or output input + Work would never have 100% efficiency E. needles M . if you push on the wheel. direction change 3. Ax handle – lever blade – wedge 2.are combination of two or more simple machines Ex. A. jar with mouth and cp. 1. 3. chisel. propellers M . Screw – a spiral inclined planes + it works by transferring force applied on the circumference of the screw Examples: food grinder. = Radiusofth ewheel Radiusoftheaxle 5. metal screws. locking mechanisms. gear boxes of cars and trucks. it is called block Kinds and Uses: 1. etc. = Length thicknessofthebase D. force increased 12 . Meat Grinder crank – wheel and axle blade . Pulley – a wheel with a grove rim over which a rope passes + if it is mounted on a framework and has several of them. 2. = Circumferenceofacircle Pitchofthescrew 4. vase. energy transferred 4. Compound Machines . piercing and plowing Examples: nail. bicycles. Fixed Pulley – change the direction of a force Movable Pulley – increases the amount of force Block and Tackle – helps in lifting very heavy objects as in cranes and lifts 6. A. energy transformed 5. screw driver. Third-class lever – has E between F and R Ex. Wedge – an inclined plane with either one or two sloping sides + the smaller is the angle of the wedge. egg beater. scissors. speed increased 2. What Machines can do: 1. boring holes. knife. ax. pencil sharpener.3. A. steering wheel. screw. Wheel and Axle – consist of a wheel attached to an axle so that.screw F.